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tamen. In apposition with all that has gone before.

- Praeda-major

an illi. Major pracda is difficult of explanation, as praeda manifestly refers to Nearchus. Dillenb. leaves the matter thus: "quae sana explicatio possit inveniri, nescio." Orelli adopts the conjecture of Pecrlkamp, Cedet, major an illa, explaining thus: "an illa victrix futura sit;" which is ingenious, but changes too much the construction. But it seems unnecessary to take major praeda so absolutely. May it not mean the greater share of victory, i. e. the greater share, in the regards of Nearchus ? -11. Arbiter pugnae. Nearchus, who may decide in favor of either of the parties. - Posuisse. In illustration of the perfect here used, followed by recreare, Orelli quotes from Valerius Max. ii., 4, 2: Senatus consultum factum est, ne quis in urbe-subsellia posuisse sedensve ludos spectare vellet. 12. Palmam. That is, of victory; as is manifest from arbiter pugnae. The expression sub pede palmam ponere finely expresses the haughty contempt of Nearchus; and humerum―recreare, his air of negligence and utter indifference. 15. Nireus. A Grecian chief, famed for his beauty; Hom. II. 2, 673; also Epod. 15, 22. 16. Raptus. Ganymede, carried off from Ida to Olympus.

ODE XXI.

Expecting a visit from his friend Messala, and intending to set before him the oldest wine in his cellar, the poet indulges in a eulogistic description of the uses of wine.

The friend, in honor of whom the ode was written, was Marcus Valerius Messala Cor. vinus. Born A. v. c. GS5, and therefore four years older than Horace, at his first entrance into public life, he was attached to the party of Brutus and Cassius, but went over to Antony, after the battle of Philippi. Still later, he joined the party of Octavianus, and was consul with him, A. v. c. 723.

He was no less distinguished in peace than in war, being always fond of literary pur suits, and favorably known as an orator and a poet.

1. Consule Manlio. The year A. U. C. 689, E. c. 65, when L. Manlius Torquatus was consul with L. Aurelius Cotta. This was therefore the year of the poet's birth.-In regard to the expression, comp. note, O. iii., 8, 12; and in regard to the fact, which it fixes, see Epod. 13, 6. 4. Pia testa. To be joined with nata. Pia is used poetically: my good jar; like benigno.· -5. Quocunque lectum nomine. For whatever purpose gathered. Nomen is used in the sense of finis, usus; and lectum, properly used of the urae, is here transferred to the wine made from them. The idea is: whatever the purpose you were destined to serve, when you were made. Orelli quotes Varro, R. R. i., 1, 6, in illustration of the meaning of nomen. See others in Freund's Lex. 7. Descende. That is, from the apotheca or fumarium. See n. O. iii., 8, 11.

16.

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8. Promere. Depends upon descende. Comp. O. iii., 28, 7.- -9. Soeraticis. Such as are found in Plato and Xenophon. Comp. A. P. 310 10. Horridus. With too much sternness.· -11. Prisei Catonis. Cato Major, called also the Censor. Cicero gives a pleasant description of his habits, in his de Senec., chaps. 14-16. Comp. Bibliotheca Sacra, for May, 1846, p. 237.- 13. Lene tormentum. Gentle torture. Comp. Epist. i., 18, 38; A. P. 435. The poet means: As real tortures, the rack, etc., compel the guilty to confession, so wine, quasi lene tormentum, softens by its agreeable violence, men of hard natures. Lyaco. Abl. of instrument. On the word, comp. n. O. i., 7, 22. pare with the whole passage, Ovid, A. A. 1, 237, seqq.- -18. Cornna. Cornua, by a figure of eastern origin, indicates courage and strength. Voss translates: des Muthes Hörner.-Ovid says, in the passage refer red to in preceding note: tunc pauper cornua sumit. - -22. Seguessolvere. Slow to loosen; that is, who never loosen; the ever-united Graces. The Graces are always so represented in ancient as well as in modern art. Comp. the Greek χάριτες συζυγίαι. Eurip. Hipp. 1147. With Venus, the Graces (whom Horace calls decentes, O. i., 4, 6) were tc be present, to maintain the decorum of the occasion.

ODE XXII.

The poet dedicates a pine tree to Diana, and vows to the goddess a yearly sacrifice.

3. Ter. See n. Epist.

2. Laborantes utero; i. c. parturientes.. ii., 1, 36. -4. Triformis. In heaven, Luna, on earth, Diana, and in the infernal regions, Hecate. Comp. Virg. Aen. 4, 511. - -5. Villae. On his Sabine farm. - 6. Exactos annos. Quotannis; with every completed year. -7. Obliquum. In allusion to the way in which the teeth of the boa are set. So Ovid says, Her. 4, 104, nec obliquo dente timen. dus aper.

ODE XXIII..

The poet assures the rustic Phidyle, that the favor of the gods is gained, not by eetly offerings, but by piety, and a blameless life.

1. Supinas. Up-turned; i. c. the palms upward; in distinction from pronas. This was usual with the ancients, in supplication. Comp. Virg. Aen. 3, 176; 4, 205; Liv. 26, 9 - 2. Nascente Luna. On the Calends

See n. O. iii., 19, 9. -8. Grave tempus; the autumu, on account of the prevailing south winds. See O. ii., 14, 15. The adjective is also thus used in Sat. i., 6, 18; and Livy, 3, 6. 10. Devota; i. e. destined for sacrifice. Comp. O. iv., 2, 55, vitulus-qui-juvenescit in mea vota. Comp. Virg. Georg. 3, 157, seqq.· 16. Deos. The little images of the household gods, in the atrium of the house. 17-20. Immunis-mica. Immunis means free from guilt, innocent. Sumptuosa is in the abl. For the force of the perfects tetigit, mallivit, see n. O. i., 28, 20. Orelli gives the construction thus: Immunis manus si tetigit aram, mollivit aversos Penates farre pio et saliente mica, non blandior (futura) sumptuosa hostia.

ODE XXIV.

As in the Fourteenth Ode of Book Second, so here also, the poet inveighs against the luxury and corruption of his countrymen, and draws in contrast a picture of the manners of ruder, but simpler and more virtuous nations. In allusion, doubtless, to the plans and efforts of Angustus, he declares, that he who would do aught for the real and perma nent good of the country, must bring about a total reformation of manners, and the resto. ration of a purer and bette: discipline.

- 3. Caementis. -6. Sammis

1. Intactis. By the Romans. Comp. O. i., 29, 1.See n. O. iii., 1, 35, in connection with n. O. ii., 18, 21. verticibus. To be understood of the tops of houses, as is manifest from the preceding caementis; for, by the caementa, the moles were formed, on which were erected villas and other buildings. Some understand sum. verticibus to refer to the heads of men, the owners of such villas; but this view is not to be accepted. The image of dread Necessity fastening adamantine spikes into the tops of lofty buildings is sufficiently bold, but to represent Necessity driving such spikes into a human head is scarcely less than ludicrous, certainly quite unworthy of Horace. In illustration of Necessitas and of clavos, sec O. i., 35, 18. – 9. Campestres; i. e. "in campis (the Steppes of Tartary) viventes;" like voμádes, nomadic; in allusion to the wandering, Arab-like life of the Scythians. They are called profugi in O. i., 35, 9; and iv., 14, 42. Described by Homer, and many succeeding writers, as a people of simple manners, and upright life. Hom. Il. 13, 9; Strabo vii., p. 464; Dio Chrys. Ov. 69, p. 369, R.. 10. Plaustra-domos. So Aeschylus, Prom. 709: vávovơ ἐπ' ευκύκλοις ἔχοις. And Silius, 3, 291: Scythis migrare per arva, Mos atque errantes, circumvectare Penales. -10. Rite. According to their custom as in Virg. Aen. 9, 352. 11. Getae. A Thracian people, who lived on the Danube, and the borders of the Euxine. - - 12. Immetata. Virg. Georg. 1, 126, mentions it as one of the features of th

primeval times, the golden age, that the land was not divided and mark

-13. Fruges et 14. Longior annua.

ed out by boundaries. So also Ovid, Met. 1, 135.Cererem. By Hendiadys for fruges Cereris. This feature of primitive life, Horace seems to have borrowed from Caesar's account of the Suevi, B. G. 4, 1: Centum pagos habere dicuntur, e quibus quotannis singula millia armatorum bellandi causa educunt. Reliqui, qui domi manserint, se atque los alunt. Hi rursus anno post in armis sunt; illi domi remanent.-Sed privati ac separati agri apud cos nihil est, neque longius anno remanere uno in loco incolendi causa licet.— Comp. Tac. Germ. 26.- 16. Aequali-sorte; must be joined with ticarius. Vicarius is he who succeeds, and he succeeds under just the same conditions. 18. Temperat; like parcit; spares, i. e. is kindly to. So Cic. in Verrem, 2, 2, non solum sociis-consuluit, verum etiamhostibus temperavit. 21. Dos est-virtus. As Horace says. O. iv. 4, 29, fortes creantur fortibus et bonis. Plautus has also an illustrative passage, which is quoted by Orelli and Dillenb.: it is in Amphit. ii., 2, 207 : Non ego illam dotem mi esse duco, quae dos dicitur; sed pudicitiam et pudorem et sedatam cupidinem, Deum metum, parentum amorem, et cognalûm concordiam.-The form parentium occurs very seldom, though similar ones are found, even in prose, e. g. civitatium. - -24. Et peccare. With this line, illic (1. 17) must be repeated. Peccare refers to violation of castitas. Aut alioquin, else, if otherwise. To commit (that offence) is (deemed) the utmost wickedness, or else (that is, if the offence is committed), the penalty is death. -26. Civicam. See n. O. ii., 1, 1. —27. Pater urbium. The poet probably alludes to Augustus. Comp introd. to Ode 6th of this Book. The words, however, are not a title of Augustus, nor to be confounded with pater patriae. See n. O. i., 2, 50. 35. As illustrative of the same sentiment, comp. the words of Tacitus, Germ. 19: Bonae leges minus valent quam boni mores. -42. Magnum. Repeat the si from 1. 36. Opprobrium is in apposition with pauperies.

46. Turba faventium. Such donations were solemnly deposited in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, amidst the applauding shouts of the people. Favere is often used in the sense of applaud. So Livy, 1, 25, clamore, qualis-farentium solet. -57. Graeco. Used in contempt; as the Roman sports were more manly and healthful. So Juvenal, with yet more reason, satirizes the adoption of Grecian manners, in Sat. 3, 67:

"Rusticus ille tuus sumit trechedipna. Quirine,

Et ceromatico fert niceteria collo."

He speaks Comp. Ovid.

57. Legibus. There was such a law in Cicero's time. of persons condemned by it, in Oratt. Philippicae, 2, 23. Trist. 2, 470. 60. Consortem socium. Partner in business. - 62. Properet. Used transitively like deproperare, O. ii. 7, 24, where see

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-64. Curtae. Small; that is, in the opinion of the unsatisfied possessor. Comp. O. iii., 16. 28, inter opes inops; and Epist. i. 2, 56.

ODE XXV.

Adithyrambic ode, in which the rapt poet sings anew, and in yet loftier strains, the I raises of Augustus

4. Antris. Abl. It means grottoes, Audiar. Future tense;

2. Nemora. Like specus, depends upon in. See Z. 778. Comp. the similar language, at the beginning of O. ii. 19. case; the preposition omitted, as often in poetry. and is a finer, more poetic word than specus. and also dicam, 1. 7.- -5. Meditans-inserere. The infinitive, as frequently in poetic use, for ad inserendum. -6. Consilio. Comp. O. iii., 3, 17, consiliantibus divis. -9. Exsomnis. Ever-wakeful, literally, sleepless. Like exsanguis, exlex, and similar words, where ex has the same force. In this and the following lines, the poet in his rapture, compares himself to a Bacchanal, and contemplates, with like amaze- 10. Hebrum. A ment, the strange regions into which he is borne.- 11. Barbaro. river in Thrace, where also the mountain Rhodope.Of the Thracians, who, like the Phrygians, are always so designated by the Greek poets. The allusion is to the wild orgies of the Bacchantes. -12. Ut. Join with non secus. Non secus-ut, not otherwise-than, just-as. - 19. Lenace. From Anvòs, god of the wine-press. Lenaean. 20. Cingentem sc. sibi. Comp. O. iv., 8, 33.

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ODE XXVI.

Scorned by the haughty Chloe, the poet, like a discharged soldier, will abandon the ari.is of love, but begs of Venus, as a last request, that his slighted love may not go una. venged.

2. Militavi. A frequent poetic figure. Comp. O. iv., 1, 16; Ovid, Am. i., 9, 1. -4. Hic paries-latus. The poet represents himself in the temple of Venus, where he will hang up his lyre, and the arma, mentioned in lines 6, 7; and this he will do on the wall, to the left of the statue of the goddess, therefore on the right-hand wall of the tem ple. 6. Custodit. Like Latus tegere in Sat. ¡i., 5, 18; but more elegant. -7. Funalia; torches, made of ropes, covered with pitch; vecles, crowbars arcus, bows, added in jest, perhaps to use with the janitores, in terrorem; all these. instruments carried about by night-revellers, withi

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