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2. On xxxi. 5-9. THE LORD ALONE IS THE blems of the calamities of life, and especially of SHELTER OF His own. 1) He will be such (ver. God's judgments on sin. Distress and impend5); 2) He must be such (ver. 9 b, His own interest ing judgment make men seek shelter. Christ is demands this); 3) He alone can be such (ver. the only adequate hiding-place and covert. Let 8); 4) He will be such on one condition (ver. 6). men run to Him with the eagerness of travellers 3. [On xxxi. 6, 7. A GENUINE REFORMA- in the burning desert taking refuge under a rock
1) It is general : every one shall cast away from the coming storm. The same rock-cliff* his own idols and begin with them before trying often has a bountiful stream issuing just there to demolish those of other people, which there where its cavernous recess affords the best shelter. will be no need of when every man reforms him. While the traveller is safe from the tempest, he self. 2) It is thorough: for they shall part with inay rest and refresh himself from the distress their idolatry, their beloved sin, made more pre- he has endured. The rock "not only excludes cious by the gold and silver devoted to it. 3) the rays of the sun, but it has itself a refreshing It is on the right principle: a principle of piety coolness that is most grateful to a weary traveller." and not of policy ; because idolatry was a sin and - BARNES. “Some observe here, that as the not because it was profitless (“deeply revolted,” covert, and hiding-place, and the rock, do them“sinfully made idols”). After M. Henry, in selves receive the battering of the wind and loc — Tr.].
storm, to save those from it that take shelter in 4. On xxxii. 1-8. As there are always poor them, so Christ bore the storm Himself to keep people, so there must always be persons of power it off from us.”—M. HENRY. TR.). and superior rank. The latter must know that 6. On xxxii. 9-11. When a land goes to ruin they are there for the sake of the people, as a great part of the blame of it rests on the women. guardians of right, as protectors of the poor and For they are more easily prompted to evil, as weak, so to speak, as the eyes, ears and tongues they are to good. Where evil has once taken of the commonwealth. But as in God's king- root, they are the ones that carry it to an exdom descent from Abraham counts for nothing treme. "Und geht es zu des Bösen Haus, das any more, and true worship is no more that which Weib hat tausend Schritt voraus.” Therefore the is offered in Jerusalem, but that which is in spirit punishment falls the hardest on them. As the and in truth, so, too, the nobility of the Aesh weaker and more delicate, they suffer the most must yield precedence to nobility of the spirit. under the blows of misfortune. Not he that is noble according to the flesh, but a
7. On xxxii. 15 sqq.
When once the Spirit fool according to the spirit shall be called noble. of God is poured out on all flesh (Joel iii. 1) Only he that has princely thoughts shall be called then the personal and impersonal creation will a prince; for truth reigns in the kingdom of God. be glorified. Then Satan will be bound, and the
5. [On xxxii. 2. This may be given a spirit- Lord alone will rule in men, and in nature. ual application by a special reference to Christ, Then at last will it be beautiful on earth. For as eminently true of Him, the King of kings. then right and righteousness will reign on earth, This application is old and precious. Wind and and peace, and that rest that is promised to the tempest, rain and hail and burning heat are em- people of God (Heb. iv. 9).
V.-THE FIFTH WOE.
1. THE GLORIOUS TURNING POINT: THE WOE UPON ISRAEL BECOMES A
WOE UPON ASSYRIA.
CHAP. XXXIII. 1.
WoE to thee that spoilest and thou wast not spoiled ; And dealest treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee! When thou shalt cease to spoil, thou shalt be spoiled ; And when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall deal treacher
ously with thee.
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL,
stands for כנלחן
7719 and 7212 conjoined as in xxi. 2.The primary | see Ewald, & 114 a, Green, & 141, 3.meaning of 729 is “ to cover;" hence 7.9" the cover, 7015373, comp. iii. 8; tho Dag. f. in the j is because of garment.” Hence the secondary meaning of perfidious, the Masorets assuming a synkope, whereas, properly, treacherons doing (like the secondary meaning of the English word “to cloak."— Tr.).—On the inf. 70072
there is an elision.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL.
The season of preparation for withstanding the so the Prophet joins on to this primary theme Assyrian foe, that Israel has spent in so per- three declarations which, enlarging in extent verse a fashion, is past. The enemy is at hand and contents, state the particulars of the condi(comp. ver. 7). But now, too, is the time when tion, the completion and consequence of that act God will fulfil His word that He would smite the of deliverance. This woe follows as a fifth those Assyrian (xxx. 18 sqq.; 31 sqq.; xxxi. 8 sq.). of xxviii. 1; xxix. 1; xxx. 1 ; xxxi. 1. But Now, therefore, the Prophet turns the woe against unlike the preceding, which are directed against Assyria. This power, hitherto unconquered, Israel, this is against Assyria (comp. x. 1, 5). will be overthrown (ver. 1). This is the princi- For, according to the contents of the chapter, pal thought of the chapter, which the Prophet none but Assyria can be the desolater. This anputs at the head ver. 1, as a theme. But as a nouncement of its destruction is opposed to that stone thrown into the water makes wave-lines audacious presumption that regarded itself as inthat extend in concentric circles wider and wider, vincible (x. 5-14).
2. THE PRAYER OF FAITH QUICKLY HEARD.
CHAPTER XXXIII. 2-6. 2 O Lord, be gracious unto us; we have waited for thee:
Be thou their arm every morning,
Our salvation also in the time of trouble. 3 At the noise of the tumult the people 'fled ;
At the lifting up of thyself the nations were scattered. 4 And your spoil shall be gathered like the gathering of the caterpillar;
As the running to and fro of the locusts shall he run upon them. 5 The LORD is exalted ; for he dwelleth on high :
He "hath filled Zion with judgment and righteousness.
And strength of 'salvation :
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL.
Ppo (xxix. 8) used in 72 often in the Pss., mostly with the Accusat. With the same sense Joel ii. 9.
PP?, "descursitatio," är. referring to God it occurs only Ps. cxix. 95, compare ley.la refers to the camp, not before named, yet idePs. Ixix. 21. But Isaiah often construes the word thus: ally present. viii. 17; xxv. 9; Ix. 9.
Ver. 5. 10), ii. 11, 17; xii. 4.-0178 ypg again Ver. 3. is from
19; (Niph. of yyp) inflected like only Ivii. 16; comp. xxxiii. 16. *ho Piel, again xxiii. the Kal. 1°9), perhaps because 7930 does not occur ex- | 2; 1xv. 11, 20. cept in this and in two analogous Niphal forms (Gen. ix.
Ver. 6. The Plural Diny occurs principally in later 19; 1 Sam. xiii. 11).
books; still also Job xxiv. 1. Only here in Isa. : comp. Ver. 4. 708 may not be taken passively (with CAP- Ps. xxxl. 16.---'y ndio& is predicate, the following PELLUS, DOEDERLEIN, DRECHSLER, etc.), as appears from the substantives to sing are subject.-on " opes, thesauimage itself, and from Q:33 (är. dey. comp. Jij Nah. iii. rus," only here in Isaiah comp. Prov. xv. 6; xxvil. 24 ; 17; ' ; Amos vil. 1, certainly a name of the locust, al. Jer. xx. 5; Ezek. xxli. 25.— nirvi xxvi. 18, elsewhere though of uncertain derivation and meaning. Comp. only in the Pss. xviii. 51; xxviil. 8; xlli. 6, 12; xllif. 5, Herz. R. Enc., VI. p. 70). This latter word is expressly etc. --The suffix in 17818 relates to the same subject as active.On 70* 90x comp. xxiv. 22. 79* is here as the suffix in g'ny. Interchange of person often occurs xxxii. 10 a noun (Mic. vii. 1). As to construction, it is in Isaiah, but it is not always so easily traced to its mo. to be regarded as in the acc. modalis.on only here tive as in ver. 2. See below in Exeget. and Crit.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The first wave-circle ! In grand, rapid flight | etc.), to smite the enemy. The expression is anthe Prophet's gaze hastens through three stages: thropomorphic, he, so to speak, raises himself he shows what must precede the overthrow of high aloft. In ver. 4 the Prophet addresses the Assyria, then this itself, then its contrast in the Assyrian. He sees the Israelites plundering his remote future. For having by a prayer intimated camp, gathering the spoil with a celerity like that believing trust in Jehovah is the condition locusts clearing off a field. Seeing in this coming of salvation (ver. 2), he describes the immedi- victory a type of the final, crowning triumph of ately consequent overthrow of Assyria (vers. 3, Jehovah over the world-power, he contemplates 4). But on this present earthly salvation follows this glory in ver. 5, chiefly from its inner side. for the Prophet at once the Messianic future with He would intimate that the treasures of salvaits blessings, of which the deliverance from As- tion, that Israel will then acquire, will, because syria is a type.
of a spiritual sort, be more glorious than the 2. O LORD--His treasure.-Vers. 2-6. goods found in the Assyrian camp (comp. ver. This short prayer, that unexpectedly interrupts | 23; xxxvii. 36, comp. 2 Kings vii. 16). On act the prophecy, is assuredly not an 'involuntary count of this typical relation, the two periods are sigh, but it occupies a place in the discourse treated as a connected whole, without regard to chosen with deliberation. The Prophet intends their temporal disconnection. In this the Prophet two things by it. First he would present to the does not contradict what he had said xxxii. 15 of people what they must do on their part to obtain the continuance of the desolation till the initiadeliverance. They must believe and confide in tion of the great regeneration of the last time. the LORD, according to the words " if ye will For that period of the desolation falls precisely not believe, surely ye shall not be established” in the period that the Prophet over-leaps from (vii. 9), and " he that believes will not yield" the stand-point of his manner of regarding the (xxviii. 16.). But as the Prophet gives, not a matter. He thus sees the LORD elevated on high warning to pray merely, but an example of it, and withdrawn from every hostile attack because and himself intercedes, he gives on the one hand enthroned on high. From this height the LORD an example to men, and on the other hand a fills Zion with right and righteousness, which proof to God that there are still righteous men in plainly recalls xxxii. 15, 16. Likewise ver. 6 İsrael (comp. Gen. xviii. 24 sqq.) that love the recalls xxxii. 17; the very beginning with 17171 people and trust in God. A people from which coincides. But “the stability of thy times” corissues such prayer is no dead heap of ashes. responds to what in xxxii. 17 sq., is called There is a glow in them that can be kindled up peace, assurance, sure dwelling, quiet resting again (xlii. 3). The prayer has the form of those place.” Thus we must give 7319X here the in the Pss. (comp. xii.).
meaning “security," a condition that guarantees The (suffix of the) third person in Dyns "their peace, tranquility, confidence (ver. 16). When arm," that occurs in such harsh dissonance with the times are such that there is no disturbance (the suffixes of) the first person preceding and of the public welfare apprehended, then they following, is to be explained, it seems to me, have the quality of IDX, then one may speak by the word yip “arm” itself. The Prophet of an by MIDN. But of course AJIDå occurs means here those called to protect city and state As in xxxii. 16 the security appears as the fruit
only here in this sense (comp. 1PX? ver. 16). with the power of their arm. He and many and otherwise. But when it concerns defence be the stability, etc. As in the familiar deothers do what they can with heart, and head of moral in workings, so here also. Fulness of
salvations, wisdom and knowledge shall against an outward enemy, then those that serve with the arm are very important. Therefore the claration l'empire c'est la paix the copula has a prayer that the LORD Himself might be the arm tropical sense, so here there is the trope of the of those who have devoted their arm to the metonymy, since two things that actually stand country. Comp. Ps. lxxxiii. 9; lxxxix. 11, 22, fied in expression. Thus the security of those
related as cause and effect are, apparently, identietc. D'apas comp. Ps. lxxiii. 14; ci. 8. 78 comp. times is the effect of the treasure, the wealth in xxvi. 9; Ps. xvi. 6; xviii. 49, etc. Also nyivtreasures of salvation. It will not rest on subjecis very frequent in the Pss.: lxviii. 20; xxxv. 3; tive human possessions, as the women at ease lxii. 2, etc. 773 nys, see Ps. xxxvii. 39; comp| (xxxii. 9) suppose, but upon objective, God-given Ps. xx. 2; 1. 15.
treasures of salvation. The kind is declared in In vers. 3, 4 is announced the hearing of the what follows, viz.: inward, spiritual goods : wisprayer. In very drastic form, but, with all its dom and knowledge (on these notions comp. xi. bravity, still vivid, the flight of the Assyrian 2). “The fear of the Lord” is named last
, aland the plundering of their camp are depicted. though it is the beginning of wisdom (Prov. i. 7). The enemy hear a loud tumult like the onset of But it seems to me the Prophet would distinguish an army. But it is no human army: for, as ap- between $ix and jon. The fear of the LORD pears from yor9 and from xxix. 6; xxx. 30 is the treasure-house (13 98 as e. g. Joel i. 17; ? sq., the LORD effects that noise. He brings about Chr. xi. 11, etc., hpix n'a Jer. 1. 25, etc.), a panic among them by letting them hear a that hides that treasure in itself. Our passage tumult that has no actual existence (comp. Ps. recalls xi. 2 in many ways: also in this that, liii. 6; Exod. xiv. 24 sq.; xv. 16; Judg. iv. 15; rightly counted, seven spiritual goods are named: vii. 22; 1 Sam. vii. 10). The fleeing nations are 1) judgment, 2) righteousness, 3) security, 4) of course those of Assyria. The LORD arises riches of salvations, 5) wisdom, 6) knowledge, 7) (comp. ver. 10; xxx. 18; Ps. xxi. 14; xlvi. 11, the fear of the LORD.
7 Behold, their 'valiant ones shall cry without:
The ambassadors of peace shall weep bitterly. 8 The highways lie waste,
The wayfaring man ceaseth :
He regardeth no man.
Lebanon is ashamed and 'hewn down
And Bashan and Carmel shake off their fruits. 10 Now will I rise, saith the LORD;
Now will I be exalted ;
Now will I lift up myself. 11 Ye shall conceive chaff, ye shall bring forth stubble:
Your breath, as fire, shall devour you. 12 And the people shall be as the burnings of lime:
As thorns cut up shall they be burned in the fire.
i Or, messengers.
s Or, withered away.
-as eight codicos actu ,אראלס or אראלם or אראלם | from אראלסVer.1
TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. LXX. have , *7*" to be afraid,” for they translate: “ év tų pobu ünwr ally have d: 5878 Taking bhxnx as the mean be- • avroi foBnonoovtal.” The other ancient versions refer tho tween the Masoretic reading and what is otherwiso deword to 1787. Thus tho Vulg.ecce videntcs clamabunt forie. manded, we must in addition construe it as collectivo Symu. and Theod. “oporcovat autois” AQUILA: opa hoomar. (ihre Heldenschaft).--7? (comp. v. 20; xxxviii. 15, 17)
: (syncopated from ona 8 like 997 from 11p "they woep bitterness," i. e., bitter tears (comp. Zeph. i. o)
. Similarly the Chald. and Syr. (comp. Gesen. in 14). --The form ;??? occurs again only Job xxxi. 38 ; Loc.). But these derivations and explanations are un comp. Isa. xxi, 12; xxxi. 3. grammatical and do not suit the context. In 2 Sam. Ver. 8. osp with following accusative Job ix. 21; xxiii. 30 kg seems to serve as designation for hc- with 3, Judg. ix. 38 ; Job xix. 18. Comp. Ps. Ixxxix. 39, roes, and in fact as nom. propr. though still retaining its where DXD is used in the same sense as 1737. fundamental appellative meaning, since it reads there Ver. 9. 538 in the masculino as a prepositive and
. remote predicate. Comp. xxiv. 4, 7; xxvi. 8; xix. 8.
(, . Y'IN 1 Sam. xiv. 50), and this form underlies tho pa- 4-522 only again xix.6. Pattahh in pause, Gr. & 65 a. tronymic ope?s (Gen. xlvi. 16; Num. xxvi. 17); or bris . , .. like e. g., 7979 (1 Chr. vi. 8, 22) from 1998 (Exod. 2 82,5 a. vi. 24), 17'2x from ' ' (1 Sam. xxii. 20 sq., etc.).
Ver. 11. 77777 with the accusative of fulness : comp. From 5x7x comes our present word. 4x?x=“God's 11x
. 4; Ps. vii. 15.— yn see v. 21. see v. 24;
1-07 lion," i. e., hero, a designation that occurs also in the xli. 2; xlvii. 14. Arabic and Persian (romp. asadallah and schir-choda. Ver. 12. Disip comp. on xxxii. 13.--hop is desccare, Bochart Ilicroz. II., p. 7, ed. RoSEXMUELLER, and Grsex. abscindere: the word only here in Isaiah. Comp. Ps.. Thcs., p. 147). But this does not explain the daghesh lxxx. 17.- LIN', comp. ix. 17; Jer. xli. 58; xlix. 2, forte in the 4. I would side with those that read | Greex's Gram., $ 24, c, 149, 1.
But from ארי אֵל or אֲרִיאֵלִים and not שְׁנֵי אֲרִיאֵל .direct causativa Hiphil
pudorem producit , liv החפיר from אבנר like) אראֵל may be derived either אריאל
- , .seo GrEg's Gr אֶתְרוֹמָם stands for אֵרוֹמָם .10
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The second wave-circle. It is broader as to just as visibly then do we see the LORD, as it . extent than the foregoing, but as regards intensity were provoked by the intolerable distress, come it is narrower. For it issues from tho same point to the rescue. A respectable embassy that Hezeas the first, but extends only to the eve of the kiah had sent with a ransom had returned without saving act. The distress occasioned by the hostile accomplishing anything (ver., 7). They could Assyrian is portrayed concretely and visibly, and only say that the Assyrian had indeed accepted
the ransom, but spite of that ravaged the land man; i. e., he sacrifices human life unsparingly (vers. 8-9). This is the overweening 7 spoken (comp. ii. 22 ; xiii. 17). of in ver. 1. Then Jehovah declares that now
To this point the discourse is prose. Now it He will arise against the enemy (ver. 10). He becomes poetry. For ver. 9 the Prophet personithreatens them that their plan shall come to fies things of nature. The general notion earth naught, yea that it shall turn to their own de- is specitied by naming the particular parts disstruction (ver. 11), and that they shall burn up tinguished by their vegetation. First Lebanon, like limestone, yca like dry brushwood (ver. 12). to the north of the Holy Land, is named. It is 2. Behold their valiant ones -burned
ashamed, withered. Sharon, rich in flowers, the
plain between Cæsarea and Joppa, has become with fire.-Vers. 7-12. By 1733 and j'33' like a steppe (Ixv. 10). The two fruitful elevathe Prophet intends to express contrasts. Heroes tions cast and west, Bashan and Carmel, espe. raise a loud cry of lament; messengers of peace, cially noted for their forests (ii. 13) autumplike that should bring and feel joy, weep. Almost shake off their leaves (lii. 2, comp. Exod. xiv. all commentators agree that the Prophet means 27; Ps. cxxxvi. 15). The sad news of the emby these heroes and messengers of peace the am- bassy is at an end. It bows the hearts of the bassadors that Hezekiah sent to the Assyrian Israelites down deep, but for the Lord it is the king to Lacish (2 Kings xviii. 14). They were signal that now has come the moment to interto purchase the withdrawal of the Assyrians at fere. But with Him the interference is bitter the cost of subjection and a heavy ransom. Both earnest. This appears in the three-membered were accepted. But after the prodigious sum of sentence with its thrice repeated self-summons, 300 talents in silver and 30 talents in gold was ver. 10. The LORD announces to the Assyrians paid, the Assyrians still would not retire, but de- the vanity of their purpose, yea its ruin to themmanded beside the surrender of the capital. selves. 'Ye shall conceive bay,” i. e., your The ambassadors came back with this sad news, plans shall be like hay; not fresh, full of life, that was afterwards confirmed by the message of but utterly dry, without strength or sap; and Rabshakeh, and with news of all the ruin that hence when they come to the light they shall the Assyrians had wrought in the land. In prove to be dry, dead stubble. That they shall verses 8, 9 they give information of the condition prove their own destruction the Prophet exof the land as they had found it in consequence presses by saying: your pufling (comp: xlv. 4; of these desolations. The roads lay desolate ixx. 28) shall be a fire to devour you (i. 31 ; ix. (comp. Judg. v. 20 ;) passengers along them had 17). This is characterized by a two-fold image ceased (Ps. viii. 9; Isa. xxiii. 2; Lam. i. 12; (ver. 12). The first is burning lime. Water ii. 15); there was no commerce over them. He, poured ón lime causes it to sink away without i. e., the king of Assyria had broken covenant, ilame (comp. Jer. xxxiv. 5; Deut. xxvii. 2, 4; in that, spite of the ransom he had accepted, he | Amos ii. 1). But thorns burn with a bright still did not retire, but made further demands. flame, a loud crackling and much smoke. It He treated the cities lightly, that is, not he de- seems to me the Prophet would say that, in the spised them, but he captured them by his sn- overthrow of the Assyrians, many nations would perior force that enabled him to make little ac- disappear in the great conflagration unnoticed count of their resistance. The words contain an and leaving no trace, whereas the fall of others intimation of the capture of the cities of Judah (he means, doubtless, the greater and better of which xxxvi. 1; 1 Kings xviii, 13; 2 Chr. known) will make the world wonder at the xxxii. 1, speak. Moreover he does not regard | grand spectacle they present.
4. THE ALARM OF SINNERS; THE COMFORT OF THE PIOUS.
CHAPTER XXXIII. 13-22. 13
Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done ; And, ye that are near, acknowledge my might. 14 The sinners in Zion are afraid ;
Fearfulness bath surprised the "hypocrites.
Who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings? 15 He that walketh 'righteously, and speaketh 'uprightly
He that despiseth the gain of 'oppressions,
And shutteth his eyes from seeing evil; 16 He shall dwell on high :
His place of defence shall be the munitions of rocks :