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judge, who, in obedience to the immutable laws of justice, is under an absolute necessity of passing such sentence-Having likes wise stated, that, with respect to those characters who walk humbly, with their God, who prefer his service to all human pleasures, to the riches and honours of this world, who place their sovereign good in a sincere wish to love, honour, and obey him, and who endeavour to make their actions corroborate the truth of their words, and their words their actions ; from the nature of God, who is always merciful, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness, there is every reason to believe that such characters experience very little continued mental misery in this life; and that the venom of that little, by the goodness of God, if not wholly extracted, is exceedingly abated or subdued by that heavenly prescription, that charming balsam for all human ills, the consideration,
may say the perfect conviction, of that eternity of happiness, which, through the goodness of God and the merits of their Sa-, viour, is promised to these characters in another and a better world--Having likewise in my first proposition endeavoured to prove generally, from all God's dealings with man,
(necessarily proceeding on the principle of reward and punishment,) that there is every just reason to believe, both from his words and actions, that he is greatly disposed to be merciful to man, that he really loves him, and seeks the promotion of his welfare, as får ás can be done without a constant operation of miracles, or overruling his free will and agency; it now only remains to me, in this last proposition, to endeavour to fulfil the agreeable and delightful task I have undertaken, of making the best display in my power of the goodness of God to the human species, by an induction of it in particular instances, . In stating the conduct of a superior towards his inferiors and dependents, when that superior is wholly and absolutely independent of such inferiors, has every favour to confer, and nothing in return to expect from them but their obedience, it will be admitted, I presume, in the judgment of all ras tional men, as an allowable assumption, that a long-continued series of actions, on the part of a superior so circumstanced towards his inferiors, actually and truly denominates his. real character to be agreeable to the nature. and quality of such actions. Thus every one
considers Trajan, Titus, and Marcus Antoninus, just and clement monarchs, because their actions towards their subjects proved their justice and clemency; and it is from observing the same virtues in our own King, that his subjects in general are anxious to express their loyalty and attachment to
* The Roman emperors were very fond of being called fathers of their country; and this appellation was usually engraven on their coins, though the reverse would have been in general more appropriate. But, for the three following reasons, every man ought to allow that our King has a just title to this eulogium, the greatest any monarch can receive: first, during his long reign he has never made any encroachment on the liberties of his people ; on the contrary, by making the Judges independent of the Crown, he has not only been a greater guardian of these liberties than any other man in the nation, but by this truly patriotic conduct he has done more for the radical and permanent establishment of real, solid, British. liberty, than all. the Kings and Queens of England put together, excepting King Alfred: for, as to that great accession of liberty which accrued to the nation in the reign of King John, the Barons compelled him to grant it reluctantly and against his will, and of course no. personal praise can attach to him for it. The second reason is the genuine and unfeigned zeal' his Majesty has invariably shewn for the promotion of morality and religion, not only by his having exhibited both these with great lustre in his own conduct, but in the remarkable and scrupulous caution he has always observed in only promoting to the nitre such men as were of irreproachable character, and distinguished for their learning for piety. The third reason is the very great sacrifice of private property which his Majesty made to the public, by commuting the crown-lands
It is upon the same mode and process of judgment that, in the opinion of every one, Nero, Caligula, and Tiberius are considered as unjust and cruel : characters, from the. many signal instances they each
in the course of their reigns of the cruelty and injustice of their dispositions. It is by this fair and equitable rule and criterion I. shall contemplate (I hope without presumption) the conduct of Almighty God towards all his creatures in general, and towards the human species in particular; and endeavour to prove, from the nature of his actions, how fully we ought to believe him to be a God of infinite goodness.
Let us then consider Almighty God on the throne of his universe, of that universe which by his omnipotent fiat he called into existence, and which if he pleases he can remand into its former non-existence: let us consider his power so absolute and complete, that the life and death, the happiness and unhappiness of every living being is, and ever has been, entirely at his disposal ; that
for a civil list; by which he proved to demonstration that he was not so anxious to promote his own personal interest, as that of his people.
he can elevate all or any to any degree of felicity, or plunge all or any into any degree of misery, he pleases : and then let us consider how this great and omnipotent Creator has been pleased to exert this power, and to deport himself towards his creatures.
We may infer, with great precision and certainty, that in the creation of the very meanest and most insignificant insect, it was clearly and unequivocally the intention of God that such insect even should enjoy a certain portion of happiness or agreeable feeling, because we evidently see that this insect has organs admitting of such enjoyment, and that there are objects suited, adapted, and fitted to such organs, on which objects their organs have a power to energize or operate, and which power it was clearly meant and intended they should so exert for the accomplishment of their happiness. This is still more visible in brutes; it is indeed so universal in all animals, as to be without one single exception in the whole scale of creation. With respect to the human species, this gracious intention of the Deity is much more eminently displayed, and in the most unequivocal and unambiguous manner. When our first parent was nothing more than the