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the History of the General Council Firmness — Perseverance --- Conduct and General Assembly of the Lee- to Patients--Prognosis-Medical Juward Islands, with the contents of risprudence -- Insanity of Mind the intended work.

-- Death by Poison-External Violence--Self-Murder.

EXTRACT FROM LETTER 1. LXXXIX. The Hospital PUPIL, A sympathetic concern, and a

or, an Essay intended to facilitate the tender interest for the sufferings of Study of Medicine and Surgery. by others, ought to characterize all those JAMES PARKINSON, 12mo. who engage themselves in a profes

sion, the object of which should be R. P. is a respectable surgeon, to mitigate or remove, one great por

tion of the calamities to which hudical works, and some others, in good manity is subject. For he who can esteem with the public. The present view the sutterings of a fellow-crealittle work contains four letters. ture with unconcern, will, there is

I. On the Qualifications necessary too much reason to fear, sometimes for a Youth intended for the Profes- neglect the opportunities of admision of Medicine or Surgery. To- nistering the required relief: that pics : Prefatory Observations-Men- relief which he could with ease ial Abilities~ Want of Capacity- bestow, and which he withholds Neglect of Education – Want of only from his not feeling, with due sympathetic Tenderness -- Volatility force, the atflicting urgency of the of Disposition-Pecuniary Resources claim which is made on him. -Professional Education not attain “ In consideration of your own able by a trifling Expence-False peace of mind, for the sake of him, Estimaieot Parents, and the injurious whose soul is as dear to you as your Consequences to Students.

own, and in the name of suffering huII. On the Education of a Youth in- marity, I conjure you, should you tended for the Profession of Physicand perceive, that from some little error Surgery. - Topics: Present Mode in his education, the mind of your -Objections-Universities--Plan of son is narrowed--that the love of self Education proposed - Languages- faultily preponderates, and but few Anatomy the Alphabet of Medical marks of feeling and kind sympathy Knowledge - Naioral Philosophy- show themselves, strive with unremit. Chemistry - Drawing -- Short-hand ting zeal to correct so baneful a disNotes-Botany, &c.-- fiospital At- temper of the mind ; and be assured tendance – Advantages of the pro- of your fall success, before you make posed Order of Studies.

him a member of a profession, in the III. On the best Means of obtaining performing the common offices of Instruction, by a Pupil attending an which, self-love will frequently be Hospital, in the customary Mode. called on to abandon those indul. Topics : Moral Conduct-Pleasure, its gences it enjoys with the greatest interference with Study-Courage- delight. Industry-Short-hand Notes-Order “ Parental fondness, it must be alof Study-Importance of Practical lowed, is too apt to proinote an unAnatomy -Nosology-Symptomato- social turn : to encourage a devotion logy-Partiality of Attenifon to Ope. to self-love, and to engraft the perrations-Clinical Lectures-Chemi- nicious principle, that the grand and stry-Natural Philosophy-Multipli- leading object of life's business is to city of Studies--Correction of those sacrifice at the allar of this detestStates of the Miod inimical to Study able idol. When this has been the -Lectures of one Season insufficient case, and particularly, if it has been -Midwifery.

neglected to inculcate in infancy the IV. Hints for the Conduct of a tenderness due to surrounding aniyoung Man, entering on the Duties of mals; and in youth the leading printhe medical Profession.---Topics: ciple of Christianity, a narrow disNavy Surgeon - Conciliatory Man- torted mind will be ihe result, which ners-Conduct to professional Men makes no other's sorrows its own. It -To the Ignorant - To Nostrum knows not those exquisite sensations, Mongers -- Consultation --- Hasty which the benevolent feel, when they Judgment, ill Consequences of-Ai- behold the pale and wan countenance tention to the first Stage of Disease, which pain has shrupk up and wi

thered, dilate with gratitude and de sons on Subjects connected with Science light on experiencing the compara and Useful Improvement. By Bes. tive ecstasy arising from the return JAMIN COUNT OF

RUMFORD, of long lost ease.

LL. D. F. R. S. &c. &c. Vol. I. “ Can he whose conduct is di with a Portrait and thirteen Plates, rected by a mind so framed, whose 8vo. priation of every blessing; and whor Tinata ce most of the papers constant aim has been the self-approperhaps, contemplates the miseries of others only to heighten by compari- contained in this volume have already son the blessings he himself pos. appeared in the Transactions of the sesses ; --Can he, I ask, be expected Royal Society of London, and some to accomplish the arduous task of in- of them have been translated ioto terposing, with anxious assiduity, be. foreign languages; yet (the author tween his fellow creatures, and the says, as in this publication I have host of calamities with which disease carefully revised and corrected each menaces them: I know your mind is of those papers, and as I have added with me on this occasion, and I am notes and supplements to several of aware how little this can apply to them, I flatter myself that the volume your son; but, remember these words will not be altogether uninteresting, are not intended for him.” p. 11-13. or unworthy a place in the libraries

of those who collect books of this “ The one, who has gained the kind. greatest portion of knowledge, is ti “ The second voluine, which will mid and diffident, from the conscious- consist chiefly of original letters, ness of how much he has yet to learn: written on various scientific subjects, whilst the other is confident from ig- and on useful inventions and inprovenorance, not supposing there to be ments, will, no doubt, be generally knowledge beyond what he posses- thought more interesting.” ses : for he who mounts the hill of The first part of this work is occuscience beholds the view of countries, pied with an account of some expehe has yet to explore, expand around riments on gunpowder, and fills i 14 him at every step; but he that gro. pages; this is followed by experivels below, believes that all that is inents to try the force of fired gun. worth attending to is comprised in powder, with supplementary observa. the murky valley in which he dwells. tions, and a short account of some

“ The diffidence of the one, joined experiments made with cannon, and with perhaps the aukwardness of a also of some attempts to improve man of study, and the depression field artillery. These accounts take proceeding from the neglect of the up the four first papers. world. always keeps him back: he

The fifth coniains experiments on seldom is noticed but by those who the production of air from water, exdraw, from his unassumning manners, posed with various substances to the conclusions of an unfavourable na

action of light. ture ; imputing to ignorance that

The sixth contains experiments which proceeds from real knowledge, made to determine the relative quancombined with modesty. The con- tities of moisture absorbed from the fidence of the other, aided by those atinosphere by different substances manners which much intercourse used for clothing. with the busy world creates, will

“ Being engaged in a course of exdraw a favourable attention, and in- periments upon the conducting pow. duce the multitude to believe him to ers of various bodies with respect to be fully in possession of that profes- heat, and particularly of such subsional knowledge, in which he is so stances as are commonly inade use miserably deficient.”' p. 22, 23. of for clothing, in order to see if I

could discover any relation between

the conducting powers of those subXC. PHILOSOPHICAL PAPERS, be- stances and their power of absorbing

ing a Collection of Memoirs, Disser- moisture from the atmosphere, I tations, and Experimental Investiga- made the following experiments : tions, relating to various Branches of “ Having provided a quantity of Natural Philosophy and Mechanics. each of the under-mentioned subTogether with Letters to several Perstances in a state of the most perfect

cleanness and purity, I exposed them, (in the room) and were found to spread out upon clean china plates, weigh as undermentioned. twenty-four hours, in the dry air of "They were then removed into a a very warm room (which had been very damp cellar, and placed upon a heated every day for several months, table, in the middle of a vault, where by a German stove) the last six hours the air, which appear-d by the hyo of the heat being kept up to 85° of grometer to be completely saturated FARENHEIT's thermometer ; after with moisture, was at the temperawhich I entered the room with a very ture of 45° F. ; and in this situation aecurate balance, and weighed equal they were suffered to remain three quantities of these various substances, days and three nights, the vault being as expressed in the following table. hung round, during all this time, with

" This being done, and each sub wet linen clothes, to render the air as stance being equally spread out upon damp as possible, and the door of the a very clean china plate, they were vault being shut. removed into a very large uninha " At the end of three days I enbited room, upon the second floor, tered the vault, with the balance, where they were exposed 48 hours and weighed the various substances upon a table placed in the middle of upon the spot, when they were found the room, the air of the room being to weigh as is expressed in the third at the temperature of 45° F.; after column of the following table : which they were carefully weighed

The various Substances.

Weight after being Weight after being exposed 48 Hours Weight after being dried 24 Hours in alin a cold uninhabit-exposed 72 Hours hot Room. ed Room

in a damp Cellar.

Pts.
Pts.

Pts.
Sheep's wool

1000
1084

1163 Beaver's fur..

1000
1072

1125 The fur of a Russian hare

1000
1065

1115 Eider down ........

1000
1067

1112

1000 Raw single thread

1057 silk.

1107 Ravelings of white taffety 1000

1054

1103
1000
1046

1102 Linen. { Ravelings of fine linen

... 1000

1044

1082 Cotton wool

1000
1043

1089
Silver wire, very fine, gilt, and
flatted, being the ravelings of 1000

1000

1000 gold lace .... "N. B. The weight made use of in the experiments with the other subthese experiments was that of Co. stances. As linen is known to attract logne, the parts, or least divisions, water with so much avidity; and as, being so part of a mark, conse on the contrary, wool, hair, feathers, quently 1000 of these parts make and other like animal substances, are about 52 i grains troy.

made wet with so much difficulty, I " I did not add the silver wire to had little doubt but that linen would the bodies above-mentioned, froin be found to attract moisture from the any idea that that substance could pos- atmosphere with much greater force sibly imbibe moisture from the atmo. than any of those substances; and sphere; but I was willing to see whe- that, under similar circumstances, it ther a metal placed in air saturated would be found to contain mucha with water, is not capable of receive more water; and I was much coning a small addition of weight from firmed in this opinion upon recolthe moisture attracted by it, and at. lecting the great difference in the tached to its surface ; from the result apparent dampness of linen and of of this experiment, however, it should woollen clothes, when they are both seem thai no such attraction subsists exposed to the same atmosphere. between the metal I made use of and But these experiments have conthe watery vapour dissolved in air. vinced me, that all my speculations

“I was totally mistaken in my were founded upon erroneous prin• conjectures relative to the results of ciples.

“ It should seem, that those bodies have worn it in the hottest climates, which are the most easily wetted, or and in all seasons of the year, and which receive water, in its unelastic never found the least inconvenience forin, with the greatest ease, are not from it. It is the warm bath of a those which in all cases attract the perspiration confined by a linen shirt, watery vapour dissolved in the air wet with sweat, which renders the with the greatest force.

summer heats of the tropical cli“ Perhaps the apparent dampness mates so insupportable; but flannel of linen, to the touch, arises more promotes perspiration, and favours from the ease with which that sub- its evaporation ; and evaporation, as stance parts with the water it con: is well known, produces positive tains, than from the quantity of water cold. it actually holds : in the same man “ I first began to wear flannel, not per as a body appears hot to the from any knowledge which I bad of touch, in consequence of its parting its properties, but merely upon the freely with its heat, while another recommendation of a very able phy: body, which is actually at the same sician, (SIR RICHARD JEBB), and temperature, but which withholds its when I began the experiments, of heat with greater obstinacy, affects which I have here given an account, the sense of feeling much less vio- I little thought of discovering the lently.

physical cause of the good effects “ It is well known that woollen which I had experienced from it ; clothes, such as flannels, &c. worn nor had I the most distant idea of tiext the skin, greatly promote insen. mentioning the circumstance. I shall sible perspiration. May not this arise be happy, however, if what I have principally from the strong attraction said or done upon the subject should which subsists between wool and the induce others to make a trial of what watery vapour which is continually. I have so long experienced with the issuing from the human body? That greatest advantage, and which I am 'it does not depend entirely upon the confident they will find to contribute warmth of that covering, is evident; greatly to health, and consequently for the same degree of warınth, pro- to all the other comforts and enjoyduced by wearing more clothing of a ment of life. different kind, does not produce the

“ I shall then think these experisame effect.

ments, trifling as they may appear, “ The perspiration of the human by far the most fortunate, and the body being absorbed by a covering niost important ones I have ever of Hannel, it is immediately distri- made." p. 264–269. buted through the whole thickness We have selected the above expeof that substance, and by that means riment from a consideration of its geexposed by a very large surface, to neral utility in reference to health. be carried off by the atmosphere ; In the seventh paper are experiand the loss of this watery vapour, ments made to determine the relative which the flapnel sustains on the one intensities of the light emitted by luside by evaporation, being imme minous bodies. diately restored from the other, in In the eighth, an account of some consequence of, the strong attraction experiments on coloured shadows. between the flannel and this vapour, Paper the ninth, conjectures rethe pores of the skin are disencuin specting the principles of the har. bered, and they are continually sur mony of colours. The tenth contains rounded by a dry, warm, and' salu an enquiry concerning the chemical brious atmosphere.

properties of light. The eleventh is “I am astonished that the custom a supplement to the last subject. of wearing dannel next the skin should The iwelith is an enquiry concerning not have prevailed more universally, the weight or ponderability which I am confident it would prevent a has been ascribed to heat, and the multitude of diseases ; and I know of thirteenth is a supplement to the last no greater luxury than the comfort

paper. able sensation which arises from wear To each of the papers is prefixed ing it, especially after one is a little a complete analysis, and the volume accustomed to it.

contains 390 pages. “ It is a mistaken notion, that it is too warm a clothing for summer, I

under bis protection * NotwithXCI. SECRET MEMOIRS OF THE standing this refusal, the fugitives,

COURT OF PETERSBURG, parti- pursued by the ships of Mehemet, cularly towards the Close of the Rrign and confiding in the sacred rights of of Catharine II. and the commence hospitality and misfortune, so rewent of that of Paul I. containing a spected in the East, presented themNumber of Anecdotes and historical selves in the road-stead of Kislar. Facts respecting the Persian War, The Russian commandant, informed the March of the Russian Armies that their ship was filled with riches, against France, the Disgrace and as well in gold as in valuable jewels Death of Suvarrof, the financial and stuffs, immediately dispatched Operations of Paul the First, his do some armed boats. which went to mestic Life, and his tragical End meet them. The Persians received followed by justificative State Papers, the Russians on board with great dearbong which is the Constitution for monstrations of joy, as their deliverthe Imperial Family. Translated ers-Here the pen is ready to drop from the French. Vol. III. 8vo. from my hand 1-But, no! let it still

inform indignant Europe of a crime HIS volume is divided into five which the court of Russia knew of T , and state papers.

appeared to sanction by the impuChap. I. contains an account of the nity of the delinquents-what do I PERSIAN WAR, the origin of which sayi-by the distinctions and favours is given in an account of the four with which it continued to load brothers of the Eunuch, Mehemet them. Khan, who having assisted biin in “The Russian soldiers were scarcely obtaining the supreme government, received on board the ship, before refused to acknowledge him as their they fell on all the Persians that they sovereign, and wishing to remain found there, and butchered them in masters of the provinces they occu cold blood, at the very moment when pied, united against him, in which those unfortunate people were come they were assisted by the tzar Hera. to einbrace them as deliverers. Woclius, prince of Georgia, and vassal men, children, old men, no one was to Russia. “Mehemet defeated his spared : those who escaped the mur. brothers in several battles; two of derous sword were thrown headlong them were made prisoners, and be- into the sea. The unhappy prince beaded in his camp; the other two was one of this number. Attempting escaped, though not without diffi- to save himself by swimming, with culty, from this sanguinary con one hand he caught hold of the Rusqueror." p. 6.

sian boat, when a stroke of a sabre * The two brothers of Melemet separated that hand from his arm. Khan had, however, again taken up He sunk, re-appeared, and, with the arms ; but being defeated a second hand which he had remaining, he time, they had no other resource left again seized hold of the boat. Ano. but flight. They at first retired to ther stroke of a sabre cut that off Baku and Derbent, with their wives likewise : the quivering hand remainand treasures; but not thinking them. ed in the boat. The Prince having selves in safety there, they chose sunk again, crimsoned the sea with finally to take refuge, the one at his blood, and a last thrust with a Astrakhan, and the other at Kislar, pike dispatched him to the bottom. a small Russian port on the Caspian.

" This horrible massacre happened All these events passed in the years in the summer of 1786. The ship 1784, 1785, and 1786.

was carried in triumph into the har"General Paul Potemkin, (Pati- bour, and her treasures became the erkine,) a relation of Prince Potem. prey of Potemkin, of the commankin, then commanded in Caucasus, dant and his accomplices. and at Kislar. Apprized that the

“ This murder and robbery had Persian Prince was coming thither been committed too publicly to re. in quest of an asyluin, he pretended * The title of rebel was then given to a Dot to be able to receive him, alledg. prince, who, a few years after, was acknow. ing that Russia being at peace ledged as lawful king of Persia, and for whose with Persia, he did not wish to ex re-establishment war was declared against pose her to a war, by taking rebels Mehemet.

VOL. I.

Yy

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