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mostly belonging to the professional classes certain instances, they were capable of becoming of society-classes wofully overstocked in Eng- modified to meet contingencies to which an aniland ; the latter seldom know any language mal might be exposed, by which change the but their own--a language about as useful animal might he rendered capable of existing and appreciated here as Cochin-Chinese. and even thriving on a kind of food entirely of Only those who have wandered through Pat- an opposite character to that originally intended mos, who have watched the gates of the Lon- by nature for its support and nourishment, and don Docks at early morning when the chance Hunter fed a sea-gull (naturally a bird of prey)
illustrating which Mr. Cooper mentioned, that laborers apply for work, who have sat in with grain, and after twelve months he destroyed night coffee-houses, and explored dark arches, the bird, and, upon examination, found that its can know what awful shifts some of these normally membranous stomach had become much poor refugees, friendless, foodless, houseless, thickened, and so changed in character, as to are often put to.
resemble in appearance the gizzard of the graminivorous fowl rather than that of a carnivorous
bird. Another striking instance of the periodiHUNTER'S EXPERIMENTS ON ANIMAL cal modification of the digestive apparatus, was
found by Hunter in the crop of the pigeon dur GRAFTING
ing the period of incubation. This crop, which MR. BRANSBY BLAKE COOPER, in delivering at other times was similar to that of birds in lately an oration at the Royal College of Sur- general, during incubation assumes a glandular geons, in memory of the immortal genius, character, which enables it, in addition to its John Hanter, gave the following amusing il- ordinary function, to secrete a milky fluid, which lustrations of Hunter's peculiar views respect- is ejected and affords, nourishment for its young ing the blood of animals :
progeny, rendering the crop, in fact, a kind of
mammary gland. Hunter had more clearly recognized the great importance of this fluid than any physiologist who had gone before him. His views with respect to the importance of the blood to the ani CURIOUS CALCULATIONS. - To a person as mal economy, led him to the belief that the blood highly intelligent and as thoroughly experienced was endowed with a life of its own, more or less as, notwithstanding her youth, Mrs. Fitzjames independent of the vitality of the animal in certainly was, in all the mysteries of love-makwhich it circulated. The following experiments ing, the importance of a romantic country exseemed to have been instituted with the view of cursion was perfectly well understood. Had it establishing the fact, that the blood of a living been required of her, indeed, she would have animal could, even under the artificial stimulus been perfectly well able, also, to set down, in induced by the introduction of the part of an- numerical proportion, the respective value, in other animal into itself by ingrafting, nourish this line, of every occurrence likely to be proand support it, so as to convert it into a part of duced by the accidents of human life. For exitself. Hunter transplanted a human tooth to ample : supposing the sum-total of 1000 to be the comb of a cock, where it not only became the amount required for the achievement of any fixed, but actually became part of the organic given conquest, she would systematically have structure of the cock's comb; he proved this by set down the relative value of every separate injecting the cock's head, and on dissection (as manoeuvre somewhat in this wise : first sight, the preparation on the table illustrated), the under all advantages of dress, 100 ; under disblood-ressels filled with the coloring matter of advantage of ditto, but not presumed to be actathe injection were traced into the capillaries of ally disfiguring, 50 ; morning occupation, with the lining membrane of the cavity of the tooth. hands ungloved, and hair hanging in disorder The most striking instance of this incorporation (nicely arranged), 50 ; caught reading a newlyof a foreign organic body with a living tissue, arrived review (if the chase be literary), 25 ; was shown by the learned orator in another transcribing music, if he be musical, 150; a bali preparation made by the immortal Hunter, in well-lighted, with a good reposing-room, 70 ; which the spur of a cock had been removed from fancy dress ditto, 160; caught singing an Ital its leg and transplanted to its comb, where it not ian bravura, or a French ballad, if you have a only continued to grow, but had acquired a far voice, and he has ears, 175; to be seen at early greater size than the spur ever acquired in its church, if he be a Puseyite, 77 ; at an evening natural situation. The result of this experiment lecture, if he be an Evangelical, 77 ; to be seen involved a very interesting physiological inquiry darning stockings, if he be a rich miser, 100 ; -- how the capillaries, which were destined by to be seen embroidering in gold and seed-pearls, nature merely to furnish blood fitted for the if he be a poor elegant, 100; a picnic, everything elaboration of the tissues of the comb, should, being couleur de rose, 50 ; ditto, with a storm, under the stimulus of necessity, to use Hunter's 75 ; ditto, with a moon, and a little dancing own expression, be rendered competent to elimi- after, 150 ; ditto, when matters are tolerably far nate the horny matter of the spur, even to the advanced beforehand, 200. And so on, with an extent of an hypertrophied condition. The ora- infinity of items, every one of which would have tor then took an elaborate review of the digestive shown an admirable knowledge of the human organs of various animals, and found that, in heart. - Uncle Walter, by Mrs. Trollope.
From the Flushing Journal. Whiteplains was selected to act as the princiTHE LAST OF THE WESTCHESTER GUIDES. pal guide, accompanied by his cousin James
Oakley and young Corsa. Below Milesquare On the evening of Sunday, the 21st of the reconnoitring party formed a junction November last, at his residence in Fordham, with a select body of American light-infantry Andrew Corsa departed this life at the age of who on the same morning had gone down to nearly 91. He was born on the 24th day of explore the ground on the right, and the two January, 1762, where the Roman Catholic allied detachments then attacked and dispersed College of St. Jobn now stands, on the farm a strong patrol of Delancey's Refugees, and occupied by his paternal ancestor, a native of soon afterwards assaulted and drove across Germany, who settled on the Manor of Ford- Kingsbridge, the Chasseurs that occupied the ham about the year 1690. Both his father Hessian outposts ;- pursuing the fugitives and grandfather were natives of the same till they came within musket-shot of Prince spot with himself. The latter was born in Charles' redoubt. This reconnoissance estab1692, about the time of Governor Fletcher's lished in favor of Kilmaine and of the elder arrival in the colony, after whom he was Berthier — the latter of whom was afterwards named Benjamin Fletcher. When the revolu- a Marshal of France under Napoleon, and tionary troubles commenced, Captain Isaac Prince of Wagram and Neufchâtel - reputaCorsa, the father of the subject of this notice, tions for partisan skill and intrepidity that led held a commission under the crown, and, like to their subsequent preferment. most persons similarly situated, espoused A few days later occurred the grand reconthe royal side throughout the great con- noissance which was made on the 22d and troversy. But parental authority was not 23d of July by the American and French sufficient to keep the young Andrew long commanders and engineers, supported by within the limits of the ancient allegiance, and 5,000 troops of the two nations, for the pur. about the middle of the war, his strong in- pose of examining with precision the British clinations in favor of American independence posts on New York island between the Hudovercame every other consideration, and he son River and the Sound, and of cutting off, commenced an independent career by render- if possible, such of the enemy's corps as might ing important services to the guides and be found upon the main. Young, Andrew scouting parties that approached the British Corsa's intelligence and exact knowledge of lines, whether for attack or observation. the country about the British lines were such Minutely acquainted with all the passes about that his services were again earnestly sought Kingsbridge, Fordham and Morrisania, and for upon this occasion ; and during both these withal of a disposition sprightly, intelligent days he was constantly on horseback, riding and communicative, his services were anx- and conversing with Washington, Rochamiously sought for, when, in the summer of beau, Lauzun, and the other generals of the 1781, after the allied forces had been en- combined army, while they passed through the camped upon the heights of Greenburgh about fields of Morrisania, Fordham and Yonkers, two weeks, Washington and Rochambeau halting from time to time as they moved along inade ready for a formidable movement, with for the purpose of enabling the engineers to a select portion of their army, towards the examine the grounds along Harlem river and lines of the enemy. Preparatory to this Spuytenduyvil creek. He used to relate that operation, Count Mathieu Dumas, the two when the allies, marching from the east near brothers Berthier, and several other young the Bronx, and pussing over the high grounds officers belonging to the French staff, who around Morrisania house, came in sight of the had, for some days, been zealously engaged in enemy, the fire which the British artillery exploring the ground and roads and in sketch- opened upon them from the fortifications at ing maps of the country between the allied Randall's island and Snakehill, from the camp and Kingsbridge, were ordered by the batteries at Harlem and from the ships of war French commander to set out before day- at anchor in the river, was terrible and inlight, and to push their examinations till they cessant, and, obeying the instinct of selfcame within sight of the enemy's most ad- preservation, which became suddenly prevanced redoubts, at the northern extremity dominant-he urged his horse forward at full of New York island. To protect these youth- speed and rode for safety behind the old ful adventurers, a strong detachment of the Morrisania Mill. Here he pulled up and, looklancers of Lauzun was sent along under ing back, saw Washington, Rochambeau, and Lieutenant Kilmaine, a young Irishman in the other officers riding along calmly under the the French service, who some years afterwards fire as though nothing unusual had occurred. became a general of division and enjoyed the His self-possession now returned, and, ashamed reputation of being one of the best cavalry at having given way to an impulse of fear, he officers in Europe. The command of the at once pricked back with all the rapidity to whole party was bestowed upon Dumas, which he could urge his horse, and resumed while the celebrated Cornelius Oakley of his place in the order of march; while the
commanding officers with good-natured peals the age of fifteen to Mr. Latham, an apotheof laughter, welcomed him back and com- cary, in the City Road; but his indentures mended his courage.
were cancelled, in consequence of his master Mr. Corsa knew personally every individual falling into a state of mental incapacity. la of that celebrated band of volunteers called the 1821 Pereira became a pupil at the General “Westchester Guides," of whom he himself Dispensary in Aldersgate Street, where ho was the last and youngest, and he was among attended the prelections of Dr. Clutterbuck the most confidential friends of the heroic on chemistry, materia medica, and the pracAbraham Dyckman, who fell prematurely at tice of physic; those of Dr. Birkbeck on natuthe close of the revolutionary contest. Pos- ral philosophy, and those of Dr. Lambe on sessed of a memory unusually, retentive and botany. In the following year he entered to residing constantly upon the borders of the the surgical practice of St. Bartholomew's " Deutral ground," he was acquainted with Hospital. While thus engaged, a vacancy all the distinguished partisans both from above occurred in the office of apothecary at the and below, and with nearly all the mili- Aldersgate Dispensary; and in order to qualify tary operations, whether great or small, that himself as a candidate it was necessary that occurred along this portion of the British he should at once proceed for examination to lines, and which, until within the last few Apothecaries' Hall. This he did on the 6th days of his life, he continued to describe in of March, 1823, and procured its license when minute detail.
he was only eighteen years of age. In the Upon the conclusion of the revolutionary same month he was appointed to the Dispenwar, his father's lands, by a compulsory sale, sary, and we may date his illustrious career passed out of the family, and, although without from that time. His salary was only 1201. any means at the time, he did not hesitate to per annum ; and, with the view of increasing purchase, with money borrowed upon mort- his income, he formed a class for private medgage, a contiguous farın, which industry and ical instruction, which he had but little diffigood management enabled him, not many culty in doing, as the lectures at the Dispenyears after, to disencumber. Much engaged sary were largely attended.
His success in in the cultivation of fruit for the market, he this undertaking was very great, and he was particularly successful with the apple and thought it desirable to publish a few small pear; discovering and introducing into use a books on the subjects in which he found his new variety of the latter which bears his pupils most deficient. These were a translaname, being known distinctively as the Cor- tion of the “Pharmacopoeia” for 1824, with sian Vergaloo.
the chemical decompositions; the “Selecta è For many years he was a member of the Prescriptis," a manual for the use of students ; Reformed Dutch Church at Fordham. His and a general Table of Atomic Numbers, with death was preceded by none of the diseases to an Introduction to the Atomic Theory." These which humanity is heir, and he ceased to works were published in the course of the exist only because he was worn out by toil years 1824, 5, 6, and 7; they had a very exand time. The machine which had been set tensive sale, and two of them are in existence in motion by its divine constructor, and which at the present time. had gone on for more than fourscore years In the year 1825 he passed the College of and ten," at last stood still," and the weary Surgeons, and in the year following he suooccupant sought better habitation. His ceeded Dr. Clutterbuck as a lecturer on chemmemory continued unimpaired until nearly istry. At that time he was only twenty the close of his existence. Among his sur- two years of age, but his appearance was vivors are eight children and numerous other commanding, and he therefore looked much descendants. Simple and patriarchal in his older. His first lecture was given to a large manners, a zealous, generous and useful class of pupils and friends. It was eminently friend, neighbor and citizen ; - estimable and successful, and he received the warm conupright in all the relation of life ; --- Andrew gratulations of his numerous admirers. Then, Corsa deserves to be held in honorable remem- as ever afterwards, he sought to dazzle by brance.
the novelty of his facts and the profusion of
his illustrations. His lecture-table was covJONATHAN PEREIRA, M. D., F. R. S.
ered with specimens, and, among other things,
he exhibited the new element, bromine, Jan. 20. Died at his residence in Finsbury- which Bolard, of Montpellier, had just then square, in bis 49th year, Jonathan Pereira, discovered. Esq., M.D., F.R.S., and F.L.S. Physician to In the course of a year or two after that the London Hospital.
time, he began to collect the facts for his Dr. Pereira was born of humble parentage, “ Materia Medica." He saw that the whole in the parish of Shoreditch, on the 22d May, subject of pharmacology was involved in the 1804, and received his education at private greatest confusion, that its principles were schools in that vicinity. He was articled at misapprehended, and that its doctrines were
founded in absurdity and conjecture. From most completed, for a syllabus of the course this chaos and darkness he determined to was actually published; but, when it was relieve it. Accordingly, he commenced a notified to him that he would be required to diligent search for all the facts of the science; give up his other appointments, he refused to he studied the ancient fathers of physic, and relinquish his position at the London Hospital, made himself master of the literature of his at which institution he had experienced great subject, from the earliest period of history; kindness. He immediately afterwards, howhe collected the works of English writers, and ever, gave up the Aldersgate School. he undertook the study of French and Ger In 1842 he gave two short courses of man, in order that he might read those of the lectures at the rooms of the Pharmaceutical Continent. At that time he devoted his Society, and in the year following he was apwhole energies to the subject, and worked for pointed its first professor. During that year about sixteen hours a day. He was accus- he published" Å Treatise on Food and Diet, tomed to rise at six in the morning, and to and was placed on the council of the Royal read, with but little interruption, until twelve Society, of which he had been elected a Felat night. This he continued to do for several low in 1838. By that time, his practice as a years ; and had he not been possessed of an physician had become rather extensive, and, as iron constitution, of great physical endurance, it was rapidly increasing, he determined to and of a must determined purpose, he would throw aside his more scientific pursuits. Acunquestionably have sunk under it. As it cordingly, in 1844, he resigned a part of the was, the closeness of his application occa- course of chemistry at the London Hospital sioned several slight attacks of epilepsy, and into the hands of Dr. Letheby; in 1845 he a frequent determination of blood to the head. gave up a larger portion of it; and in 1846 he After a short time, he began to give lectures relinquished it altogether. He continued, on materia medica, as well as on chemistry, however, to lecture on materia medica at both at the Dispensary,
the hospital and the Pharmaceutical Society, In the year 1832 he married, resigned his and there is no reason for believing that he appointment in favor of his brother, and com- contemplated any change in this matter until menced practice as a surgeon in Aldersgate the new regulations of the Apothecaries' Street. In the year following he was elected Society transferred his course to the summer to the Chair of Chemistry in the London session. This arrangement interfered with his Hospital. For a period of six years he lec- usual habits, and also with his ideas of the tured both there and at the new Medical School importance of the subject, and consequently, in Aldersgate Street on three subjects - in 1850, he resigned his lectureship at the namely, on Chemistry, Botany, and Materia hospital, though he still continued to deliver Medica; and during the whole of each winter a winter course at the Pharmaceutical Society. session he was accustomed to give two lectures In 1845, he was elected a Fellow of the Coldaily. His lectures on materia medica, which lege of Physicians, and in 1851 he became a extended over a period of two years, from 1835 full physician at the London Hospital. He to 1837, and amounted to 74 in number, had now reached the summit of his ambition ; were published by his friend, Dr. Cummin, in his reputation as an author was established, the late Medical Gazette. There cannot be a and the rewards of industry were falling thick doubt that they greatly added to his reputa- about him. He was a fellow of many sciention; they were translated into the German, tific societies ; he was in constant cominuniand republished in India. In 1839 he repro- cation with the learned of all countries; he duced them in another form, viz., in his was intimately connected with many of the “ Elements on Materia Medica," and this greatest institutions of the metropolis, and work was so much appreciated that the was, in fact, their brightest ornament; he whole of the first part was bought up long had collected around him a large circle of before the second was ready for delivery friends and admirers, and he saw before him A second edition was therefore immediately the prospect of wealth and happiness. In the called for, and it appeared in the year 1842. midst of all this, however, he was stricken Before this date, however - viz., in 1839 - down, and that so suddenly, that he had he had been chosen examiner in Materia hardly time to take leave of those who were Medica in the University of London ; and in about him. 1841 he had been elected assistant-physi While referring, some six weeks before his cian to the London Hospital. He took his death, to a specimen in the museum of the degree of M.D. at Erlangen in 1840, and he College of Surgeons, he had the misfortune, by obtained his license at the College of Physi- a fall on the staircase, to rupture one of the cians directly afterwards. About the same extensor muscles of the thigh. Though untime he was invited by some of the authorities able to move about without assistance, he was of St. Bartholomew's Hospital to lecture at the scarcely affected in health by the accident, medical school of that institution, and the and it appeared to be comparatively of little arrangements for his so doing had been al- Imoment; but on the night of Thursday the
in their grape.
20th Jan., upon being lifted into bed, the To be linked with any foreign nation in the patient suddenly raised himself, exclaiming, bonds of amity, we must hook the padlock of * I have ruptured a vessel of the heart," and peace to the staple of production. died in half an hour. His body was buried at
Our harbors would be in small danger of the cemetery of Kensal Green, in the presence French round shot, if we allowed them to throw of a large number of his pupils.
A retrospect of the labors of this distin England is right in requiring Englishmen to guished physician will show that he was a another policy to make Frenchmen pay it in time
do their duty in time of war ; but it is quite ' man of no ordinary capacity. He had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge, an indefatigable spirit, unbounded industry, and a deter- is with oysters, the force of the above considera
If it were generally known how good Chablis mination of purpose that was irresistible. tions would be so apparent, that the Peace SoWhatsoever he did he did well, and he there- ciety would transfer their present exertions to fore made his performances as valuable to the abatement of the duty on light wines ; and others as they were creditable to himself. that the motion to that end, about to be proThe great peculiarity of his works is, that he posed in the House of Commons, would be carried aimed more at bringing within our reach the by acclamation. Punch. treasures of other men's minds, than of exposing those of his own. He has, indeed,
From Bentley's Miscellany been charged with a want of originality, and, most certainly, if we estimate him by the
A VALEDICTION. value of his own independent researches, he is open to such a charge ; but it must also be As flowers that bud and bloom before us, admitted that it is an equally useful element Then droop in languor and decay, of the human mind, that faculty which urges As clouds that form their bright shapes o'er us, men to gather up the scattered facts of
Then speed their trackless course away, science, and to mould them into a shape that As sparkling waves we watch advancing, may be made available to all. Þr. Pereira was an early riser, of quick As sunlight o'er the waters glancing,
That melt in foam beneath our gaze, business habits, and remarkable for his prompt That smiles, and then withdraws its rays ness and rapidity of action. He manifested great willingness at all times to impart to As summer insects, to their night-homes wending, others the knowledge he himself possessed ; Sweep by us with a hum of melody, and he was in the habit of corresponding fully As gentle showers on the earth descending, on subjects on which his opinions were so
Gem for a fleeting space each shrub and tree – licited. The smallest favor that contributed so pass away the gifts and joys of earth ; to his researches was always gratefully ac Frail as the rose,
the cloud, the wave as fleeting, knowledged ; and whether it proved to be in-We scarce can welcome happiness to birth, significant or of value, the intention was alike Ere some sad note of change arrests the greeting. prized. Dr. Pereira was reckoned by pharinacologists both at home and abroad to be the hopes we build, the friends we prize, preeminent in his science, and he was equally
The visioned schemes our hearts delighting, beloved by all. He was a man of large and How do they vanish from our eyes ! powerful stature, and of pleasing expression
The real our joyous fancies blighting. of countenance.
The scenes we love Time marks with change, Dr. Pereira was occupied in completing the And gladsome hours have no abiding, third edition of his " Materia Medica" at the And friends o'er land and ocean range, time of his decease. The first volume was The earth's wide space our lot dividing. published in 1849, and in 1850, owing to the length to which the work had already ex
But shall we therefore shun the pleasant things tended, the author determined upon publish. And gire to joy and
gladness swifter wings,
This else too barren wilderness adorning, ing a portion only of the Second Volume, the
Shielding our hearts in cold and selfish warnremainder of which remains to be printed.
ing? It has been translated into German, and is universally allowed to be the best and most No! for the memory of delights that leave us trustworthy book on medicinal substances that Lingers — a welcome echo of the past. has been written.
No! for through all the myriad ills that grieve us
Hope struggles on, consoling to the last. OUR SAVAGE Customs. — To ensure Peace with and through life's varied scenes and hours deour French neighbors we should not only mend
parted, our manners, but reform our customs.
Its mingled heritage of joy and pain, How absurd, as well as impolitic, it is of us to One solace ever clings to the warm-hearted, interpose a duty which is nearly prohibitive be Affection can live on — and friends may meet tween their clarets and our ports !
agrin. CCCCLXVIII. LIVING AGE. VOL. I.