Obrazy na stronie


invincible might of the Romans; and Horace gives it an additional significance, by putting it into the mouth of an enemy of Rome. Pertulit ad urbes. So Virgil, Aen. 1, 67:

"Gens inimica mihi Tyrrhenum navigat aequor,

Ilium in Italiam portans, victosque Penates."

60. Ducit opes. This inherent energy of the Romans, by which they rose above their reverses, and made even losses and misfortunes arouse new strength and courage, is admirably illustrated in the Hanribalian war, immediately after the disastrous affair of Cannae. Observe how fine and just is this simile from the oak, especially in the words ab ipso ferro. 61. Hydra. The many-headed Lernaean hydra, destroyed by Hercules. See Class. Dict. -63. Summisere. The teeth of the dragon slain by Cadmus, were sown partly in Colchis, and partly in Thebes; and in each place, as the story was, there sprang up armed men from the earth. Of these, Echion was one; hence Thebes is called Echioniae.. 65. Merses. Si is omitted. See Z. § 780; comp. Epist.

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i., 6, 31; 10, 24.-Dillenb. With this passage should be compared the words of Hannibal, in Livy, 27, 14: cum eo nimirum hoste res est, qui nec bonam, nec malam ferre fortunam potest. Seu vicit, ferociter instat victis; seu victus est, instaurat cum victoribus certamen.- -Evenit. So the best MSS. Orelli's reading (from Meineke) exiet was adopted merely to make the verb accord with proruet. The form exiet is not found in good writers. In Tibullus, i., 4, 27, the true reading is transiit, not transiet. Dillenb. - -68. Conjugibus. By their wives; i. e. of the Romans. Conjugibus is the usual dative after the part. in dus. 69. Nuntios.

As e. g. after the battle of Cannae. See n. above, 1. 60.- 73. Nil Claudiae. These may still be considered the words of Hannibal, whom the poet makes predict the achievements of the Claudian family. Thus the ode ends, as it began, with the praises of Drusus and his brother.


The poet begs Augustus to come back to Rome; and describes the peace and good or ler of the kingdom under his reign.

Compare introduction to second ode of this Book, and the note on 1. 43.

2. Abes jam nimium dia. Already too long have you been absent. He had been absent nearly three years.-On jam with the present see note, O. iii., 30, 5.- -4. Concilio. Consilium is the regular prose expression for the senate, and for a deliberative assembly. Concilium is here used as a nobler expression, like concilium deorum.

9. Notus; the south


wind, a head-wind to any one crossing the Carpathian sea, on the return voyage from Asia Minor to Rome. The Carpathian sea, so called from the island of Carpathus, in the Mediterranean, between Rhodes and Crete. -13. Votis, etc. Livy has a parallel expression in his Preface. cum bonis ominibus votisque et precationibus.· -18. Faustitas. An urusual word, for felicitas. See list of such words in note, O. i., 5, 8.20. Culpari metuit. Dreads to be blamed. See note, O. ii., 2, 7. Mos et lex. Compare the expression in O. iii., 24, 35. The word lex probably refers to the Marriage laws of Augustus, by which he endeavored to check the prevailing licentiousness. See Dict. Antiqq. under Adulterium and Julia Lex et Papia Poppaea. 25. Paveat. Should fear?=who needs fear? On the subj. see Arn. Pr. Intr. 424; Z. § 530. On Parthum, compare n. O. iii., 5, 4. ————Scythen. See n. O. iii., 8, 23. -26. Horrida; rough; in reference both to the country and to the people. Tacitus, Germ. c. 2, describes the country as informem terris, and c. 5, silvis horridam. 27. Ferae. The fierce Cantabri, in Spain. Compare O. ii., 6, 2. - -29. Condit. Condere with diem, means to go through the day from morning until the evening; to pass the whole day, with the idea involved of bringing the day to a peaceful close. It is a poetical transition from the meaning of condere, to bury; to put away the day, as one would lay away in the tomb a deceased friend. So condere noctem, lustrum.-Suis. There is here an emphasis in suis, as in the scriptural expression, "his own vine and fig-tree." They are his own hills; in the good order of Augustus's reign, his secure possessions. -30. Viduas; widowed; i. e. from which the vines have been severed, in the prostration of agriculture during the civil wars. See n. O. ii., 15, 4.31. Redit; i. e. home after the toils of the day. Alteris mensis, the mensa secunda or the dessert of a Roman coena, during which libations were offered to the gods; and here in honor of Augustus. (See note on O. iii., 3, 12.) The three parts of the coena were-1, the gustatorium or promulsis; 2, the fercula or several courses, called also mensa prima; and 3, mensae secundae or alterae.· 35. Uti Graecia; i. e. as Greece worshipped Castor and Hercules for their great services to their country, so all rank thee among their cherished gods.-Castoris and Herculis depend upon memor. 37. Longas-ferias; "id est, diu, precamur, vivas; as in O. i., 2, 46, diuque Laetus, etc.” Orelli.- 39. Sicci, when sober;=nondum poti. Uvidi, i. e. vino; after the coena, or a late banquet.


The last lines of this ode plainly allude to the Secular Hymn of Horace, and it is pro bable that the whole was written as a kind of prelude to that celebrated Hymn.

The poet invokes the aid of Apollo in executing his task; and gives directions to the chorus, appointed to sing the ode at the Secular Celebration.

1. Proles. The seven sons and daughters of Niobe, who were slain by Apollo and Diana. Magnae. Boastful. The story was, that Niobe, proud of her offspring, arrogated the honors offered to Latona. -2. Tityos. See n. O. iii., 4, 77.- -4. Phthius. Of Phthiōtis, a district in Thessaly, where lived the Myrmidones, who went with Achilles to the Trojan war. -11. Procidit late. The simile and all the language of this stanza are designed to present the image of a hero of gigantic form. Dillenburger compares Virg. Aen. 2, 626; Hom. Od. 24, 39, 40. - 13. Minervae-mentito. The wooden horse was left by the Greeks as an offering to Minerva. -16. Falleret. This word, and ureret, 1. -25. Thaliae. For

29, have the force of a pluperfect. See Z. § 525. the Muse of Grecian song, to which is opposed Dauniae Camenae, for the Latin Muse. Comp. n. O. iii., 30, 11.

28. Agyien. An epithet

of Apollo, 'Ayvieús, fr. ¿yviá, a street, as the presiding deity of streets and public squares. In the streets of Athens, statues were erected to his honor.-The epithet levis imberbis has reference to the idea of Apollo's perpetual youth. 29. Spiritum, etc. Horace here claims for himself that inspiration of genius (spiritum), and that practice in the rules of his art (artem), which together are requisite to insure the name of poet. Compare Ars. P. 408-411, where Horace contends for the union of genius and study. 31. Primae. He addresses the Secular Chorus (see introd.), composed of youths and maidens, chosen from the noblest families. -33. Tutela. The care; i. e. the object of her care. On Deliae, see n. O. i., 22, 10. 35. Lesbium pedem. The Lesbian or Sapphic measure, in which the Secular Hymn was written. Comp. O. i., 1, 34. Pollicis ictum, the beat of the thumb, upon the strings of the lyre, to mark the cadences of the measure. The poet fancies himself the leader of the choir, magister chori, instructing them in the song and the dance, with the accompaniment of the lyre. 38. Noctilucam. From nox and luceo, vuктIλаμπs, that illumines the night. Face, with a torch, means here, light. Diana was represented with a torch in her hand.

-39. Frugam. Poetic genitive. See H. 399, 3, 4). Pronos, fast passing; as O. ii., 18, 16, pergunt interire lunae. -Nupta. Addressing one of the maidens, probably the leader of the chorus, he suggests, by way of incitement, the delight with which she will some time look back to this festival and to the part she bore in its glad scenes. 42. Luces.

The festival continued three days. - -43. Reddidi ;=cantavi. The song is learned from a teacher, then given back, i. e. sung.



An ode, occasioned, like the Fourth of Book First, by the return of Spring. too the poet dwells upon the thoughts suggested by the season; and compares the chang. ing year with the life of man. In each alike, time ever hurries on; but of the year, though it is always passing, there is always renewal, in the regular return of the seasons. Not so in human life; it has but one Spring, one Summer; and its winter once passed, the whole is closed for ever.

"And pale concluding winter comes at last,

And shuts the scene."-THOMSON.

It is not certain who is the Torquatus, to whom the poet addressed this ode, as well as the Fifth Epistle of the First Book. Some suppose it to be the grandson, others the son of L. Manlius Torquatus, in whose consulship Horace was born. But of the grandson wo know nothing with any certainty, and of the son, we know, from Cicero's Brutus, c. 75, that he died in Spain many years before this ode was written.

-4. Praetereunt.

Glide along; Osborne hero

2. Comae. See note, O. i., 21, 5. do not overrun. 5. Gratia. Compare n. O. i., 4, 6. adds, from Thomson's Summer:

"The Seasons lead, in sprightly dance,
Harmonious knit, the rosy-fingered Hours."

-7. Almum. Benignant. A poetic epithet, used also with sol, Carm. Sec. 9. 9. Proterit. Pushes aside. Comp. O. ii., 18, 15, truditur dics die. 12. Iners. Dull. 15. Dives. In accordance with the ideas of the vulgar, concerning the wealth and power of ancient kings, whose statues they daily saw in the Capitol. Orelli. -17. Quis scit an. An generally begins a second question, and means or; but in the best Latin authors stands seldom as here, with a single indirect question. Orelli cites Hand, Turs. 1, p. 304; who supplies thus the first clause; quis scit, utrum hodie jam nobis moriendum sit, an, etc.-See Z. § 353. Arn. Pr. Intr. 120. -19. Amico-animo. Amicus animus is poetic, like the Greek pínov Top, for animus, with a possessive pronoun, here for animus tuus. Animo is dat. with dederis; and the expression dare animo is similar to animo obsequi, animo morem gerere; the whole means, which you have given yourself, in which you have indulged your inclination.

21. Splendida arbitria. August sentence. Minos, the famous king and lawgiver, is often represented by the poets as a judge in Hades. There he sat on his tribunal, with his majestic sceptre; and around him gathered the spirits, as did on earth the Cretans, to submit their differ


ences, and await his decisions. Comp. Homer, Odyss. 11, 568. Hippolytum. Horace follows here the older tradition, the same that forms the basis of Euripides's Tragedy. According to the later story, Hippolytus was restored to life by Aesculapius. Comp. Ovid, Met. 15, 409; Virg. Aen. 7, 761.— 28. Pirithoo. See note, O. iii., 4, 79,


This ode Horace probably sent to Censorinus as a New-Year's or a Saturnalian gift; a gift truly worthy of a poet. Not costly cups will he send, nor vases, nor tripods, nor gems of Grecian art; for these he has not, nor are they needed; but what he has to give, and what his friend can prize, the praises of his Muse, the poet's gift of immortality.

It was customary with the Romans to exchange presents and good wishes at NewYear's, and also at the festival of the Saturnalia.-See Dict. antiqq. under Saturnalia.

1. Commodes. Join with donarem, and translate as an adverb, Gladly. -2. Aera; i. e. vasa aerea, bronze vases, especially the Corinthian. These, as well as drinking-cups, were probably favorite articles for presents. 3. Tripodas. The tripod seems to have been a very ancient form for tables, candlesticks, and articles of furniture. It is mentioned in Homer, Od. 15, 84, also in Hesiod. Among the Greeks, tripods were made of bronze, marble, and other materials, in imitation of the tripod of the Pythian priestess. Such a tripod was the prize at the Grecian games. So Virgil describes it in Aen. 5, 110. To such tripods Horace here refers, praemia, etc. Possibly he means veritable Greek tripods, as the fondness for antiques had become a passion with the rich of his time.-See Becker's Gallus (Eng. ed.), p. 24. - -5. Artiam. Works of art. The word is governed by divite; see Z. § 437.— The poet refers to paintings, like those of Parrhasius of Ephesus, who was the rival of Zeuxis, and lived about 400 B. C.; and to statues, like those of Scopas of Paros, who flourished just before Parrhasius. 8. Ponere; for in ponendo. Poncre=fingere, is common in connection with sculpture. So in Ars. P. 34. 12. Dicere governs muneri, and is used like ponere in Sat. ii., 3, 23; to put a value upon the gift. Non incisa notis. Marmora=signa marmorea, statues of marble. literally marks, here=notae litterarum or litterae, e. g. Liv. 6, 29, tabula litteris incisa; it refers to the tituli, inscriptions at the base of statues. Publicis, public, because engraved at the expense of the state. Not puh tic inscriptions cut in statues of marble. 17. Non incendia, etc. This line is not in harmony with the context. The words celeres-minae manifestly refer to the elder Scipio Africanus, who by passing over to Africa, compelled Hannibal's rapid flight from Italy, and, as it were, threw back (rejectae) the threats of Hannibal. So too Calabrae Pierides

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