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charge, from either press or platform: he laboriously and successfully prosecutes his great work without parade, and without ostentation, contented to be known only by the happy results of his labour, as manifested in the multitude of human beings whom he has been instrumental in restoring from mental and moral "darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God.”
In the Dublin Institution there are at present 99 children under instruction : and here likewise, there is a case parallel to that which we have recorded above--a child, who is one of eight deaf and dumb in the same family. There is also here another case, if possible, still more afflictive: it is that of a child who is one of SEVEN children deaf and dumb, two of whom are also BLIND I* But we must close these painful details; and, in conclusion, have only one or two further remarks to offer.
The writer of this paper thinks it right to state, in order that the sentiments he has here delivered in reference to deaf-mute instruction, more especially as respects the subject of articulation, may not be misconstrued—that he is not in any way connected with an establishment for the deaf and dumb: he has long felt a deep interest in such establishments, and has paid some attention to their practical operations; but he has not the slightest professional interest whatever in either the adoption or the rejection of any of the views he has here unfolded. Long observation has fully convinced him of the great practical benefits, both direct and indirect, resulting to the deaf from the possession of articulation; and he will rejoice, if what he has here stated, as the convictions of experience, have any influence in inducing the enlightened and benevolent to inquire into the matter. A visit to the London Asylum, will at once afford conclusive evidence of what great success may be attained in this department of deaf-mute instruction.
* We are not acquainted with more than one other instance of such a calamity as this occurring in the same family. In the year 1817, there were two brothers in Belfast, both deaf, and dumb, and blind : they were born deaf and dumb ; but did not become blind till they had both arrived at maturity: their
friends could not assign the cause. See Dr. Orpen's Anecdotes and Annals of the Deaf and Dumb, p. 360. The affliction of blindness, in conjunction with deaf-mutism, is by no means so unusual as formerly supposed. There was a case of this kind, a few years ago, in the Ulster Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, and the Blind: the boy died. There is also a case of the kind at present in Rotherhithe Workhouse, near London, and there was recently one in the Glasgow Asylum for the Blind. The two American girls thus afflicted, Julia Brace and Laura Bridgman, have often been publicly noticed: the latter is at present under the judicious care of Dr. Howe, principal of the Asylum for the Blind at Boston. Some account of her will be found in Mr. Dickens' “ American Notes," and a much more ample and interesting one in 6 Memoir of Laura Bridgman, drawn up, we believe, by James Shaw, Esq., the indefatigable honorary secretary of the Ulster Institution.
It may be proper to add, that where articulation is not taught, twenty pupils is the very largest number which ought to be committed to the charge of one assistant: if articulation is to be communicated, he should not have more than sixteen.*
There is very much required—what may be called a literature for the deaf and dumb-a set of progressive lesson-books, adapted to the different stages of their advancement. Dr. Watson made a commencement in this way ; Mr. Baker has added some useful little books, and Mr. Gallaudet, and Mr. Peet of America, bave both been very successful in furthering this object.
« The Child's Picture Defining Book," of the former, and the “ Elementary Lessons for the Deaf and Dumb," of the latter;t both deserve especial commendation : but a great deal in this direction still remains to be accomplished.
It would be well, too, if institutions in general kept more ample records in reference to the several cases coming under their observation; not merely as respects the information collected when the children enter, but also the results of experience during the five years: thus--it would be interesting to know, even in a physiological point of view, whether, upon the whole, the congenitally deaf, or those who have lost their hearing after birth, are the more easily taught; that is, which of these two classes exhibits the greater natural capacity. From Mr. Watson's observations on this point, extending over a long period, and comprehending a very large number of cases, the inference is, that the congenitally deaf are, in general, more acute, and acquire knowledge with more facility, than those who have become deaf from disease or accident. It would also be interesting to learn, whether pulmonary consumption prevail less in those institutions where speech is cultivated, than in those where it is not.
The period allotted to the instruction of each child, is the same in all the British institutions—five years. On the Continent, most institutions allow six years, and some even eight. Five years should certainly be regarded as the minimum; but we are not advocates for a very much longer period. It is after the child leaves school, and mixes in society, and not before, that the advantage of his peculiar education fully develops
* If the phonetic mode of writing were to be generally adopted, it would greatly assist the deaf and dumb in acquiring articulation, as their principal difficulty arises from the orthography of our language, so ill representing the vocal sounds of the words. The blind, also, would reap advantage from the same mode of writing.
* We would earnestly recommend this useful little Work to the attention of teachers of the deaf and dumb: its title is, “ A Vocabulary and Elementary Lessons for the Deaf and Dumb. By Harvey Prindle Peet, Principal of the New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. New-York, 1844."
itself: and we think it but justice towards the different instititions for the deaf and dumb, to state, that but an inadequate estimate will be formed of their value, if judged of by the ordinary proficiency of the inmates at the end of their five years. To ascertain accurately the good that has been done, the recipients of that good should be conversed with after having been two or three years in society, which will effect more for them than twice that additional tiine at school.
Before concluding this paper, we must say a few words in rem ference to the blind; but the space we have already occupied precludes our entering into details.
No special means of education was provided for this class of persons, till the year 1784, when the first institution for their instruction, by the aid of books printed in relief, was established in Paris, by M. V. Haüy.* It was soon discovered, indeed, that the blind were much less in need of any peculiar system of edu-. cation than the deaf. The blind could avail themselves of the eyes of others, in the cultivation of their minds; while, to the deaf, the ear of the most devoted friend was of not the slightest advantage in this way. And, accordingly, in the many instances on record of highly informed blind persons, the eyes of those who see have, to a great extent, supplied the place of all other adventitious aid. We do not see the propriety of the usual custom of placing the names of Milton and Euler on the list of such instructed blind persons. Milton enjoyed his sight till he was about forty-six, and had already laid the foundation of his fare ; and Euler, who did not lose his sight till near the age of sixty, had acquired an extent of reputation, that was scarcely increased by his subsequent performances.f We consider the amiable: and accomplished blind poetess of Stranorlar (Miss Brown) as a far more remarkable instance of the triumph of genius and perseverance over extraordinary obstacles, than is presented by either of those distinguished persons.
It is plain, that the only way in which the moral and intellectual condition of the blind can be permanently benefited, and by which they may be rendered, in any considerable degree, independent of the casual and precarious assistance afforded by the cres of others, is to provide them with a permanent literature; that is, with books printed in characters palpable to the touch.
* Essai sur l'Instruction des Aveugles : Par le Docteur Guillie, p. 17. Paris, 1817.
* This reputation was, no doubt, most amply sustained by his great Work on the “ Theory of the Moon," published in 1772, which was wholly executed during his blindness. Euler's memory, however, was always astonishing, even from his child. loud.
This is so obvious a mode of proceeding, that it must have suggested itself very early, and we accordingly find, that characters engraved on wood were employed for the blind during the sixteenth century; but M, Haüy seems to have been the first to employ books printed for the blind, in raised characters.* This kind of printing has, of late, occupied a good deal of attention ; and Mr. Gall of Edinburgh, and Mr. Alston of Glasgow, have both expended much industry and ingenuity on this interesting subject. The principal objects to be aimed at, in all attempts of this kind, should, of course, be not beauty of appearance to the eye, but distinctness and permanency as respects touch. It would be a lamentable thing, if the blind once taught to read, should gradually lose this power, as their fingers become hardened by labour. We believe that Mr. Gall has, more especially, applied himself to this very important consideration. The fretted type—the last of his numerous contrivances in this way, appears to us very likely to combine the requisite qualities noticed above. We trust, however, that these benevolent efforts will not relax, till a permanent literature is firmly secured : so that no apprehension need be entertained, that the poor blind man, when he returns from his daily toil, will be precluded from the consolations of Scripture, by the necessity he is under to earn his bread by the work of his hands. In many manual occupations, surely one finger might, without much practical inconvenience be shielded and protected, and thus set apart and consecrated to the above sacred purpose. What a beautiful subject for an artists pencil-a blind man reading his Bible !—and, with upturned sightless eyes and parted lips, gazing, as it were, with more than earthly vision, into the ineffable glories of his future abode :-And listening—seemingly listening, to the inspired words of Eternal Life!
* The Commissioners appointed to report on a Memoir, presented by M. Haüy, on the 16th of February 1785, on the means he proposed to employ in the instruction of the blind ; after noticing some inventions of others, say, that " ils reconnurent, pour être de son invention, l'impression des livres en relief.-Guillié, p. 19.
+ For an account of these, we must refer to the “ Historical Sketch of the Origin and Progress of Literature for the Blind," by James Gall. Edinburgh, 1834 : as also, to an Abstract of a Communication, by Mr. Alston, printed in the Report of the Tenth Meeting of the British Association, p. 171. We believe, also, that Dr Howe of Boston, has successfully applied himself to this interesting inquiry.
ART. III.-1. The Works of Abraham Cowley, with an Account
of his Life and Writings. By THOMAS SPRAT, D.D. Edi
tion by J. SPRAT, 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1721. 2. Select Works of Abraham Cowley, with a Preface and Notes.
By R. HURD, D.D. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1777. 3. The Poetical Works of Abraham Cowley, containing his Mis
cellanies, Epistles, Elegiac Poems, Prologues, Epilogues, &c. &c. Edinburg. At the Apollo Press, by the Martins, Anno 1777.
SELDOM if ever noticed now in our literature, Cowley was the idol of the age in which he lived. The wits of King Charles's Court lavished on him what Gerard, in his well-known “Essay on Taste," censures as an “ undistinguished” admiration, and erected him as their first authority and most perfect model in those walks of literature which he cultivated. In part, this may have been due to the poet's personal worth. The beloved and bosom friend of those who were the lights and ornaments of their time-Evelyn, Bishop Sprat, Dr. Scarborough, Sir Kenelm Digby, Sir Henry Wooton, Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, Vandyke, the celebrated painter, Hobbes of Malmsbury, the ingenious, though fearfully erroneous, idealist ; Abraham Cowley has earned for himself the privilege of having his name associated with all that was admirable in the age which he adorned. There is an affecting testimony to this in the celebrated remonstrance addressed by Dryden to Hyde Earl of Rochester. “ It is enough for one age, to have neglected Mr. Cowley and starved Mr. Butler.” Into the very shades of retirement, public sympathy followed the man whom popular opinion had exalted, and one or two chance and meagre expressions of melancholy flung from a lyre that was struck with infinitely more dexterity of art than ardour of enthusiasm, have conjured up pictures of a poet wandering in despondency through sequestered woods, or standing brooding near lonely falls. This compassion was all lavished upon one who never almost tasted of the horrors of poverty, and never, till near his death, knew the severities of physical affliction, whilst the immortal Milton, blind and helpless, was left by the self same age to earn his bread in toil and bitterness.
But in what the personal attractions of Cowley consisted, we are left at a loss to comprehend, since the elder D’Israeli, who, with such unexampled industry, has culled so many fugitive facts, and with such overweening absurdity, so often misapplied them -records of him that he was embarrassed in conversation, and