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chiae, hoc est, tenerrimam ejus fidem oppugnat.”DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL.
LUTHER. “In this address the chief-butler, 1. On xxxvi. 4 sqq. Haec proprie est Satanae Satan performs in the way he uses when he would lingua et sunt non Rubsacis sed ipsissimi Diaboli bring about our apostacy. 1) He urges that we verba, quibus non muros urbis, seil medullam Eze- are divested of all human support, ver. 5; 2)
We are deprived of divine support, ver. 7; 3) stand simply divine desertion in general, especially as God is angry with us because we have greatly that contlicts with all the recorded facts.
rovoked Him by our sins, ver. 7; 4) He decks itself only supplies the event of the Babylonian embassy, and we may include of course Isaiah's interpre
out the splendor, and power of the wicked, vers. tation of it. To that the Lord left Hezekiah. Comp. 8, 9; 5) He appeals to God's word, and knows 2 Chr. xii. 5 "and therefore I have left ('ndis) you in how to turn and twist it to his uses. Such poithe hand or Shishak." It is gratuitous to inter that God left Hezekiah to the workings of his own heart. It sonous arrows were used by Satan against Christ is equally so to infer that, because God so left Hezexiah, therefore Hezekiah must first have lett God, as in light (Matt. iv. 2 sqq.). One needs to arm him
in the desert, and may be compared with this bumility (ver. 26) Hezekiah might be thus left of God self against Satan's attack by God's word, and to to this extraordinary providence. Comp. Ps. xxii. I
to constant watching and prayer.”— with Matt. xxvii. 46.90 voos's “ to try him," etc., CRAMER. does not imply reproach any more than the trial of The Assyrian urges four particulars by which Abraham Gen. xxii. 1. The sentiment of these words he would destroy Hezekiah's confidence, in two and even the very words are drawn from Deut. viii. 2, 16. As an obvious quotation from the most familiar of which he was right and in two wrong. He part of the Law, the only proper completion of their was right in representing that Hezekiah could sentiment must be found in the completion of the quotation. That must be: to know what was in his rely neither on Egypt, nor on his own power. heart to know whether he would keep his (God's) com In this respect he was a messenger of God and mandment or not." The records of Isa. xxxix. 8, and
announcer of divine truth. For everywhere the 2 Kings xx. 19 furnish the only documentary information of what was revealed by this trial to be in Heze
word of God preaches the same (xxx. 1-3; xxxi. kiah's heart. It was nothing but resignation and ac 1-3; Jer. xvii. 5; Ps. cxviii. 8, 9; cxlvi. 3, etc.), quiescence in the will of God, the only form of obedi- But it is a merited chastisement if rude and admitted. It is therefore, not only gratuitous to inter hostile preachers must preach to us what we were that the trinl revealed the sinful vanity of Hezekiah's unwilling to believe at the mild and friendly voice heart, it is contrary to the very record. 'That he showed of God. But in two particulars the Assyrian his treasures is thought to be evidence of such vanity. But this is only prejudice growing out of the very as
was wrong, and therein lay Hezekiah's strength. sumptions now combated. Why should this hospi. For just on this account the LORD is for him and tality be so bad in Hezekiah, when that of Solomon to against the Assyrian. These iwo things are, that the queen of Sheba, substantially the same, is mentioned only with approval, and is even elevated to typi- his trust in the Lord, but rather he, the Assyrian
the Assyrian asserts that Hezekiah cannot pnt As for the rest of Hezekiah's answer Isa. xxxix. 8 b; | is counseled by the Lord against Hezekiah. 2 Kings xx. 19 b, "Good is the word of the Lory;" ete: That
, however, was a lie, and because of this lie, A promise of good is given there for the latter days of the corresponding truth makes all the deeper imthose that stand the proof of God's trials and keep His pression on Hezekiah, and reminds him how assuch integrity (Isa. xxxviii. 3), he therefore gratefully suredly he may build on the Lord and imporrested in the expectation of such good for his latter
tune Him. And when the enemy dares to say, days; in which he was also justified by the terms of that he is commissioned by the LORD to destroy Isaiah's prophecy, if not by some more explicit announcement (2 Chr. xxxii. 26).
the Holy Land, just that must bring to lively reThe event of the Babylonian embassy, as it appears membrance in the Israelite, that the LORD, who in our book, must be viewed as subservient to the ends cannot lie, calls the land of Israel His land (Joel. of prophecy. It is told for the sake of the prophecy iv. 2; Jer. ii. 7; xvi. 18, etc.), and the people of beginning of the introduction to chapters xxxvi.- Israel His people (Exod. iii. 7, 10; v. 1, etc.). xxxix.), that our chapters show how from afar 2. On xxxvi. 12. ["In regard to the indelicacy
was begun the spinning of the first threads of this passage we may observe: 1) The Ma
) of that web of complications, that were at last so fatal." sorets in the Hebrew text have so printed the The event of the embassy was providentially ordered words used, that in reading it the offensiveness events as Melchizedec, Esau selling his birth-right, the would be considerably avoided. 2) The customs, queen of Sheba's visit the birth of Maher-shal-al, the habits and modes of expression of people in difwise men of the east at the crib of Christ, the inquiring ferent nations and times, differ. What appears the replies of Hezekiah as recorded, bring out precisely indelicate at one time or in one country, may not the traits needed for the prophecy about to be made only be tolerated, but common in another. 3) The “from a far country” was a providentially indited Isaiah is not at all responsible for the indelicacy vious prophecy, likely familiar to Hezekiah, had made of the language here. He is simply an historian. known that a visitation of wrath was coming on Judah 4) It was of importance to give the true cha" from far" X. 3, xxx. 27. brings to Jeru-alem and its king representatives of the racter of the attack which was made on Jernvery people that were to be the instruments of this salem. The coming of Sennacherib was atwrath, and the Prophet appears, and identifies them tended with pride, insolence and blasphemy; and and their destiny. And from this onward the Baby, it was important to state the true character of the Hezekiah submits, not like one receiving a well merited transaction, and to record just what us said and rebuke, but like Moses when the people were turned done. Let him who used the language, and not hack from Kadesh-Barnea. All that the Author says him who recorded it bear the blame." —BARNES about negotiations looking to alliance between Hezekiah and Babylon, does not pretend to be more than in loc.]. shrewd conjecture. As it does not find one word of cor. 3. On xxxvi. 18 sqq.
“ Observindum hic, quod roboration in the Scripture, it would be well to make little or no account of it. Comp. the Author's conjectures apud gentes olim viguerit Tomvera adeo, ut quaeris on vii. 10-16, and the additions by T'e. that follow-TR.] etiam urbs peculiarem habuerit Deum tutelarem.
Cujus ethnicismi exemplum vivum et spirans adhuc tende. Vir haec dixerat : cum proelium, quod habemus apud pontificios, quibus non inscite objici anceps ac dubium diu fuerat, inclinare coepit
, etc." potest illud Jeremiae : Quot civitates tibi, tot etiam [The desire of Hezekiah was not primarily Dei (Jer. ii. 28)."-FOERSTER.
his own personal safety, or the safety of his king4. On xxxvi. 21. Answer not a fool according dom. It was that Jehovah might vindicate His to his folly (Prov. xxvi. 4), much less the blas- great and holy name from reproach, and that the phemer, lest the flame of his wickedness be blown world might know that He was the only true God. into the greater rage (Ecclus. viii. 3). Did not We have here a beautiful model of the object Christ the Lord answer His enemies, not always which we should have in view when we come with words, but also with silence (Matt. xxvi
. before God. This motive of prayer is one that is 62; xxvii. 14, etc.)? One must not cast pearls with great frequency presented in the Bible. Comp. before swine (Matt. vii. 6). After FOERSTER xlii. 8; xliii. 10, 13, 25; Deut. xxxii. 39 ; Ps. and CRAMER.
Ixxxiii. 18; xlvi. 10; Neh. ix. 6; Dan. ix. 18, 19. 5. On xxxvi. 21. “ Est aureus textus, qui docet Perhaps there could have been furnished no more nos, ne cum Satana, disputemus. Quando enim striking proof that Jehovah was the true God, videt, quod sumus ejus spectatores et auditores, tum than would be by the defeat of Sennacherib. captat occasionem majoris fortitudinis et gravius pre- The time had come when the great Jehovah mit. Petrus dicit, eum circuire et quaerere, quem could strike a blow which would be felt on all devoret. Nullum facit insidiarum finem. Tulissi- | nations, and carry the terror of His name, and mum autem est non respondere, sed contemnere the report of His power throughout the earth. eum."--LUTHER.
Perhaps this was one of the main motives of the 6. (On xxxvii. 1-7. "Rab-hakeh intended to destruction of that mighty army.”— BARNES, frighten Hezekiah from the Lord, but it proves on ver. 2]. that he frightens him to the LORD. The wind, 11. On xxxvii. 15. “ Fides Ezechine verbo coninstead of forcing the traveler's coat from him, firmata magis uc magis crescit. Ante non ausus est makes him wrap it the closer about him. The 'orare, jam orat et confutat blasphemias omnes Assymore Rabshakeh reproaches God, the more Heze-rii. Adeo magna vis verbi est, ut longe alius per kiah studies to honor Him.” On yer. 3. “When verbum, quod Jesajas ei nunciari jussit, factus sit.” we are most at a plunge we should be most -LUTHER. earnest in prayer. When pains are most strong, let
12. On xxxvii. 17. [“ It is bad to talk prayers be most lively. Prayer is the midwife of mercy, that helps to bring it forth.”
proudly and profanely, but it is worse to write M. HENRY, in loc.]
80, for this argues more deliberation and design, 7. On xxxvii. 2 sqq. ,Hezekiah here gives a
and what is written spreads further and lasts good example. He shows all princes, rulers and longer, and does the more mischief. Atheism peoples what one ought to do when there is a
and irreligion, written, will certainly be reckoned great and common distress, and tribulation. One for another day.”—M. HENRY]. ought with sackcloth, i. e., with penitent humility,
13. On xxxvii. 21 sqq. [" Those who receive to bring prayers, and intercessions to the LORD messages of terror from men with patience, and that He would look on and help.
send messages of faith to God by prayer, may 8. On xxxvii. 6 sq. “God takes to Himself expect messages of grace and peace from God for all the evil done to His people. For as when | down. Isaiah sent a long answer to Hezekiah's
their comfort, even when they are one does a great kindness to the saints, God appropriates it to Himself, so, too, when one tor: prayer in God's name, sent it in writing (for it ments the saints, it is an injury done to God, and
was too long to be sent by word of mouth), and He treats sin no other way than as if done to Him
sent it by way of return to his prayer, relation self. He that torments them torments Him (lxiv. being thereunto had: “Whereas thou hast prayed 9). Therefore the saints pray: ‘Arise, O God,
to me, know, for thy comfort, that thy prayer is plead thine own canse: remember how the foolish heard.' Isaiah might have referred him io the man reproacheth thee daily' (Ps. Ixxiv. 22).” – prophecies he had delivered particularly to that CRAMER.
of chap. x.), and bid him pick out an answer from 9. On xxxvii. 7. “God raises up against His
thence. The correspondence between earth and enemies other enemies, and thus prepares rest
heaven is never let fall on God's side.”—M. for His own people. Example: the Philistines
HENRY.]. against Saul who pursued David, 1 Sam. xxiii.
14. On xxxvii. 31 sqq.
" This is a promise of 27."-CRAMER.
great extent. For it applies not only to those 10. On xxxvii. 14. VITRINGA here cites the that then remained, and were spared the imfollowing from Bonfin Rerum Hungar. Dec. III. pending destruction and captivity by the Assy, Lib. VI. p. 461, ad annum 1444: Amorathes, rians, but to all subsequent times, when they should cum suos laborare cerneret et ab Vladislao rege non enjoy a deliverance; as after the Babylonish sine magna caede fugari, depromtum e sinu codicem captivity, and after the persecutions of Antiochus. initi sanctissime foederis explicat intentis in coe- | Yea, it applies even to New Testament times lum oculis. Haec sunt, inquit ingeminans, from the first to the last, since therein, in the Jesu Christe, foedera, quae Christiani tui mecum
order of conversion to Christ, the Jews will take percussere. Per numen tuum sanctum jurarunt, root and bring forth fruit, and thus in the Jews datamque sub nomine tuo fidem violarunt, perfide (as also in the converted Gentiles) will appear in suum Deum abnegarunt. Nunc Christe, si Deus es a spiritual and corporal sense, what God at that ( ut ajunt et nos hallucinamur), tuas measque hic time did to their fields in the three following injurias, te quaero, ulciscere et his, qui sanctum tuum years.”—STARKE. nomen nondum agnovere, violatae fidei poenas os 15. On xxxviii. 1. “Isaiah, although of a no
ble race and condition, does not for that regard it effect is to calm the mind, and to lead the dying disgraceful, but rather an honor, to be a pastor to look up to God, and peacefully to repose on and visitor of the sick, I would say, a prophet, Him. And the effect of that is always salutary." teacher and comforter of the sick. God save the BARNES in loc.] mark! How has the world become so different in 17. On xxxviii. 2. It is an old opinion, found our day, especially in our evangelical church. even in the CHALD., that by the wall is ineant the Let a family be a little noble, and it is regarded wall of the temple as a holy direction in which to as a reproach and injury to have a clergyman pray, as the Mahometans pray in the direction among its relations and friends, not to speak of a of Mecca. But 7p77 cannot mean that. Rather son studying theology and becoming a servant of the church. I speak not of all; I know that that is correct which is said by FORERIUS: sone have a better mind; yet such is the
“Nolunt pii homines testes habere suarum lacrymaJeroboam's maxim must ra
rum, ut eas liberius fundant, neque sensu distrahi, ther obtain, who made priests of the lowest of the
cum orare Deum ex animo volunt."
18. On xxxviii. 8:people (1 Kings xii. 31). For thus the parsons may be firmly held in rein (sub ferula) and in po
"Non Deus est numen Parcarum carcere clausum. litical submission. It is not at all good where the
Quale putabatur Stoicus esse Deus. clergy have a say, says an old state-rule of our Ille potest Solis cursus inhibere volantes, Politicorum.” FEUERLEIN, pastor in Nuremberg,
At veluti scopulos flumina stare facit." in his Novissimorum primum, 1694, p. 553. The
-MELANCHTHON. same quotes SPENER: "Is it not so, that among the Roman Catholics the greatest lords are not
19. On xxxviii. 12. "Beautiful parables that ashamed to stand in the spiritual office, and that picture to us the transitoriness of this temporal many of them even discharge the spiritual func- life. For the parable of the shepherd's tent means tions ? Among the Reformed, too, persons born how restless a thing it is with us, that we have of the noblest families are not ashamed of the of- here no abiding place, but are driven from one fice of preacher. But, it seems, we Lutherans locality to another, until at last we find a restingare the only ones that hold the service of the gos- spot in the church-yard. The other parable of the pel so low, that, where from a noble or otherwise weaver's thread means how uncertain is our life prominent family an ingenium has an inclination on earth. For how easily the thread breaks.” to theological study, almost every one seeks to CRAMER. “When the weaver's work is progresshinder him, or, indeed, afterwards is ashamed of ing best, the thread breaks before he is aware. his friendship, as if it were something much too Thus when a man is in his best work, and supbase for such people, by which more harm comes poses he now at last begins really to live, God to our church than one might suppose. That is breaks the thread of his life and lets him die. to be ashamed of the gospel.”
The rational heathen knew something of this when 16. On xxxviii. 1. (“We see here the boldness they, so to speak, invented the three goddesses of and fidelity of a man of God. Isaiah was not life (the three Parcas minime parcas) and included afraid to go in freely and tell even a monarch them in this little verse: that he must die. The subsequent part of the narrative would lead us to suppose that, until this
Clotho colum gestat, Lachesis trahit,
Atropos occat. announcement, Hezekiah did not regard himself as in immediate danger. It is evident here, that But what does the weaver when the thread the physician of Hezekiah had not informed him breaks? Does he stop his work at once? O no! of it--perhaps from the apprehension that his He knows how to make a clever weaver's knot, so disease would be aggravated by the agitation of that one cannot observe the break. Remember his mind on the subject. The duty was, there thereby that when thy life is broken off, yet the fore, left, as it is often, to the minister of religion Lord Jesus, as a master artisan, can bring it to-a duty which even many ministers are slow to gether again at the last day. He will make such perform, and which many physicians are reluctant an artful, subtle weaver's-knot as shall make us to have performed.
wonder through all eternity. It will do us no No danger is to be apprehended commonly harm to have died.” Ibid.-Omnia sunt hominum froin announcing to those who are sick their true tenui pendentio filo. condition. Physicians and friends often err in [“As suddenly as the tent of a shepherd is this. There is no species of cruelty greater than taken down, folded up, and transferred to another to suffer a friend to lie on a dying bed under a place. There is doubtless the idea here that he delusion. There is no sin more aggravated than would continue to exist, but in another place, as that of designedly deceiving a dying man, and the shepherd would pitch his tent in another flattering him with the hope of recovery, when place. He was to be cut off from the earth, but there is a moral certainty that he will not and he expected to dwell among the dead. The whole cannot recover. And there is evidently no danger passage conveys the idea that he expected to to be apprehended from communicating to the dwell in another state.” BARNES in loc.). sick their true condition. It should be done ten 20. On xxxviii. 17. (“Note 1) When God parderly and with affection; but it should be done dons sin, He casts it behind His back as not defaithfully. I have had many opportunities of wit- signing to look upon it with an eye of justice and nessing the effect of apprising the sick of their jealousy. He remembers it no more, to visit for situation, and of the moral certainty that they it. The pardon does not make the sin not to must die. And I cannot now recall an instance bave been, or not to have been sin, but not to be in which the announcement has had any unhappy punished as it deserves. When we cast our sins effect on the disease. Often, on the contrary, the behind our back, and take no care to repent of
them, God sets them before His face, and is ready borations of an early date; WALTHER MAGIRUS, to reckon for them ; but when we set them before Idea mortis et vitae iu two parts, the second of our face in true repentance, as David did when which contains 20 penitential and consolatory his sin was ever before him, God casts them be- sermons on Isa. xxxviii. Danzig, 1640 and 1642. hind His back. 2) When God pardons sin, He DANIEL SCHALLER (STENDAL) 4 sermons on pardons all, casts them all behind His back, the sick Hezekiah, on Isa. xxxviii. Magdeburg, though they have been as scarlet and crimson. 1611. PETER SIEGMUND PAPE in “ Gott gehei3) The pardoning of sin is the delivering the soul lighte Wochenpredigten," Berlin, 1701, 4 sermons. from the pit of corruption. 4) It is pleasant in- JACOB TICHLERUS (ELBURG) Hiskiae Aufrichtigdeed to think of our recoveries from sickness keit bewiesen in Gesundheit, Krankheit und Gene. when we see them flowing from the remission of sung, 18 sermons on Isa. xxxviii. (Dutch), Camsin; then the cause is removed, and then it is in per, 1636. These are only the principal ones. love to the soul.” M. HENRY in loc.]
3. On xxxviii. 1. “I will set my house in 21. On xxxviii
. 18. [Cannot hope for thy truth. order. This, indeed, will not be hard for me to "They are shut out from all the means by which do. My debt account is crossed out; my best Thy truth is brought to mind, and the offers of possession I take along with me; my children I salvation are presented. Their probation is at an commit to the great Father of orphans, to whom end; their privileges are closed; their destiny is heaven and earth belongs, and my soul to the sealed up. The idea is, it is a privilege to live Lord, who has sued for it longer than a human because this is a world where the offers of salva- age, and bought it with His blood. Thus I am tion are made, and where those who are conscious eased and ready for the journey.” THOLUCK, Stunof guilt may hope in the mercy of God.” BARNES den der Andacht, p. 620. in loc.] God is not willing that any should pe
4. On xxxviii. 1. "Now thou shouldest know rish, but that all should come to repentance (2 that our word 'order his house' has a very Pet. iii. 9). Such is the New Testament sense of broad meaning. It comprehends reconciliation these Old Testament words, For though Heze-to God by faith, the final confession of sin, the kiah has primarily in mind the preferableness of last Lord’s Supper, the humble committing of life in the earthly body to the life in Hades, yet the soul to the grace of the Lord, and to death this whole manner of representation passes away and the grave in the hope of the resurrection. In with Hades itself
. But Hezekiah's words still one word : There is an ordering of the house remain true so far as they apply to heaven and above. In reliance on the precious merit of my hell. For of course in hell, the place of the Saviour, I order my house above in which I wish damned, one does not praise God. But those that to dwell. Moreover taking leave of loved ones, live praise Him. These, however, are in heaven. and the blessing of them belongs to ordering the Since then God wills rather that men praise Him house. And finally order must be taken conthan not praise Him, so He is not willing that cerning the guardianship of children, the abiding men should perish, but that all should turn to re- of the widow, and the friend on whom she must pentance and live.
especially lean in her loneliness, also concerning 22. On xxxix. 2. "Primo (Deus) per obsidionem earthly bequests.” AHLFELD, Das Leben in et bellum, deinde per gravern morbum Ezechiam ser Lichte des Wortes Gottes, Halle, 1867, p. 522. raverat, ne in praesumtionem laberetur. Nondum 5. On xxxviii. 2-8. This account has much tamen vinci potuit antiquus serpens, sed redit et levat that seems strange to us Christians, but much, ciput suum. Adeo non possumus consistere, nisi too, that quite corresponds to our Christian conDeos nos affligat. Vides igitur hic, quis sit afflictio- sciousness. Let us contemplate the difference benum usus, ut mortificent scilicet carnem, quae non tween an Old Testament, and a New Testament potest res ferre secundas." LUTHER.
suppliant, by noticing the differences and the re23. On xxxix. 7. "God also punishes the mis- semblances. I. THE RESEMBLANCES. 1) Distress deeds of the parents on the children (Exod. xx. and grief there are in the Old, as in the New 5) because the children not only follow the mis- Testament (ver. 3). 2) Ready and willing to deeds of their parents, but they also increase and help beyond our prayers or comprehension (vers. heap them up, as is seen in the posterity of Heze- 5, 6) is the LORD in the Old as in the New kiah, viz.: Manasseh and Amon.”—CRAMER. Testament. II. THE DIFFERENCES. 1) The Old
| Testament suppliant appealed to his having done HOMILETICAL HINTS.
nothing bad (ver. 3). The New Testament sup
pliant [The reader is referred to the ample hints covering and “Give me through grace for Christ's sake
“God be merciful to me a sinner,"
says: the same matter to be found in the volume con animate what it pleases Thee to give me.” 2) The Old of that for the sake of keeping the present volume Testament suppliant demands a sign (vers. 7, 8; within reasonable bounds. Therefore but a minimum is here given of what the Author offers, much of which
comp. ver. 22); the New Testament suppliant indeed is but the repetition in another form of matter requires no sign but that of the crucified Son of already given.-TR.)
man, for He knows that to those who bear this 1. On xxxvii. 36. "1) The scorn and mockery sign is given the promise of the hearing of all of the visible world. 2) The scorn and mockery their prayers (Jno. xvi. 23). 3) In Hezekiah's of the unseen world.” Sermon of Domprediger case, the prayer of the Old Testament suppliant Zahn in Halle, 1870.
is indeed heard (ver. 5), yet in general it has not 2. On the entire xxxviii. chapter, beside the the certainty of being heard, whereas the New 22 sernions in FEUERLEIN'S Novissimorum pri- Testament suppliant has this certainty. mum, there is a great number of homiletical ela
III.—THE SECOND PART.
THE TOTAL SALVATION TO COME, BEGINNING WITH REDEMP
TION FROM THE BABYLONIAN EXILE AND CONCLUDING WITH THE CREATION OF A NEW HEAVEN AND A NEW EARTH.
CHAPTERS XL.-LXVI. This second principal part is occupied with The first Ennead (chapters xl. xlviii.), has the redemption of Israel. And the Prophet con Kores* i Cyrus) for its middle point; the second templates this redemption as a total, although (chapters xlix.-lvii.), the personal Servant of Jefrom its beginning, which coincides with redemp- hovah; the third (chapters lviii. lxvi.), the new tion from the Babylonian exile, to its conclusion, creature. it takes up thousands of years. For to the gaze In regard to the critical questions, see the Inof the Prophet, that, which in point of time, is troduction. most remote, is just as near as that which is [in regard to the above division the following nearest in point of time. He sees degrees, it is may be appropriate which Dr. J. A. ALEXtrue; but the intervals of time that separate the ANDER says concerning the division proposed by degrees one from another he is unable to mea- himself
, and which does not materially differ eure. Things of the same kind he sees along from the one above, though it makes three heads side of one another, although as to fact, the of what above is comprised in the first (xl.single moments of their realization take place xlviii.). “These are the subjects of the Proone after another. Consequences that evolve out phet's whole discourse, and may be described as of their premises only after a long time he con- present to his mind throughout; but the degree templates along with the latter. Thus it happens in which they are respectively made prominent that the representations of the Prophet have is different in different parts.
The attempts often the appearance of disorder. To this is which have been made to show that they are joined still another thing. Although, in general, taken up successively, and treated one by one, are the Prophet's view point is in the midst of the unsuccessful, because inconsistent with the frepeople as already suffering punishment and quent repetition and recurrence of the same awaiting their redemption out of it, thus the view theme. The order is not that of strict succession, point of the Exile, yet at times this relative but of alternation. It is still true, however, that (ideal, prophetic) present merges into the abso- the relative prominence of these great themes is lute, i. e., actual history of his own time where far from being constant. As a general fact, it both have an inherent likeness. But this inhe may be said that their relative positions in this rent likeness becomes especially prominent where respect answer to those they hold in the enuthe punishment of sin is concerned, which is the meration above given. The character of Israel, concern of both epochs in common, that is the both as a nation and a church, is chiefly promi. epoch in which the Prophet lived, and the epoch nent in the beginning, the Exile and the Advent of the Exile.
in the middle, the contrast and change of disThese are the chief points of view, which must pensations at the end. With this general conbe held fast in order to make it possible to un- ception of the Prophecy, the reader can have derstand this grand cycle of prophecy.
very litile difficulty in perceiving the unity of The twenty-seven chapters that compose this the discourse, and marking its transitions for cycle subdivide into three parts containing each himself. Abridged Ed. Vol. II. p. 18.]. nine chapters. (This was first noticed by
*[The Author uses this Hebrew form of the name FRIEDRICH RUECKERT, Heb. Propheten übers. u.
throughout the following context. erläutert, 1831.)
it the ccmmon form.- TR.).
We substitute for
A.-KORES. CHAPTERS XL-XLVIII. The first Ennead of chaps. xl.-lxvi. has two cha-1 bodily deliverance by Cyrus; but Second, its deracteristic elements that distinguish it from the liverance also from the worship of idols shall be two following Enneads : 1) The Promise of a made possible by means of that promise. For Hero that will come from the east, that will re the Lord intends to make it so evident that the deem Israel out of the Babylorian captivity, and deliverance by Cyrus is His work, and at the who in fact is called by his name " Kores" same time His victory over the idols that Israel xliv. 28; xlv. 1 : 2) The affirmation that Je-can no longer resist acknowledging Him as alone hovah, from the fulfilment of this fact predicted divine. These two aims manifestly go hand in by Him, must also necessarily be acknowledged hand. But now a Third is added to them. as the only true God, as also, on the other hand, Cyrus and Israel are themselves prophetic types from the inability of idols to prophesy and to that point to a third and higher one. Each of fulfil must evidently be concluded that they are them represents one factor of the development of no gods. One sees from this that the Prophet salvation. In that third both factors find their wishes, primarily to attain a double object by the common fulfilment. Cyrus is only the initiator first nine chapters of this book of consolation : of the redemption. He brings to an end the First, Israel shall have the prospect presented of seventy years' exile, and opens up the era of sal