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"PRACTICAL POLITICS.”—This expression, which cerning translations into English) of this work. I is one of Mr. Gladstone's recent inventions, occurs am acquainted with Caxton's Dictes,' and also in tbe Report of a Committee of the House of Stephen Scrope's translation in 1450 (Harl. MS., Commons upon Temporary Laws, Expired or Ex- 2266).

PAUL BIERLEY. piring, presented May 12, 1796. On p. 38, note, the Committee says :

HERALDIC CASTLE.—What is the best and truest “With a view to such a knowledge of practical sometimes with three towers, sometimes as a single

form of heraldic castle? It seems to be represented Politics as may be derived from the History of our ex. perimental Legislation the train of enquiry might be tower. I am told it does not matter, and this by usefully pursued by the investigation of other classes heralds. Surely it is possible to say that one mode of Statutes," &c.

is better heraldry than the other! I incline to The sense is not that in which the phrase is at three towers, because a single tower more truly present understood.

Ř. B. P. represents a tower. Would not old heralds depict it with three towers ?

H. M. LL. Queries.

ENGLAND AS DESCRIBED BY FOREIGNERS.-A We must request correspondente desiring information complete list of French, German, or other foreign on family matters of only private interest to affix their authors in whose writings descriptions of England names and addresses to their queries, in order that the and Scotland are to be found will be of great answers may be addressed to them direct.

utility to me, and I shall be very grateful for any

information I may obtain on the subject through “FARGOOD."-The following passages occur in this paper. Are Taine’s ‘ Notes sur l'Angleterre' Penhallow's 'History of the Indian Wars' (1726): and De Sorbière's journey to England in 1663, the Having no fargood, and their boat a poor sailor, latter reviewed in the July number of the Nineours gained on them” (ed. 1859, p. 53). “The teenth Century last year, interesting books ; and enemy making too near the wind (for want of a where can they be procured in the original French ? fargood) came to stays several times” (p. 54).

CHARLES BURION. Can any other example of the word fargood be 51, Sale Street, Derby. found ? What are its meaning and etymology?

HENRY BRADLEY.

DUEL.—Where can I find an account of the

duel between George Villiers, second Duke of WORKS OF KING ALFRED.-In “Alfred le Buckingham, and Frances Talbot, Earl of ShrewsGrand, par Guillaume Guizot” (Paris, 1856), it is bury, on March 16, 1667 ?

A. L. H. said that a thousand years after his birth, on October 25, 1849, a jubilee was celebrated at

ENFIELD AND EDMONTON.-Can any of your Wantage, where he was born, two thousand people readers tell me of an authentic bistory of Enfield being assembled, when it was resolved than an and Edmonton (Middlesex)? I have lately taken edition of his works should be undertaken im- a house here, known to the country people as mediately, and that, in fact, it had been com- Salisbury House, situated in Bury Street, Edmonmenced. Will some one kindly say if that resolu. ton. The house is said to bave been at one time tion has been thoroughly fulfilled ; and, if so, the country seat of the Earl of Salisbury, and I have when and where the edition was published; and also heard that the infamous Judge Jefferies resided whether " the works of King Alfred,” which one in it at one period. The house is in a fair state readily finds under that head, are the self-same and of preservation, and possesses several rooms wains-one may presume-complete edition ?

coted in old oak and carved. In the library is an

AD LIBRAM. old iron plate at the back of the fireplace, showing EPIPHANY OFFERING.—How long has it been rose, thistle, fleur-de-lys, and leek, but it is other.

the royal arms of England, with emblems of the the custom for our sovereigos to present the wisé undated. Can any information be obtained Epiphany offerings of gold, frankincense, and as to the owner of the house, or its history? myrrh ; and what is the explanation of this com

A. D. memoration by them of the offerings of the Magi ? Edmonton. Is there any book which gives this information ? CECIL H. Sp. PERCEVAL.

KENNEDY BARONETCY.-00 what date in the

last century did the baronetcy of Kennedy, of 'The CONFEDERATION OF KILKENNY.'—Can Mount Kennedy, Ireland, become extinct, and any of your correspondents give any particulars as when did Elizabeth, wife of Sir Wm. Dudley and to this book ? It does not seem traceable, without daughter of Sir Richard Kennedy, die ! more information, in the Catalogue of the British

W. B. T. Museum-even if it is there.

T. H.

Heaton, DICTES AND SAYINGS OF THE PHILOSOPHERS.' LORD ROBERT Douglas.-Can any of your -I shall be glad to obtain any information concorrespondents give me particulars of the fate of

a Lord Robert Douglas, who is stated to have died quantity. At a recent meeting of the Great a violent death some two hundred years ago or Northern Railway Company a shareholder clearly more !

J. E. L. NOWERS. attributed this sense to the proverb when he sugOLD COPPER SEAL.-Can any person say what gested the annual saving of some small item of has become of an old copper seal (thirteenth or this interpretation, even if " mickle” were synony

expenditure. The sentence itself hardly warrants Fourteenth century) bearing the arms of Richard mous with a little"; for it is obvious that every Parcevale (on a chief indented, three cross patées), « little" will not make a much, though many with the inscription round it “Sigillu Ricardi" littles” may. In Ray's Compleat Collection of Parcevale”? An impression of it is figured in English Proverbs,' third edition, 1737, p. 131, a Anderson's House of Yvery' (vol. i. p. 39). different and more correct form is given, viz., About 1692 it was in the possession of Anne

“Many littles make a mickle." No mention is Perceval (daughter and heiress of Thomas Per- made of any similar saying in his list of Scottish ceval) the wife of Thomas Salisbury, of Bacha

proverbs. Mickle in Anglo-Saxon appears as graige, co. Flint. His representative, the Rev. mycle, and in Icelandic as mikill

, both words, of G. A. Salusbury, of whom I recently inquired about it, knows nothing of it. Possibly it may have article on "Mickle," remarks that in Scotland it

course, signifying a quantity. Dr. Johnson, in his found its way into some museum or be in private is pronounced “muckle.” This I think is inhands; and perhaps some reader of this query may correct, for there are two Scottish words, one be able to give information as to its whereabouts.

meikle and the other muckle. See 'Dictionary of ENQUIRER.

the Scottish Language, containing an Explanation CAPTAIN RUSH.--I have a round flat clock with of the Words used by the most Celebrated Ancient holes on the outward rim, so that it can be screwed and Modern Scottish Authors,' Edinburgh, 1818. fat on to a table or the deck of a ship. It is evi

HELLIER R. H. GOSSELIN. dently about a hundred years old. On its face it

Bengeo Hall, Hertford, has "Captain Rush, Royal Charlotte,” the name of [See Misquoted Proverbs,' gth S. ii. 205, 278, 369,

391, 431.] the captain and his ship. Can you say who was Capt. Rush; and what service did the Royal Char

LIBRARY SCHOOL OF ST. MARTIN'S-IN-THElotte belong to? It has no mark showing that it either belonged to the Royal Navy or the B.E.I.C.S. to ante

, p. 294, as the place of the early education of

FIELDS.- Where was this school situated, alluded T. A. DENIS.

Charles Mathews, the celebrated actor, before his ONE Pound ScotS OF 1560.-What may be entrance at Merchant Taylors' School ? He was accounted the present day value of one pound born in the Strand in 1776, his father being a Scots in the year 1560 ?

R. M. bookseller, and died in 1834.

JOAN PICKFORD, M.A. STEPHEN STORACE.-Abraham Raimbach writes Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge,

bis memoirs that he engraved the portrait of Stephen Storace from a miniature by Arland (a Maize.-Has the native country of this cereal Swiss), painted after Storace's death, "and but ever been positively ascertained ? It does not very little resembling the man himself.” The appear to have been known to the ancients or to engraving was executed for the title-page of the have attracted much attention (if any) until after music-composed by Storace-of'Mahmoud and the discovery of America ; and yet its earliest the Iren Chest.' Can any one inform me who European names point to an Eastern rather than a now possesses the above miniature, and where I Western origin. "Lyte says, in his translation of could see one of Raimbach's engravings ?

Dodonæus,

CLIM. “They do nowe call this grayne Frumentum Turcicum, Hablot.—I should be much obliged if any one and Frumētum

Asiaticum in Frenche Blé de Turquie eould tell me the derivation of the name Hablot. base Almaigne Torckschoren; in Englishe Turkish I have never found_it, either as a surname or Corne, or Indian wheate." Christian name, in France or Belgium, though I

He also states positively-following, no doubt, bis have taken some trouble to search there.

author—that “This grayne groweth in Turkie, wher A. S. B.

as it is used in the time of dearth.” He describes “Every MICKLE MAKES A MUCKLE.”—I should it as "a marveilous strange plante, nothing resemlike to know how this proverb has assumed its pre- bling any other kind of grayne ; for it bringeth sont form. Literally it signifies “Much makes forth his seede cleane contrarie from the place much," which, of course, is often a truism. Many where as the flowers growe, which is agaynst the people, however, make use of this saw in quite a nature and kindes of all other plantes”; and be different sense, meaning thereby to inculcate a care adds, “ There is as yet po certaine experience of for little things, which will in time produce a large the natural vertues of this corne."

Gerarde describes it under the same Latin and English names, adding to them "Maizum, and

Replies. Maiz, or Mays"; but says it was “ first brought into Spaine, and then into other provinces of

ABBEY CHURCHES. Europe : not (as some suppose) out of Asia Minor,

(8th S. iii, 188, 257.) which is the Turks dominions ; but out of America

Mr. Hall's inquiry relative to what are comand the Islands adjoining." "Lord Bacon simply monly known as "double churches," i. e., churches terms it "Indian Maiz." The curious fact is that it has not—or bad not portion conventual or collegiate, opens a wide sub

one portion of which was parochial and another antil recently, if it has ever-been found wild

ject—too large, indeed, for adequate treatment in any part of America or elsewhere. The early within the limits of 'N. & Q. May I refer MR. settlers in the New World found it under

cultiva. Hall and any who wish to master the subject to tion there, and Folkard (apparently following De the essay of the late Prof. Freeman on The Gubernatis) says is one of the seven plants in Arundel Case, in his volume of Towns and the "cereal constellation" of China. How did it Districts. It is there shown how frequent the get" from China to Peru,” or vice versa ?

division of a sacred building between two sets of C. C. B.

holders was in medieval times—the parishioners Hilcock or Hilcox.-I am in search of parti- using one portion, all but invariably the nave, for culars of the obsolete family name of Hilcock or of their religious services ; the monks or canons the Hilcox, of Warwickshire. Can any correspondent remainder, and that always the eastern limb, of N. & Q.’ assist me? I made inquiries through including, as is commonly the case, the transepts “N. & Q. some years ago, but without success.

also. Arundel, I may say, in passing, is an excepHILCOCK tion, the transepts forming the chancel of the

parish church, with the altar standing in the south Roger NEWLAND. — Can any one give me transept. Sometimes, as at St. Albans, Dunstable, information about Roger Newland, who was Romsey, Blyth, and some other conventual executed for assisting Charles I.'s attempt to escape churches, a side aisle, or chapel, formed the parish from Carisbrooke ? HORACE NEWLAND. church, with the parish altar against the east wall. Hatherleigh, Torquay.

At Sherborne, the parish church of Allhallows was

attached to the west end of the abbey churcb, with HANDIE FAMILY.-Can some reader of ‘N.& Q.'

a common entrance to the two, which gave rise to give me any information about the Handy; of frequent squabbles between the monks and the Handie, family, originally of Somersetshire ? parishioners, culminating at last in the burning of Towards the middle of the last century one branch the conventual church, and the assignment of the of the family left England and settled on the nave to the parish. At Weybourne, near Cromer, Irish estates in King's County, near the Vale of in Norfolk, we find a curious and, I think, unique Avoca. About the beginning of the present cen. arrangement, the now ruined monastic church tury the family again split, one branch removing standing, with its one west tower, side by side to county Cavan and the other branch remaining with the chancel of the parish church, to the north in King's County. It is the genealogy of the of it. former branch that I particularly desire to trace. But althougb, as I have said, the rule was not

The original arms and crest of the family were ; without exceptions, the general rule in such double Argent, on a saltire gules between four lions' churches was that the parochial church occupied heads erased sable, five mullets of the field. Crest, the western limb of the fabric, the church being two arms embowed upholding a battle-aze, all usually, but not always, cruciform in plan (Dorproper. When, for what service, and to whom chester, Fotheringhay, Monkton, Carisbrooke, were they granted? What quarterings have since occur to me as exceptions, and there are probably been added? What is the family motto? I should others), and the conventual or collegiate body the also be obliged to any one who could furnish me eastern limb. The parochial altar usually stood with copies of family papers, documents, &c.

under the western arch of the lantern when the A. MONTGOMERY HANDY. New Brighton, N.Y., U.S.

church was cruciform, or, when not, under the

chancel arcb, backed by a solid stone reredos wall, AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED.

which was sometimes carried up to the apex of the

arch, formiog a complete barrier between the two Straight must a third interpose

churches. When what is popularly known as the Volunteer needlesely help; In strikes a fourth, and a fifth thrusts in his nose, Dissolution took place, and the conventual and So the cry's open, the kennels a-yelp. H. K. collegiate churches were suppressed by Henry VIII., Woman's faith and woman's trust,

the portion of the building which, architecturally Write the characters in dust.

speaking, formed one church, which belonged to W. W. DAVIES. the abbey or college, came into the bands of the

king, for him or his grantee to deal with as he been able to recall them, begging the readers of pleased. In most cases, as with those which were 'N. & Q.' to supply additions or corrections to entirely unconnected with any parish church, they what is confessedly an incomplete catalogue. The were stripped of their lead, ironwork, glass, timber, list divides itself into three classes : I., where the and everything which had a present marketable whole fabric is standing ; II., where only the nave value, and pulled down, either entirely or piece- is standing ; III., where the nave is gone and the meal, serving as a convenient stone quarry for the choir remains. vicinity; or where, as in the Yorkshire abbeye, Class I. (where the whole fabric stands. N.B.-population was scanty and building stone was not Some of these, as Selby and Malvern, were abbey in request, left as a ruin. But the right of the churches simply, not parochial before the Dissoluparish to its own portion of the building was in no tion).- Arundel, Bath, Beverley, Brecon, Bristol way affected.

What the parishioners enjoyed (mayor's chapel), Cartmel, Christchurch Twypham, before the Dissolution they continued to enjoy, Crediton, Deeping St. James, Dorchester (Oxon), and, in most instances, enjoy still. The demolition Dore (Herefordshire), Dunster, Edingdon, Holme of the conventual church necessitated the building Culham, Irtlingborough, London (St. Helen's), op of the open end of the parish church-usually Malvern (Great), Manchester, Oitery St. Mary, the western tower end—but the parish altar and Penmon (Anglesea), Ripon, Romsey, St. Albans, parish roodloft remained in their old places, and St. Bees, St. Buryan's, St. Saviour's (Southwark), in all its internal arrangements the church of the Selby, Sherborne, Tattershall, Tewkesbury, Wimparishioners was unaffected by the change. borne.

As I have said, the part of the church left stand- Class II. (where the dave alone remains).- Bining was commonly the nave, or western limb. In ham, Blyth, Bolton, Bourne, Bridlington, Bristol some few cases the rule is reversed, and the eastern (St. James), Carisbrooke, Chepstow, Chester (St. limb was left standing, and became parochial, John's), Crowland (only the north aisle), Davingwhile the nave was pulled down, or dismantled ton, Dunstable, Elstow, Ewenny, Fotheringhay, and left in ruids. This is the case at Boxgrove, in Freeston, Hatfield Broad Oak, Howden, LanerSussex, and Pershore, in Worcestershire, and a cost, Leominster, London (Austin Friars), Malmesfew other cases given in the annexed lists. The bury, Malton (Old), Malvern (Little), Monmouth, reason for this exceptional procedure cannot be Ruthin, St. Germains, Sempringham, Shrewsbury, accurately determined. Mr. Freeman supposes it Steyning, Thorney, Tutbury, Usk, Waltham, to be that “the parishioners became possessed of Worksop, Wymondham, and, now that the disthe monastic portion of the church, and as that was mantled choir has been restored, Monkton by often the larger and finer of the two they did not Pembroke. care to keep up their former parish church to the Class III. (eastern limb only).-Boxgrove, Hexwest of it."

ham, London (St. Bartholomew's), Llantwit Major, There is yet a third class, where, either by the Milton Abbas, Pershore, Royston, Tiltey (Essex). parchase of the parishioners or by the gift of some To these a fourth class may be added, viz, munificent individual who bad bought it of the cathedrals which contained a parish church within king or his grantee, the whole fabrio was made their walls, or, as at Ely, in one of their annexed over to the parish and became the parochial buildings. These are Carlisle (nave), Chester church. Such are Sherborne, Selby, Malvern, (south transept), Chichester (north transept), Ely Brecon, and others given in the annexed list. At(Lady Chapel), Hereford (originally the nave, then Dunster and Arundel, though the whole fabric was the north transept, now the Lady Chapel), Lincoln preserved, the monastic and collegiate portions were inave), Norwich (south-east apsidal chapel), Old not made over to the parishioners, whose church St. Paul's (the crypt church of St. Faith's), remained, as it bad ever been, confined to the Rochester (nave), and the modern cathedral of western limb. That the eastern part remains Truro (south choir aisle). standing is simply due to the will and pleasure of The church of Nantwich, which suggested Me. the grantee, who might have pulled it down had Hall's inquiry, does not come under the above he so pleased. The partial use of the choir and beads. I cannot find any hint of its ever having transepts at Dunster by the parish is of very recent been a double church. The connexion with Comdate, and entirely through the generosity of the bermere Abbey was only the ordinary one, when, successor of the original grantee. At Arundel, as by the grant of the original portion,

a monastery is well known, the right of the Duke of Norfolk occupied the place of the rector, with the duty of to the chancel of the church was successfully repairing the chancel, but with no customary right maintained in the celebrated suit: “Summum jus, of using it for worship. The occurrence of so mag; summa injuria.”

nificent a cruciform church, with a richly stalled Having thus generally stated the case of these chancel, in what was originally merely a chapelry double, or divided churches, I will add lists of of the county parish of Åston, is startling, and, so those still existing in England, so far as I have far as I know, has received no satisfactory expla

nation. It is all pretty much of one date, in the vere. (Victor) civemque tuere.""

"" The abbeytwas first half of the fourteenth century. Was it the secularized under Louis XV. Formerly nonejbut. gift of one generous benefactor, like Tbomas Can natives of Marseilles could be members of the ning at St. Mary Redcliffe ; or was it the work of community. After the secularization the canons the parishioners, fired with a holy zeal for the were to be chosen from Provençal families which House of God!' I need not say that a chancel could produce a title of a hundred and fifty years'' being stalled is no proof of its having served nobility on the paternal side. “From that time for a body of monks or canons. Such an arrange the foundation assumed the title of the noble and ment is by no means unfrequent, though the stails illustrious collegiate church of St. Victor.'”. Soon and canopies are seldom 80 rich in design as at the new canons petitioned the king for a badge. Nantwich. The stalled chancels of Boston and They obtained permission to wear "a cross, or Lancaster are familiar examples among large town rather a star, of enamel, similar to that worn by churches, and that of Winthorp, near Skegness, in the Knights of Malta, slung round the neck with Lincolnshire, is a well-preserved example of a a deep red ribband. In the centre of the cross small village church so arranged.

was represented on one side the figure of St. EDMUND VENABLES. Victor with the dragon, and round it, 'Divi VieP.S.—I have read with much interest MR. toris Massiliensis '; and on the other the great COLLIER's letter at the last reference. Without church of the abbey, with the words, “Monuan acquaintance with the documentary history of mentis et nobilitate insignis.'” Davington Church, which I have no present oppor

The abbey was destroyed, or nearly so, in the tunity of obtaining, it would be plainly wrong to Revolution. The most beautiful of the remains charge MR. COLLIER with error." But if, as be taken from the ruins were deposited in the Lyceum states, the western part of Davington Church was at Marseilles. Hone quotes from Miss Plumptre. conventual and the eastern part parochial, it would

ROBERT PIERPOINT. be a unique violation of the ordinary rule, which

St. Austin's, Warrington. would call for explanation ; and if the parochial portion stood to the east, why was that destroyed iii. 227).-J. H. Parker, in the 'Glossary of

OCTAGONAL FONTS, WHEN INTRODUCED (8th S. and the puns' church allowed to stand ? Can there be a confusion between the destination of the two

Architecture,' s.v. "Fonts,” bas :portions ?

"Towards the end of the Norman style they were frequently octagonal, a form wbich was also very com

mon in the Early English, and it is sometimes difficult ST. VICTOR (8th S. iii. 129, 217).

to decide to which of these styles a font belongs, espe. " St. Victor Martyr was put to Death under the Empire cially when devoid of ornament." of Dioclesian, his body being ordered to be laid under a For the reason of the octagonal form Dr. Pusey Mill-stone that crush'd it to pieces : this happened in bas, “ Churches and fonts were built octagonally, built a Monastery upon the tomb of the Saint, which is App. ad Paulin., 'Op.,' p. 65, in memory of the now that famous Abbey of St. Victor of Marseille of St. resurrection" ('Tracts for the Times,' vol. ii. pt. ii. Bennet's Order. Colomesius has printed the Passion of p. 311, note 2). this Saint, reviewed and corrected, at the end of Dr. In Muratori's edition of St. Paulinus ('Opp.," Cave's Chartophylax,' Lond., 1685."'--See . The Great col. 908 A, Veron., 1736) there is :Historical...... Dictionary,' by Jer. Collier, second edit., revised, &c., to 1688, pub, 1701,

" Inter monumenta Christiana in Thesauro InscripSt. Victor's day is July 21. There is a little Ambrosii Mediolani in Templo 8. Theclae ad Fontem :

tionum apud Gruterum, p. 1166, n. 8, habes carmen about the saint, and a good deal about the abbey,

Octachorum sanctos templum surrexit in usus, the festival, and procession, called “L: Triomphale,” Octagonus fons est munere dignus eo. formerly held in his honour at Marseilles, in Hope's Hoc numero decuit sacri baptiematis aulam 'Every-day Book,' vol. ij. col. 998. It is there Surgere, quo populis vera salus rediit, stated that “we are informed by Butler that this

Luce resurgentis Christi, qui claustra resolvit saint was a martyr under the Emperor Maximian," Ubi vides in mysterium octavi diei, videlicet Resur

Mortis, et e tumulis suscitat exanimes, by whose order his foot was said to have been cat rectionis, Christo et templum octachorum et fontem off for having kicked down a statue of Jupiter octogonem [sic] excitatum. Rosv.” when required to sacrifice to it. Afterwards his head was cut off. According to a tradition in the s. xii. 127, where there is this remark: “ The last

The lines, as above, also occur at ‘N. & Q.,' 1st archives of the abbey, he went ont armed cap.à- lines explain the appearance of Christ's resurrecpie and slow a dragon in an adjoining wood. The tion on fonts (Gruter, p. 1166; Ciampini, pl. ii. carving representing the saint fighting the dragon remains over the church porch "to this day,”

ED. MARSHALL " though somewhat defaced.” “ It is the exact COL. FISHWICK has opened an interesting subcounterpart of the Eoglish St. George and the ject. I believe there is no sure evidence of Saxon dragon. Underneath is inscribed, Massiliam fonts existing in this country; but Norman fonts

p. 22)."

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