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Sanctus. Another name for the Tersanctus, or Triumphal Hymn. (See under Hymn '). Scrutinium. The examination and instruction of Catechumens, held publicly before they were admitted to Baptism. The commonitio (or denunciatio) pro scrutinio, referred to on p. 373 was given, according to the Gelasian sacramentary, (Muratori, col. 533) in the following form: Scrutinii diem, dilectissimi Fratres, quo electi nostri divinitus instruantur, imminere cognoscite. Ideoque sollicita devotione, succedente (sequente) illa feria, circa horam diei sextam convenire dignemini. Ut coeleste mysterium, quo diabolus cum sua pompa destruetur, et janua regni coelestis aperitur, inculpabili, Deo juvante, ministerio peragere valeamus. Per Dominum nostrum, etc.' Secreta (a) (Rom.). A prayer, or prayers, said by the Priest at the conclusion of the Offertory; perhaps from being said 'secreto' (i. e. in a low tone, but distinctly). (B) (Gall.). The Consecration was sometimes so called in the Gallican Liturgy.

Sedra (Syr.). A sort of Hymn: sometimes, like the Latin Prosa,' in free rhythm; sometimes in strict verse; and always, apparently, by custom preceded by a short prayer, or Prooemium. Sequence. A Hymn either in free rhythm or metre, sung after the Gradual. There are three now used in the Roman Liturgy, viz. Victimae Paschali at Easter, Veni, Sancte Spiritus at Pentecost, and Lauda, Sion for the Feast of Cor

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pus Christi. The hymn Dies irae, sometimes called a sequence, is pronounced not to be so by strict liturgiologists. The meaning of the term is said to be that in festival seasons the last syllable of the Alleluia was prolonged to a number of notes (neumata' or pneumata), forming a jubilatio. Then to these, or instead of them, words were set.

Sindon (Ambros.). The corporal. The oratio super sindonem (p. 308) corresponds in position to the εὐχὴ μετὰ τὸ ἁπλωθῆναι τὸ εἱλητόν (p. 99) of the Greek rite. Sonum (Gall.). The anthem, corresponding to the Roman offertorium, sung at the Offertory. Spoon. The instrument with which in the Eastern Churches the consecrated elements are administered together to the communi



Spoudikon (Copt.). A corruption
of Despoticon (q. v.).
Sub-deacon. The third of the Holy

Symbolum. The Creed. In early times Catechumens received a solemn instruction upon it before their Baptism, publicly, during the Mass; this was called Symboli Traditio.


Tersanctus. The Hymn, 'Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts, etc.' (See under Hymn'). Thuribulum. A censer. Tonus. A tone, or mode (in music).

Tract. The form of the Gradual (q. v.) from Septuagesima to Easter Even, consisting of two verses only, without Alleluia. Two derivations have been given, viz. (1) that it was properly sung by one voice without break (tractim); (2) that it was sung slowly and solemnly. Transitorium (Ambros.). The anthem answering to the Roman 'Communio;' sung during, or said immediately after, the Communion of the people. Trecanum (Gall.). The Communion anthem of the Gallican Liturgy. All our knowledge of it is derived from the obscure notice in the Expositio brevis, attributed to S. Germanus; from which we gather that it had some relation to the mystery of the Blessed Trinity.

Trisagion. One of the four great

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Eucharistic Hymns beginning ἅγιος ὁ Θεός, ἅγιος ἰσχυρός κ. τ. λ. (See further under Hymn '). Triumphal Hymn (Gr. Emivínios uvos). The one of the four great Eucharistic Hymns which occurs in every Liturgy at the conclusion of the Preface, and shortly before the Consecration. It begins 'Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts, etc.' from Is. vi. 3; generally with the addition of Ps. cxviii. 26. It is also called sometimes The Sanctus,' or 'Tersanctus.' (See under Hymn '.)

Tybi (Copt.). The fifth month of the Coptic Calendar, answering to parts of our December and January. (See under Baini'.)

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Union. (See Greek Glossary, s. v.
Vagas (Arm). A part of the Arme-


ȧnp. The large veil, mystically representing the firmament, used in the Greek Church to envelope both Paten and Chalice, each being also covered by its own veil. ȧkpooríxia. (p. 24). It is not certain what this word means: perhaps either antiphons,' or the ' responsory endings of verses,' as in the 136th Psalm, or the Benedicite.

nian Eucharistic Vestments. It is semi-circular in shape, generally made of metal, and has the heads of the Twelve Apostles engraved upon it. It is fastened with a gold chain. During the robing it is put over the head, and afterwards let down on the neck and shoulders. The Armenians consider that it represents the Jewish Ephod: but it seems to be in some respects at least analogous to the Western Amice. (Malan, Arm. Lit. pp. 2, 18.) Vartabed (Arm.). A title meaning 'doctor or teacher.'



ȧкроwμevoι (Lat.audientes, auditores).

It seems to be necessary to distinguish the Greek from the Latin use of these terms. In the West it was equivalent to Catechumen. In the Greek system it was the name of the lowest but one order

Veil. The cloths, whether of linen or richer material, used to cover the Sacred Vessels. The number differed in different churches. In the Greek Church three are used; viz. one each for the Paten and Chalice, and a large one (anp) to envelope all.

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R· Πρεσβείαις τῆς θεοτόκου, κ.τ.λ. W. Οτι εὐθὺς Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν· καὶ νῦν ἐστιν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ.

R. Πρεσβείαις τῆς θεοτόκου,

κ. τ. λ.

W. Δόξα Πατρί, κ. τ. λ. This is a First Antiphon'; in which the antiphonal response, always the same, makes mention of the intercessions of the Theotokos. In the Second Antiphons the response is always, Taîs πρεσβείαις τῶν ἁγίων, σῶσον ἡμᾶς, making mention of the intercession of Saints. In the Third Antiphons there is always an allusion to the solemnity of the day, the beginning and end being unchangeable: e. g. at Easter, Zwoov nμâs, Υἱὲ Θεοῦ, ὁ ἀναστὰς ἐκ νεκρῶν, ψάλλοντάς σοι ̓Αλληλουΐα. (See Goar's Euchologion, pp. 103, 104.) ἀπολυτίκιον. The Hymn sung at

the conclusion of the service.

ἀσκήτης. A hermit. ἀστέρισκος. An instrument of the

Greek Church, consisting of two bent bars of metal set crosswise, used to place over the Paten when prepared for Consecration, in order that the veil may not disarrange the oblations.


Bua. The Sanctuary of a Greek Church, in which the Altar stands.


διακονικόν. The Sacristry. A Chamber commonly on the south side of the Bîμa, in a Greek Church.

δισκοκάλυμμα. The special veil of

the Paten.

Síoкos. The Paten.


Eiλnτóv. The Corporal. The unfolding of this in the Liturgy of Constantinople is the signal for the dismissal of the Catechumens. εἰρηνικά, τά. Another name for the ἐκτενή, or ἡ μεγάλη συναπτή.

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Evwols. The rite, called in the West commistio; the union of the two consecrated species. There are slight differences in the mode of performing it in the different Churches. (See Renaudot, vol. i. p. 240; ii. p. 108). ἐπιμανίκια. One of the Eucharistic

vestments of the Greek Church, corresponding most nearly to the Western maniple, but worn on both arms. They are a sort of open sleeve covering the arm from the wrist to the elbow, where they are fastened, and hanging down in a peaked flap; on which, in the case of a Bishop, the Icon of Christ is embroidered. ἐπινίκιος (ὕμνος). The Triumphal

Hymn. (See under 'Hymn.') éπтρауýλιov. The Priest's stole,

of the Greek Church, worn however by Bishops and Priests alike. It is unlike the Western stole, being in the form of an oblong strip of embroidered stuff or silk, having at one end a hole which is put over the head, so that it hangs straight down in front. It generally has an embroidered seam down the middle, and often ends in a fringe.


Lovn. The girdle, put on by the Priest in vesting so as to confine both the στοιχάριον and ἐπιτραχήXov (in the Greek Church), or the Alb and Stole in the West.


xos. A Tone. The Eastern tones correspond with the Western, though they are not numbered in precisely the same manner. There are eight altogether, viz. four 'authentic' tones (numbered a', B', ', '), each with its corresponding ‘Plagal' tone (πλάγιον α', πλ. β', βαρύς, πλ. δ ́), (Neale, Introd. p. 830, q. v.)


Ovμiaτńρlov, A censer (Lat. thuriθυμιατόν, J bulum). θύραι. There are many doors in an architecturally-complete Byzantine Church. The following is the substance of Dr. Neale's account (see Neale's Introd. pp. 195-200). The most important ritually of them all are the 'Holy Doors' (0. ayıai) in the middle of the Iconostasis, giving access from the Choir of the Church to the Sanctuary (Bua). These are only open in the Liturgy, during the two Entrances, and at the Communion from the invitation of the Priest to approach. The Iconostasis has two other side doors (0. πλάγιαι) giving access respectively to the πρόθεσις and διακονικόν (sacristy). From the former of these the processions of both the Entrances emerge into the Church. Of the other doors, Dr. Neale believes that the Entrance-doors at the West end of the Church are called the 'Beautiful Gates' (ὡραῖαι πύλαι); the doors leading from the Narthex into the Nave are the 'Royal' or 'Silver' doors; and those between the Nave and Choir, supposing these to be archi

tecturally divided, which is not always the case, are the 'Angelic' doors. θυσιαστήριον. (a) The altar. (β) The part of the Church where the altar stands; the Sanctuary, or βῆμα.


ἱερατεῖον. One of the names for the Sanctuary, or βῆμα.


καθέδρα, ἡ ἄνω. Against the wall of the apsidal Sanctuary of a Byzantine Church, behind the Altar, seats are arranged for the Presbyters, with a raised one in the middle ( äv∞ кalédрa) for the Bishop, the whole being called collectively the Synthronus (ovv@povos). The whole arrangement resembles the description in Rev. iv. v. On the central seat the celebrant sits during the reading of the Gospel, in the Liturgy of Constantinople. κάλυμμα. A general name for 'a veil. On p. 88 it is applied to all the three veils, viz. τὸ πρῶτον the paten-veil, τὸ δεύτερον κ., the chalice-veil, and τὸ κ., ἤτοι τὸν åépa, the large veil. κατανυκτικὰ (τροπάρια). Penitential hymns, or anthems. καταπέτασμα. The large veil (ἀήρ). καταπετάσματος εὐχή is the Prayer said when the veil was raised, and the Mysteries exposed. κοινωνικόν (or -κή). An anthem somewhat answering to the Latin communio; proper to the day, and sung by the choir just before the communion of the people, in the Liturgy of S. Chrysostom. κοντάκιον. A kind of short hymn, generally derived from the modern Greek word kovтós, small, because in a short compass it recounts the merits of the Saint to whom the Festival is dedicated. κρατήρ. A Chalice. κυριακή (sc. ἡμέρα). Sunday.



Aáßis. The spoon, with which in the Greek rite the consecrated species are administered together to the communicants. It is the LXX word for the tongs' with which the Seraph, in Isaiah's vision, took the coal from off the altar.


Aóyxn. The lance-shaped knife,

with which in the Greek rite the Holy Bread is prepared for consecration.


μакаριoμоí. The Beatitudes, sung on Sundays as the Third Antiphon. μedijev (Lat. comminuere).


break up the consecrated Bread for the communion: whereas λâν is used of the ritual Fraction. μépis. A particle (of the Holy Bread).

μeтávoιa. A reverence, obeisance. It was of two degrees, μeɣáλŋ and μικρά; the latter an inclination of the head and neck only; the former of the whole body. μοῦσα (or σπόγγος). A piece of sponge used, as the Purificator is in the West, to cleanse the Paten, etc.


vapen. A sort of vestibule, or portion of a Byzantine Church completely separated by a partiwall from the Nave. The audientes (Penitents), Energumens and Catechumens were admitted thus far into the Church.


ὀπισθαμβῶνος, ἡ εὐχή. The Bene

diction after the communion of the people in the Liturgy of Constantinople, so-called because it is said behind the Ambo, i. e. behind it in respect of the Bua, or on the side of the Ambo remote from the βῆμα.


πаратрάπеğоν (Lit. of S. James, p. 51), seems to be a side-table in the Bμa, whereon were set the

Patens and Chalices to be used by the deacon in communicating the people but there is uncertainty about it (see Neale and Littledale, Trans. of Primitive Liturgies, p. 61, note). Taρоiκía. A diocese. παστοφόρια, τά.

The Chambers,

or Chapels, on either side of the Sanctuary in a Byzantine Church, viz. the Prothesis and the Diaconicon.

προηγιασμένων (ἡ λειτουργία τῶν). (See under Missa Praesanctificatorum.') πрóleσis. (a) The ceremony of preparing the elements for oblation. (B) The Chapel in which this was performed. (7) The table (credence-table) at which the ceremony took place. πрокείμеνоν. In the Greek Eucharistic office this answers to the Latin 'Gradual:' an anthem consisting of a verse or two of the Psalms, having a reference to the Epistle. It precedes however the Epistle, whereas the Gradual' follows it. There is also a πроκείμενον for the day in the vespers


πроσкоμιбý. Oblation; used in ecclesiastical books in reference to any of the three oblations of the Greek rite: but in the Liturgy Exǹ Tns πp. is the prayer of oblation used at the Offertory. πроσкÚνημа. A reverence, accompanied by the sign of the cross. πроσдоρά. (a) In the Liturgy of Constantinople (pp. 84, 85) the πроopорai are the five Oblates, or Loaves, presented to be prepared for consecration. (B) In the Canons of Councils προσφορά and προσφέρειν are used absolutely for 'offering the Holy Sacrifice,' and 'the offering' itself. (See Suicer's Thes. s. v.) πρωτοσύγκελλος. The principal Chaplain of the Patriarch, (Dr. Littledale). The σúуkeλλo were appointed to be always in attendance on the Patriarch. They took rank even before Metropolitans.

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