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Tertull. in

Apolog.

Wisd. i.

Matt. xii.

should seem to say nothing, ye begin to find fault with the order of our service, and, without any manner of proof, ye say there are many things therein contained contrary to the catholic faith; and so, contrary to your own knowledge, ye maintain one untruth by another.

You know that we serve God according to his holy word, and the order of his primitive church. For, as Tertullian saith the christian people did in his time: Coimus ad divinarum scripturarum commemorationem, si quid præsentium temporum qualitas aut præmonere cogit, aut recognoscere. Certe fidem sanctis vocibus pascimus, spem erigimus, fiduciam figimus1: "We meet together to hear the rehearsal of the holy scriptures, if the state of the present time do force us either to forewarn anything, or else to call anything to remembrance. Verily we feed our faith with those holy words, we confirm our hope, we assure our trust." We minister the holy sacraments in pure and reverent sort: we baptize in the name of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost: we receive the sacrament of Christ's body and blood from the holy table: we make our humble confession and fall to the ground, and pray all together, with one heart, and one voice, in spirit and truth; and specially we pray for you, and for such others, that ye may consider from whence ye are fallen, and repent yourselves, and return to God: we excommunicate open offenders: we receive again them that shew themselves penitent: we instruct our youth in the faith of Christ: we make collections and provide charitably for the poor. Of all these things what one thing is contrary to the catholic faith? O M. Harding, it is written: "The mouth that lieth destroyeth the soul." And Christ saith: "The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven, neither in this life, nor in the life to come."

Now, good christian reader, for the better contenting of thy mind, I beseech thee to look back and to consider the whole substance of all that M. Harding hath laid in for proof of this article, what weight it beareth, and how well it serveth to his purpose. He hath entreated largely of singing in the quire, at what time and where it first began, and likewise hath proved, by a great long discourse of situation of countries and diversity of tongues, that neither all the east part of the world understood the Greek, nor all the people of Africa, Mauritania, Spain, and France, understood the Latin; which labour in this case was nothing needful. But that all the nations of the east part had their service in the Greek tongue, and that all the people of Africa, Mauritania, Spain, and France, had their service in the Latin tongue, (which thing only stood in question, and therefore was only to be proved,) he hath hitherto utterly left unproved. Touching the public service within this island, the story of Augustine of Rome, and Edda, and Putta, and other poets and singing-men, as I have shewed, standeth him in small stead. Contrary to his own knowledge, he saith that the fourteenth chapter of St Paul to the Corinthians cannot necessarily be applied to this purpose. And further he saith, that even from the apostles' time the priest evermore made his prayers in the quire, far off from the hearing of the people; that the ignorant people understandeth the Latin tongue, although not in most exact wise, or perfectly2; that they are now better instructed in the articles of the faith than they were in the time of the apostles; that it is sufficient for them now to be taught by gestures and ceremonies; and that they have great profit by hearing their service, although they know not what they hear. Again, he saith that the Greek and Latin be learned tongues, and therefore all the service of the church, throughout the whole world, ought to be ministered in one of them; that all the psalms and all other scriptures are hard, and far pass the capacity of the people; that understanding of the matter causeth the mind to wander; and, to be short, that prayer in the common tongue hath evermore bred schisms and divisions in the church. He hath openly falsified Strabo, Justinian, Origen, Chrysostom, and others, and hath forced them to say the thing they never meant.

This is the whole summary of all that he had to say. Hereof he would seem to conclude, that within the first six hundred years after Christ the common service was ministered openly in a tongue unknown unto the people; albeit, he

[Tertull. Op. Lut. 1641. Apologet. 39. p. 34; where literarum divinarum.]

[2 Perfitely, 1565.]

hath hitherto alleged neither scripture, nor council, nor decree, nor doctor, nor example, or practice of the primitive church, to prove the same.

Lyra, et

Of the other side, it is sufficiently proved of our part, that the fourteenth Justinian, chapter to the Corinthians must of necessity belong to the use of common Thom. prayers; and that in the primitive church the service was everywhere ministered in the vulgar tongue; and that the priest and the people prayed all together3. I have proved, not only that the nations that understood Greek or Latin had their service in the Greek or Latin tongue, but by Theodoretus, Sozomenus, St Ambrose, and St Hierome, that the Syrians had their service in the Syrian tongue1; by St Basil, that the Egyptians had their service in the Egyptian tongue, the Lybians, the Thebans, the Palestines, the Arabians, and the Phoenicians, each of them in their own tongue; by Origen, that all barbarous people had their service in their several barbarous tongues"; by Sulpitius, that the people of France, then called Gallia, had their service in the French tongue. St Hierome saith: Vox quidem Hieron. ad dissona, sed una religio. Tot pene psallentium chori, quot gentium diversitates": "The voice is divers; but the religion is all one. There be well near so many companies of people singing as there be diversities of nations." To be short, I have proved by St Chrysostom, and by Lyra, and others, that there can no manner profit redound unto the people of prayers made in a strange tongue.

Seeing therefore M. Harding's doctrine standeth upon so simple grounds, as I have shewed, and serveth only to maintain ignorance, and the kingdom of darkness, it is now thy part, gentle reader, to judge indifferently between us, both how justly he hath coloured the same with such a face of antiquity, and also how truly and substantially he hath answered my assertion.

Marcell.

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OF THE SUPREMACY.

THE FOURTH ARTICLE.

Universal bishop.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

OR that the bishop of Rome was then called an universal bishop, or head' of the universal church.

[OF THE POPE'S PRIMACY.-ARTICLE IV. H. A. 1564.]

M. HARDING. THE FIRST DIVISION.

By what name soever the bishop of Rome was called within six hundred years after Christ's ascension, this is clear, that his primacy, that is to say, supreme power and authority over and above all bishops, and chief government of all Christ's flock, in matters pertaining to faith and christian religion, was then (93) acknowledged truth. For and confessed. Which thing being so, whether then he were called by either of those names that you deny, or no, it is not of great importance. And yet for the one of them, somewhat, and for the other, an infinite number of good authorities may be alleged. But thereof hereafter.

third un

there was no such power

confessed.

Not one at all.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

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Touching these glorious names and titles, wherewith the bishop of Rome hath long sithence furnished and beautified his estate, M. Harding seemeth in part willingly to yield; claiming nevertheless the supreme power and universal authority unto the see of Rome, and that even from the apostles' time: notwithstanding it was as easy a matter for Christ to give Peter the power and title both together, as to give him the power alone, without the title. But to avoid error that might grow by mistaking of words, him we call "the universal bishop," or the head of the universal church," that hath authority above all general councils, and Elect. Potest. fulness of power to expound the scriptures; to whose determinations the whole De Major. et church of God must of necessity submit itself without contradiction; whom Obed. Unam neither emperor, nor king, nor clergy, nor the whole universal people, in anywise ix. Quæst. iii. may control whatsoever he do; unto whom all appeals ought to lie from all places of the world; and who, wheresoever he happen to be, hath the full jurisdiction of a bishop2. That ever any such superiority, or universal power, was given by Christ to the see of Rome, it will be too much for M. Harding well to prove.

Extra. de
Elect. et

Solitæ.

Sanctam.

Nemo.

But whereas the bishop there so ambitiously craveth to be known and taken for the universal bishop, and head of the universal church, happy is he if he do the duty of one particular bishop, and be found but a member of Christ's church. Greg in Cat. St Gregory saith: Adversus quem...portæ prævalent inferorum, ille neque petra in Matt. cap. dicendus est, supra quam Christus ædificat ecclesiam, neque ecclesia, neque pars ecclesiæ3: "He against whom the gates of hell do prevail (as they have often against the bishop of Rome), neither may be called the rock, whereupon Christ doth build his church, nor the church, nor any part of the church."

XVI.

[ The head, 1565, and H. A. 1564.]

[ Paschal. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Lugd. 1624.
Decretal. Gregor. IX. Lib. 1. Tit. vi. De Elect. et
Elect. Potest. cap. 3. cols. 110, &c.

Innoc. III. in eod. ibid. Lib. 1. Tit. xxxiii. De
Major. et Obed. cap. 6. cols. 424, &c.

Bonifac. VIII. in eod. Extrav. Comm. Lib. 1. De
Major. et Obed. cap. 1. cols. 202, &c.

Innoc. in eod. Decret. Gratian. Decr. Sec. Pars,

Caus. IX. Quæst. iii. can. 13. col. 877.

See also before, page 93, note 1.]

[3 There appears to be an error in the reference to Gregory: the passage in the Catena assigns it to Origen.-Thom. Aquinat. Op. Venet. 1595. Caten. Aur. in Matt. cap. xvi. Tom. XV. fol. 60. 2; where ædificat Christus. See also Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. Comm. in Matt. Tom. XII. Tom. III. p. 526.]

Certainly, touching these vain titles, the same ancient father St Gregory saith: De Jure Ego...fidenter dico,... Quisquis se universalem sacerdotem vocat, vel vocari desiderat, Divino. in elatione sua antichristum præcurrit: "I speak it boldly, Whosoever either calleth himself the universal bishop, or desireth so to be called, in his pride he is Greg Lib. iv. the forerunner of antichrist."

Epist. 34.

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untruths.

Now concerning the chief point of this article, which is the primacy of the pope, A heap of Peter's successor. First, it hath been set up and ordained by God, so as it standeth in force jure divino, by God's law, and not only by man's law, the scriptures leading thereto. Next, commended to the world by decrees of councils, and confirmed by edicts of christian emperors, for avoiding of schisms. Furthermore, confessed and witnessed by the holy fathers. Again, found to be necessary by reason. Finally, used and declared by the event of things, and practice of the church. For proof of all this, so much might easily be said as should serve to a whole volume.

THE BISHOP OF SARISBURY.

Concil.

Matt. xxviii.

Later. sub

Adver. Hen.

Here M. Harding saith he will trip and dance lightly over this article. And therefore, notwithstanding he would seem to hold de jure divino, that is, by the scriptures; yet for haste he allegeth not any one word of the scriptures, as of himself, but only upon the report and credit of others. Howbeit pope Zosimus, Zosim. in in all that long contention he had with the bishops of Africa, touching these Aphri. matters, never alleged any word of the scriptures, but only the council of Nice, which he himself had falsified. And Meltiades, writing hereof to the bishops of Melt. in Epist. ad Spain, seemeth to claim only by custom, and not by any right of God's word. Episcop. His. Nevertheless, sithence that time, they have found out sundry places of the scriptures to avouch their title, and have forced the same to serve their purpose. Christ saith, "All power is given to me." Hereof Stephanus, the bishop of John xvii. Patraca, concludeth thus: Ergo in papa est omnis potestas, supra omnes potestates, In Concil. tam cæli, quam terræ: "Therefore in the pope is all power above all powers, as Leon well of heaven as of earth." Some others there be that reason thus: "Peter Reg. Pol. entered into the grave before John: Peter drew his net full of fish: unto Peter vil. Regem. Christ said, Confirm thy brethren; ergo, the pope is head of the church." Boni- Anglia. facius the eighth saith: In principio creavit Deus cœlum et terram, non in princi- De Major. et piis: "God made heaven and earth in the beginning, and not in the beginnings, Sanctain. as in many." And again: Spiritualis omnia dijudicat 10: "He that is spiritual 1 Cor. ii. judgeth all things;" ergo, the bishop of Rome ought to have an universal power over all the world. By these and other like authorities of the scriptures they conclude, that the pope holdeth his authority not by any ordinance of man, but de jure divino, that is, even by the right of God's undoubted law. And therefore pope Bonifacius determineth the matter in this wise to hold for ever: Declaramus, De Major.&c. dicimus, definimus, pronuntiamus, omnino esse de necessitate salutis omni humanæ creaturæ, subesse Romano pontifici11 : "We declare, say, determine, and pronounce, that undoubtedly it standeth upon the necessity of salvation, for every mortal creature to be subject to the bishop of Rome." Likewise saith the gloss upon the same: Quicquid salvatur, est sub summo pontifice 12: "Whatsoever is saved is Gloss.ibidem

[ Gregor. Magni Papæ I. Op. Par. 1705. Epist. Lib. VII. Indict. xv. Ad Mauric. August. Epist. xxxiii. Tom. II. col. 881.]

[ This contention, which was not ended by the death of Zosimus, may be seen in Concil. Carthag. vi. cap. 3. in Crabb. Concil. Col. Agrip. 1551. Tom. I. p. 494; Concil. Afric. in eod. pp. 500, &c. See also Baron. Annal. Eccles. Rom. 1607. Tom. V. pp. 446, &c.] [ Melciad. Epist. Decret. in Crabb. Concil. Tom. I. p. 218. Melciades in this epistle certainly refers to a supposed authority given by Christ (Matt. xvi.) to Peter over the rest of the apostles, and of right descending from him to the Roman pontiffs.]

[7 Orat. Steph. Arch. Patrac. in Sess. x. Concil. Later. v. in Concil. Stud. Labb. et Cossart. Lut. Par. 1671-2. Tom. XIV. col. 269. See before, pages 93, 4, note 2.]

[ Reg. Pol. Card. Brit. ad Henric. VIII. pro Eccles. Unit. Def. Ingolst. 1587. Lib. 11. pp. 186-9.]

[ Bonifac. VIII. in Corp. Jur. Canon. Extrav. Comm. Lib. 1. De Major. et Obed. cap. 1. col. 212.] [10 Id. in eod. ibid. col. 211. See before, page 77,

note 9.]

[ Id. in eod. ibid. col. 212. See before, page 95, note 11.]

[12 Gloss. in eod. ibid. col. 205.]

Obed. Unam

ut supra.

under the highest bishop." If these claims be good, it is no hard matter to hold Divino. by scriptures.

De Jure

Matt. xvi.
Mark viii.
Luke ix.

1 Cor. x.

in Test.

Delect. ex
Vet. Test.

Hilar. de

Trin. Lib. ii.

Hilar. de

Trin. Lib. vi. Cyril. de Trin.

Mati. Hom.

55.

Aug. de

Verb. Dom.

8

But forasmuch as they seem to make greatest account of these words of Christ, "Thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church;" therefore, for answer hereunto, understand thou, good christian reader, that the old catholic fathers have written and pronounced not any mortal man, as Peter was, but Greg. Nyss. Christ himself, the Son of God, to be this rock. Gregorius Nyssenus saith: Tu es Petrus, &c.1: "Thou art Peter; and upon this rock I will build my church.' He meaneth the confession of Christ; for he had said before: 'Thou art Christ, the Son of the living God."" So saith St Hilary: Hæc est una felix fidei petra, quam Petrus ore suo confessus est2: "This is that only blessed rock of faith, that Peter confessed with his mouth." Again he saith: "Upon this rock of Peter's confession is the building of the church." So Cyrillus: Petra nihil aliud est, quam firma et inconcussa discipuli fides: "The rock is nothing else, but the strong Chrysost. in and assured faith of the disciple." So likewise Chrysostom: Super hanc petram, id est, in hac fide et confessione, ædificabo ecclesiam meam5: "Upon this rock, that is to say, upon this faith and this confession, I will build my church." Likewise St Augustine: Petra...erat Christus, super quod fundamentum etiam...ædificatus est Petrus: "Christ was the rock, upon which foundation Peter himself was also built." And addeth further besides: Non me ædificabo super te, sed te ædificabo secund. Matt. Super me: Christ saith unto Peter: "I will not build myself upon thee, but Ser. 13. I will build thee upon me." All these fathers be plain; but none so plain as Orig. in Matt. Origen. His words be these: Petra est, quicunque est discipulus Christi: ... et super talem petram construitur omnis ecclesiastica doctrina... Quod si super unum illum Petrum tantum existimas ædificari totam ecclesiam, quid dicturus es de Johanne filio tonitrui, et apostolorum unoquoque ? Num audebimus dicere, quod adversus Petrum unum non prævalituræ sint portæ inferorum?........An soli Petro dantur a Christo claves regni cœlorum ? 9 "He is the rock, whosoever is the disciple of Christ; and upon such a rock all ecclesiastical learning is built. If thou think that the whole church is built only upon Peter, what then wilt thou say of John the son of the thunder, and of every of the apostles? Shall we dare to say, that the gates of hell shall not prevail only against Peter? Or are the keys of the kingdom of heaven given only unto Peter?" By these few it may appear, what right the pope hath to claim his authority by God's word, and, as M. Harding saith, de jure divino. Indeed, touching the same words of St Matthew, St Hierome writeth Hier. In Matt. thus: Istum locum episcopi et presbyteri non intelligentes, aliquid sibi de Pharisæorum assumunt supercilio 10: "Bishops and priests, not understanding this place, take upon them some part of the proud looks of the Pharisees." And again he saith: Noverint episcopi, se magis consuetudine, quam dispositionis dominicæ veritate, presbyteris esse majores11: "Let bishops understand that they are greater than the priests, more of custom than of the truth of God's ordinance." By this it appeareth, that the bishop of Rome holdeth by custom, and not, as M. Harding saith, de jure divino.

Tract. i.

Mark iii.

cap. xvi. Lib. iii.

As for the decrees of councils, the edicts of princes, the sayings of holy fathers, the necessity of reason, and the practice of the church, how justly they be avouched by M. Harding, they shall be severally examined as they come.

[ Tu es Petrus, et super hanc petram ædificabo ecclesiam meam, super confessionem videlicet Christi, quia dixerat: Tu es Christus, filius Dei viventis.— Gregor. Nyss. Op. Par. 1638. Test. de Advent. Dom. adv. Jud. Tom. II. p. 162. But this work is not genuine.]

[2 ...una hæc felix fidei petra Petri ore confessa, &c.-Hilar. Op. Par. 1693. De Trin. Lib. 11. 23. col. 800.]

[3 Super hanc igitur confessionis petram ecclesiæ ædificatio est.-Id ibid. Lib. vi. 36. col. 903.]

[ Cyril. Alex. Op. Lut. 1638. De Sanct. Trin. Dial. IV. Tom. V. Pars 1. p. 507.]

[5 ...καὶ ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέτρᾳ οἰκοδομήσω μου τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, τουτέστι, τῇ πίστει τῆς ὁμολογίας.

Chrysost. Op. Par. 1718-38. In Matt. Hom. liv. Tom.
VII. p. 548.]

[ August. Op. Par. 1679-1700. In Johan. Evang. cap. xxi. Tractat. cxxiv. 5. Tom. III. Pars 11. col. 822.]

[ Super me ædificabo te, non me super te.-Id. De Verb. Evang. Matt. xiv. Serm. lxxvi. 1. Tom. V. col. 415.]

[ Meself, 1565.]

[ Orig. Op. Par. 1733-59. Comm. in Matt. Tom. XII. 10, 11. Tom. III. pp. 524, 5.]

[10 Hieron. Op. Par. 1693-1706. Comm. Lib. III. in Matt. cap. xvi. Tom. IV. Pars 1. col. 75.]

[" Id. in Epist. ad Tit. cap. i. Tom. IV. Pars 1. cols. 413, 4; where episcopi noverint.]

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