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s.v. Xaovía.) Virgil uses the epithet Chaonius for Dodonaus (Georg., 1, 8) in referring to the acorns of Dodona. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 93.) Chaos, a heterogeneous mass, containing all the seeds of nature. According to Hesiod (Theog., 116), “Chaos was first;” then came into being “broadbreasted Earth, the gloomy Tartarus, and Love.” Chaos produced Erebus and Night, and this last bore’ to Erebus Day and Æther. The idea of Chaos and Night, divested of poetical imagery, is simply that of unformed matuer, eternally existing as the passive principle, whence all forms are produced. Whether, besides this Chaotic mass, the ancient theogonies suppose an infinite, active, intelligent Principle, who from the first matter formed the universe, is a question which has occasioned much debate. It is evident, upon the most cursory review of all the ancient theogonies, that God, the great Creator of all things, is not expressly introduced, but it is doubted whether the framers of these theogonies meant to exclude him from their respective systems, or indirectly to suppose his existence and the exertion of his power in giving motion to matter. When divested of allegory and poetry, the sum of the doctrine contained in the ancient theogonies will, it is conceived, be found to be as follows: The first matter, containing the seeds of all future being, existed from etermity with God. At length jo. energy acting upon matter produced a motion among its parts, by which those of the same kind were brought together, and those of a different kind were separated, and by which, according to certain wise laws, the various forms of the material world were produced. The same energy of enanation gave existence to animals and men, and to gods who inhabit the heavenly bodies, and various other parts of nature. Among men, those who possess a larger portion of the Divine nature than others are hereby impelled to great and beneficent actions, and afford illustrious proofs of their divine original, on account of which they are, after death, raised to a place among the gods, and become objects of religious worship. (Enfield's Hist, of Philosophy, vol. 1, p. 130, seqq.) Chahādra, a town of Phocis, about 20 stadia from Lila. Near it flowed the river Charadrus, which fell into the Cephissus. Herodotus (8, 33) names this place among the Phocian cities destroyed by the army of Xerxes. Dodwell states, that the ruins of Charadra are to be seen near the village of Mariolates, at the foot of Parnassus. (Dodwell's Tour, vol. 2, p. 132.) Charax, I. a considerable emporium of Bithynia, in the later periods of the Byzantine empire. It was situate on the bay of Nicomedia, or Sinus Astacenus. (Steph. Byz., s. v. Xúpaş.)—II. Another and earlier name for the city of Tralles, in Lydia. (Steph. Byz., s. v. ToàAAtç, Xápaś.)—III. A town of Phrygia, between Lampe and Graosgala. (Nicet., Ann., p. 127, b.)—IV. A town of Armenia Minor, in the northeastern angle of the country. (Ptol.—Compare Cramer, Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 154.) CHARAxus, a Mytilenean, brother to Sappho. (Wid. Sappho, near the commencement of the article.) Chares, I. an Athenian general, who succeeded to the command after the condemnation and death of Leosthenes. He was sent by the Athenians against Alexander, tyrant of Pherae, but, instead of coming to action with the foe, he harassed the Athenian allies to such a degree by his extortions and oppression, that the social war was the result (B.C. 388). Although Chates was the principal cause of this war, yet the orators of his party shielded him from punishment, and succeeded in having him nominated commander-inchief. Little, if anything, was effected by him, and he was at length recalled for having aided Artabazus, who had revolted against the king of Persia. Some time after he was sent to aid Byzantium against Philip of Macedon, but he only incurred the contempt of his
foe, and excited the discontent of the allies, so that the Athenians finally recalled him, and put Phocion in his place. This, however, did not prevent them from choo sing him for their general at the battle of Chaeronaea, where his ignorance and incapacity mainly contributed to the loss of the day. He was one of those whom Alexander ordered to be delivered up to him after the destruction of Thebes, but he succeeded in mollifying the conqueror, and was permitted to live at Athens. (Diod. Sic., 15, 95.—Athenaeus, 12, p. 532.—Xen., Hist. Gr., 7, 2, 18.—Lambin., ad Corn. Nep., Vit. Chabr., c. 3.)—II. A Greek statuary, born at Lindus. He was the disciple of Lysippus, and was celebrated as the maker of the colossus of Rhodes, on which he was employed twelve years. (Strab., 652.—Plin., 34, 7.-Sullig, Dict. Art, s. v.) Charicles, I. one of the 30 tyrants set over Athens by the Lacedæmonians, and possessing great influence among his colleagues. “Yen., Mem. Socr., 1, 2, 31. —Aristot., Polit., 5, 6.—Schlosser, ad Aristot., l.c.) —II. A celebrated physician in the train of Tiberius. Towards the end of that emperor's life, Charicles, on taking leave of him, as if about to journey abroad, managed, in grasping the hand of Tiberius, to feel his pulse, and became instantly convinced that the latter had not more than two days to live, a secret which he soon divulged to Macro. (Tacit., Ann., 6, 50.Gronov., ad loc.) Charila, a festival observed once in nine years by the Delphians. It owed its origin to this circumstance: in a great famine the people of Delphi assembled and applied to their king to relieve their wants. He accordingly distributed the little corn he had among the better portion of them ; but an orphan girl coming and importuning him, he beat her with his sandal. The girl, unable to endure the affront, hung herself with her girdle. The famine increased ; and the oracle told the king that, to relieve his people, he must atone for the murder of Charila. Upon this a festival was instituted with expiatory rites. The king presided over this festival, and distributed pulse and corn to such as attended. Charila's image was brought before the king, who struck it with his shoe; after which it was carried to a desolate place, where they put a halter round its neck, and buried it where Charila was buried. (Plut., Quast. Gr.—Op., ed. Reiske, vol. 4, p. 176.) Charis, a name applied by Homer (Il., 18, 382) to the wife of Vulcan. In the Odyssey, on the other hand (8, 267), Venus is named as his spouse. It amounts to the same thing in the figurative explanation of the myth, since Grace and Beauty were both regarded as the characteristics of Vulcan’s labours. (Heyne, ad ll., l.c.) Charisia, a festival in honour of the Graces, with dances which continued all night. A cake was given to those who remained awake during the whole time. (Eustath. ad Od., 18, 194.) Charistia, a festival at Rome, on the 8th day before the Calends of March (February 22). It was celebrated among relations by a kind of family banquet, and presents were made. No stranger was allowed to be present. (Val. Mar., 2, 1,8.) CHARites, the Graces, daughters, according to Hesiod (Theog., 907), of Jupiter and the ocean-nymph Eurynome. They were three in number, and their names, as the same bard informs us, were Aglaia (Splendour), Euphrosyne (Joy), and Thalia (the Blooming one). According to Antimachus (Pausan., 9, 35), the Graces were the daughters of Helius (the Sun) and Ægle (Splendour); and Hermesianax made Peitho (Persuasion) one of their number. In Nonnus (Dionys., 24, 263) their names are Pasithea, Peitho, and Aglaia. The Graces, like the Muses and other sister-goddesses, are spoken of by Homer in the plural, and with him their number is indefinite. They are graceful and beautiful themselves, and the bestowers of all grace and beauty both on persons and things. They seem to have been particularly attached to the train of the goddess of love, although the queen of heaven had authority over them (Il., 14, 267); and she promises Pasithea, one of the youngest of them, as a wife to Somnus, in return for his aid in deceiving Jupiter : by later writers she is even said to be their mother. (Nonnus, 31, 184.—Eudocia, ap. Willois., Anecd. Gr., vol. 1, p. 430.) Orchomenus, in Boeotia, was the chief seat of the worship of these goddesses. Its introduction was ascribed to Eteocles, the son of the river Cephissus. The Lacedæmonians worshipped only two Graces, whom they name Cleta (Renowned) and Phaenna (Bright), as we are informed by Pausanias (l.c., et 3, 18, 6). The Athenians ori#. adored the same number, under the names of egemone (Leader) and Auxo (Increaser). The Graces were at all times, in"the creed of Greece, the goddesses presiding over social enjoyments, the banquet, the dance, and all that id: to inspire gayety and cheerfulness. They are represented as three beautiful sisters, either dancing together, or standing with their arms around each other. Sometimes they are nude, sometimes habited. (Keightley's Mythology, p. 192, seq.)—The Graces, like the Horæ and Muses, appear to have had originally a reference to the stars and seasons. The §. deprived them of their astronomical functions, and substituted such attributes as were merely of a poetic character. We still see, however, on an ancient gem, the Graces dancing upon the head of Taurus, while two of them are turning towards seven stars, at which they point with the hand. (Borioni, Collect. Antiq. Rom., fol. 1736, n. 82.-Passerat, Thesaur. gemm. astrifer., 1, tab. 144.) At a later period, when moral ideas began to be more intimately blended with parts of the Grecian system, the Graces assumed analogous attributes. One of them was supposed to represent a favour conferred, another a favour received, while the third designated the return made for benefits. (Aristot., Eth., 5, 8.-Senec., de Benef, 1, 3–Constant, de la Religion, vol. 2, p. 402.—Winckelmann, Essai sur l’Allegorie, c. 2.-Traités sur l’Allegorie, vol. 1, p. 132.) CHARrton, of Aphrodisias (a Carian town), the name by which we know the author of a Greek romance, entitled, Töv Tepi Xaupéav Nai KažAuðjónv £portköv 6tmymuárov 26 you #: “The Loves of Chaereas and Callirhoë, in eight books.” The appellation is probably an assumed one, as well as the title he gives himself of “Secretary to the rhetorician Athenagoras.” This rhetorician is supposed by some to be the same with the one of whom Thucydides makes mention (6, 35, seqq.) as enjoying great credit among the people of Syracuse. He was opposed to Hermocrates, the general who vanquished the Athenians. The daughter of this Hermocrates is the heroine of the romance, and it is probable that the writer wished to appear to his readers in the light of a contemporary. We have no data by which to fix the period when Chariton flourished. Some place him at the end of the 4th century of our era. As regards the romance itself, it may be observed, that, though by no means remarkable for its invention, it is smooth and easy in the story. “Villemain has said no worse about it,” observes a writer in the Foreign Quarterly (No. 9, p. 132), “than that it is “a work which the learned Larcher has translated without being able to render it amusing ;’ and Larcher himself, in his preface, resolves, with great good sense, to “say nothing about it.” In fact, it is by no means easy to say anything about a book which is too dull for praise and too harmless for censure.”—The best edition of Chariton is that of D’Orville, with some excellent conjectural emendations of Reiske, Amst., 1750, 3 vols. 4to. CHARMides, son of Glaucon, was famed in early
life for his beauty and his dissipated mode of life. After having squandered his patrimony, he became a pupil of Socrates, and was advised by that philosopher to turn his attention to public affairs. This advice proved unfortunate, for Charmides, having joined the !. of Critias, was made one of the ten tyrants whom Aysander established in the Piraeus, to govern conjointly with the thirty in the city. He was slain along with Critias in the first battle between the exiles under Thrasybulus and the forces of the tyrants. Plato has called one of his dialogues after him." Xenophon makes mention of him on several occasions, especially in his Banquet. (Xen., Mem. Socr., 3, 7, 1.—Schneider, ad loc.—Xen., Sympos., 4, 31, &c.)—II. or CharMidas, an academic philosopher, the companion of Philo. He was celebrated for the compass and fidelity of his memory, and for his moral wisdom. (Cic., Tusc. Quast., 1, 24.—Davies, ad loc.) CharMion, one of Cleopatra's female attendants, who killed herself after the example of her mistress. (Plut., Wit. Anton., c. 86.) CHARMis, a physician of Marseille, in Nero's age, who revived the use of cold baths at Rome in cases of sickness, after the practice had been discontinued since the time of Antonius Musa. (Vid. Musa.) He was very successful in his professional labours, and amassed great riches. (Plin., 29, 1–Sprengel, Hist. de la Med., vol. 2, p. 24.) Charon, I. a deity of the lower world, son of Erebus and Nox, who conducted the souls of the dead in a boat over the river Acheron to the infernal regions. The sum exacted for this service, from each of the shades ferried over by him, was never less than an obolus, nor could it exceed three. A piece of money, therefore, was generally placed by the ancients under the tongue of the deceased, in order to meet this necessary demand. Such as had not been honoured with a funeral were not permitted to enter Charon's boat, without previously wandering on the shore for one hundred years. If any living person presented himself to cross the river of the dead, he could not be admitted into the bark before he showed Charon a golden bough, obtained from the Cumaean sibyl ; and the ferryman was on one occasion imprisoned for an entire year, because he had, though against his own will, conveyed Hercules across the stream without first receiving from him this necessary passport. The poets have represented Charon as a robust old man, of a severe though animated countenance, with eyes glowing like flame, a white and bushy head, vestments of a dingy colour, stained with the mire of the stream, and with a pole for the direction of his bark, which last is of a dark ferruginous hue. (Virg., AEn., 6, 298, seqq.)—The earliest mention of Charon in Grecian poetry seems to be in the ancient poem of the Minyas, quoted by Pausanias (10, 28). The fable itself is considered by some to be of Egyptian origin, and in support of this opinion they refer to the account of }. Siculus, relative to the statements made by the Egyptian priests. (Diod. Sic., 1, 92, et 96.) The latter asserted, it seems, that Orpheus and Homer had both learned wisdom on the banks of the Nile ; and that the Erebus of Greece, and all its parts, personages, and usages, were but transcripts of the mode of burial in Egypt; and here the corpse was, on payment of an obolus, conveyed by a ferryman (named Charon in the language of Egypt) over the Acherusian lake after it had received its sentence from the judges appointed for that purpose. (Diod, l. c.) Lobeck, in his Aglaophamus (vol. 2, p. 811), despatches all these fictions of the Egyptian priesthood in a very plain and summary manner, dignifying them with the appellation of “portentosa mendacia,” a title which they fairly deserve. “Quin tota Orci et locorum inferorum descriptio ad Orpheum refertur auctorem, ab AEgyptiis illis, qui, praeter reliqua
rant rāg kai rāv doebøv kv Čičov Tluwptaç, K. T. W.” (Keightley's Mythology, p. 92.)—II. One of the earher Greek historical writers, a native of Lampsacus, supposed to have flourished between the 75th and 78th Olympiads. Charon continued the researches of Hecatarus into eastern ethnography. He wrote (as was the custom of the historians of his day) separate works upon Persia, Libya, AEhiopia, &c. #. also subjoined the history of his own time, and he preceded Herodotus in narrating the events of the Persian war, although Herodotus nowhere mentions him. From the fragments of his writings which remain, it is manifest, that his relation to Herodotus was that of a dry chronicler to an historian, under whose hands everything acquires life and character. Charon wrote, besides, a chronicle of his own country, as several of the early historians did, who were thence called Horographers: (opot, corresponding to the Latin annales, ought not to be confounded with Öpot, termini, limites.—Schweigh. ad Athen., 11, p. 475, b; 12, p. 520, d.) The fragments of Charon have been collected by Creuzer, in his Historicorum Graccorum Antiquissimorum Fragmenta, p. 89, seqq.
Charondas, a celebrated legislator, born at Catana in Sicily, where he flourished about 650 B.C. We have very few details of his life. Aristotle merely informs us, that he was of the middling class of citizens, and that he framed laws for the people of Catana as well as for other communities, which, like them, were descended from Chalcis in Euboea. AElian adds (W. H., 3, 17), that he was subsequently driven into exile from Catana, and took refuge in Rhegium, where he succeeded in introducing his laws. Some authors inform us, that he compiled his laws for the Thurians; but he lived, in fact, a long time before the foundation of Thurium, since his laws were abrogated in part by Anaxlias, tyrant of Rhegium, who died 476 B.C. It is not necessary, therefore, to suppose, with SainteCroix (Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscript., vol. 42, p. 317), that there were two legislators of the same name, one a native of Catana, and the other of Thurium. The laws of Charondas were, like those of many of the ancient legislators, in verse, and formed part of the instruction of the young. Their same reached even to Athens, where they were sung or chanted at repasts. The preamble of these laws, as preserved to us by Stobacus, is thought, as far, at least, as regards the form of expression, not to be genuine; and Heyne supposes it to have been taken from some Pythagorean treatise on the laws of Charondas.—The manner of this legislator's death is deserving of mention. He had made a law, that no man .# be allowed to come armed into the assembly of the people. The penalty for infringement was death. He became the victim of his own law: for, having returned from pursuing some robbers, he entered the city, and presented himself before the assembly of the people without reflecting that he carried a sword by his side. Some one thereupon remarked to him, “You are violatin your own law.” His reply was, “On the contrary, an establishing it;” and he slew himself on the spot. This action, however, is ascribed by others to Diocles, legislator of the Syracusans: perhaps it is true of neither. For farther details respecting Charondas, consult the memoir of Sante-Croix, cited above, and Heyne, Opuscula Academica, vol. 2, p. 74, seqq.
Charybdis, a dangerous whirlpool, mentioned in the Odyssey, and placed by Homer somewhere between his Wandering Rocks and his island of Thrinakia. Directly opposite to it was the fearful Scylla. The ancients, who were anxious to localize all the wonders of Homer, made the straits of Messina the abode of Scylla and Charybdis. A full account of the whole fable, with its solution by Spallanzani, will be found * the article Scylla.
CHAuci, a people of Germany, of Suevic race, and divided into the Chauci Majores and Minores. The former were situate between the Visurgis (Weser) and Albis (Elbe); the latter between the Amisia (Ems) and Visurgis. Tacitus draws a very flattering picture of the Chauci. He represents them as the noblest of the German tribes, as distinguished for a love of justice and peace, but able, when attacked, to bring a powerful army of horse and foot into the field. (Tacit., Germ., 35.) What is very surprising, Pliny describes the Chauci as a miserable race, weak in numbers and resources, compelled to build their cabins on hills, their country being twice every day inundated by the sea, without cattle or pasturage, or even a single tree in their territory. (Plin., 16, 1.) How are these two writers to be reconciled ! Probably in the following way. The Chauci, about the fourth century of our era, formed part of the confederation of the Saxones. This confederation, however, appears to have been better known by the name of Chauci than that of Saxones. Now Pliny may have meant the people termed Chauci, and Tacitus the confederation. (Consult Malte-Brun., Geogr., vol. 1, p. 105, Brussels ed.) ChelidoN1A, a festival at Rhodes, in which it was customary for boys to go asking for presents from door to door, and singing a song called Chelidonisma, so named because it began with an allusion to the arrival of the swallows, and the consequent approach of spring: "Hat”, jaffe zeżuðöv, K. T. A. (Athenaeus, 8, p. 360, b, c.—Casaub., ad loc.) ChelidoN1AE, now Kelidoni, small islands south of the Sacrum Promontorium, on the coast of Lycia, very dangerous to sailors. The Chelidonian isles were two in number, according to Scylax (p. 38), or three as Strabo reports: the latter geographer says that they were six stadia from the land, and five from each other. Captain Beaufort, however, distinctly counted five of these islands; whence he is led, not without reason, to think that this increase of number has been produced by the shock of an earthquake: two are from four to five hundred feet high, the other three are small and barren. (Karamania, p. 37, seq.) After the victory at the river Eurymedon, it became the boast of the Greek nation, that no armed ship of Persia was to be seen westward of the Chelidonian isles, or of the Cyanean rocks at the entrance of the Euxine ; and that no Persian troops dared to show themselves within a horseman's day's journey of the Grecian seas. In after times a report arose, that a treaty of peace had been regularly made between the Persian monarch and the Greeks, in which it was forbidden for any Persian forces to come within the limits just mentioned. As regards this pretended treaty, consult the remarks towards the close of the article Cimon. (Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 256.) ChelidoNíUM PromoNtorium, the same with the Sacrum Promontorium of Lycia, now Cape Kelidonia. (Wid. Sacrum Promontorium, II.) ChelöNE, a nymph who was the only one of the deities that did not attend the nuptials of Jupiter and Juno ; nay, she even made the celebration a subject of ridicule. Mercury thereupon precipitated her into a river on the banks of ...! mansion was situated, and transformed her into a tortoise, under which shape she was doomed to perpetual silence, and to the necessity of always carrying her dwelling about with her. The Greek for a tortoise is xe?&vm, and hence the fable arose. (Serp. ad Virg., AEn., 1, 509.) CheloNites or CheloNātas, Promontorium, a romontory of Elis, forming the extreme point of the o: towards the northwest. (Strabo, 338. –Plin., 4, 5.) It is now called Cape Tornese. ChEMMis, I. a city of Egypt, the same as Panopolis. (Vid. Panopolis.)—II. A city of Egypt, mentioned by Herodotus (2,91), and placed ; him in the 37
Thebaic nome, near Neapolis. There was in it, according to the historian, a temple dedicated to Perseus, the son of Danaë. This city is considered by many to be the same with Panopolis, but incorrectly, as will appear on the least examination of the case. Herodotus says not a word of Pan's being worshiped in this place, he only speaks of the hero Perseus. }. places, moreover, his Chemmis, not in the Thebaid, but in the Thebaic nome, the distance of which from Panopolis forms another strong objection to this latter place being the same with Chemmis. Still farther, he mentions the city of Neapolis as standing near his Chemmis, when no traces of this city, nor, indeed, of any city at all, are to be found near Panopolis. For these reasons Mannert appears to be perfectly correct in making the Chemmis of Herodotus identical with Coptos. (Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 374.) Creuzer and Bāhr, on the other hand, are in favour of the opposite opinion stated above, but adduce very feeble arguments in its support. (Bühr, ad Herod., 2, 91.)—III. An island in Egypt, situate in a broad and deep lake, near the temple of Latona, in the city of Butus. The Egyptians, according to Herodotus (2, 156), affirmed, that it was a floating island; but the historian, with great candour, adds, that for his own part he could neither see it float nor move. The island contained a spacious temple dedicated to Apollo, and three altars; with great numbers of palms, and other trees, as well of such as produce fruit as of those that do not. The Egyptians had the following legend respecting this island: they stated, that Latona, one of the eight primary deities, residing in Butus, received Apollo from the hands of Isis, and preserved his life by concealing him in this island, when Typhon, arriving in these parts, used all possible diligence to find out the son of Osiris.—It is thought that the Greeks invented from this story their fable respecting Delos. (Compare Larcher, ad Herod., l. c.) As regards the name Chemmis, consult the remarks of Champollion, Système Hierogl., p. 112. Mannert makes the Egyptian legend arise from the wish, on the part of the Egyptian priests, to explain the Grecian mythology by a reference to their own as its parent source. (Compare the remarks at the close of the article Charon.— Mannert, Geogr., vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 559.) Cheops, a king of Egypt, the successor, according to Herodotus (2, 124), of Rhampsinitus. According to Larcher (Chronol. d'Herod., vol. 7, p. 90), Cheops began to reign 1178 B.C. , Herodotus makes him to have ruled over Egypt for the space of fisty years, and to have been a most oppressive monarch. He shut up all the temples, forbade public sacrifices, and compelled the people to undergo the severest labour. Ten years were occupied in constructing a causeway, along which to draw the stones intended for a large pyramid, and twenty years were then spent in erecting the pyramid itself. On this structure was an inscription, in Egyptian characters, stating how much had been expended in radishes, onions, and garlic for the workmen. The interpreter informed Herodotus, that this sum amounted to no less than 1600 talents of silver. Taking the Attic talent at a valuation of $1055,60, the sum expended will be nearly $1,700,000 of our currency. The mode to which Cheops had recourse in order to replenish his exhausted treasury, although gravely related by Herodotus (2,126), is utterly incredible, and must have been a falsehood of the Egyptian priests. Indeed, the whole account given of Cheops bears this same impress of mendacity. He was, in all probability, a monarch who broke loose from the restraints of the sarcedotal order, and not only curbed the power of the latter, but likewise employed on public works a larger part of the population of Egypt, who were living in idleness, and whose morals were becoming more and more corrupted by a fre
quent attendance on the dissolute festivals so common among the Egyptians.—Diodorus Siculus gives Chembes (Xéubmc) as the name of the monarch who succeeded Rhampsinitus. The true reading, no doubt, is Chemmis (Xéuluç), as we find it written in some MSS. (Diod. Suc., 1, 63.) ChEphren, a king of Egypt, brother and successor to Cheops. According to Herodotus (2, 127), he both imitated his brother in other things, and particularly in building a pyramid. He reigned fifty-six years. The historian adds, that the Egyptians, in consequence of the oppressive reigns of these two monarchs, Cheops and Chephren, would never thereafter mention their names, but always attributed their pyramids to “one Philitis, a shepherd, who kept his cattle at that time in these same parts.” Who this Philitis was it is impossible to say. Zoega (de Obelisc., p. 389, not. 20) thinks, that Osiris of Philae is meant (Osiris Philensis), a deity to whom these abodes of the dead (the pyramids namely) were consecrated, and who, as he supposes, was called “a shepherd,” in the same sense in which kings are called by Homer “the shepherds of their people” (rouévec Wadv). This opinion, however, is utterly erroneous, since the word “shepherd,” as employed on this occasion by the priests of Egypt, is indicative of contempt. (Compare Genesis, 46, 34–Manetho, ap. Joseph. adv. Apion., 1, 14, p. 1039.-Heeren, Ideen, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 148.) Besides, neither the genitive obt?uriovoc, as employed by Herodotus, nor the corrupt reading Puhiruoc, recalled by Zoega, could come from bižat, as the root of their nominative: the form in that event would be obtairov, or puzirov, from a nominative puxarms or botrng. (Compare Steph. Byz., p. 739, ed Berk.)—We come now to another opinion, which makes the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren to have been erected by kings of the Shepherd-race. It will be sufficient, however, in rejecting this supposition, to remark, that the building of . structures is entirely at variance with the known habits of a nomadic people.—Jablonski (Voc. .Egypt, p. 346) thinks, that in the word “Philitis” there lurks the form “Philistaan,” i. e., a native of Palaestine, which he considered to be equivalent here to “one of the Jewish nation,” and to have reference to Moses.—Heeren, however, appears to be nearest the truth, when he makes the pyramids of Cheops and Chephren to have been the work of Æthiopian conquerors, and the term “shepherd” to have been, as above remarked, merely expressive of the contempt and hatred borne by the conquered towards those who had subdued them. (Heeren, Ideen, vol. 2, pt. 2, p. l 18, not.—Bahr, ad Herod., 2, 128.) ChersonEsus, a Greek geographical term, equivalent in meaning to the Latin “peninsula.” The earlier form is Cherronesus, the word being derived from xéppoc (later form Xépcog), “a continent” or “mainland,” and vigos, “an island,” since a peninsula partakes, as it were, of the properties of both continen and island.—The most noted Chersonesi in ancient times were the following: I. Cherson Esus Aurea, or Golden Chersonese, a peninsula of farther India, corresponding, according to D'Anville, Rennell, Mannert, and others, to the modern Malacca, but, as Gossellin maintains, to the southern part of Pegu. The positive knowledge of the ancient geographers can hardly be said to have extended much beyond this, their account of the regions farther to the east being principally derived from the natives of India. Even the position of the Golden Chersonese itself is given differently by different writers. (Consult Gossellin, Recherches, &c., vol. 3, p. 49.—vol. 2, p. 262, &c.) The name given to this region by the ancients has reference to the popular belief of its abounding in gold; and here, too, some inquirers into early geography have placed the Ophir of Solomon, an opinion maintained also by Josephus. (Ant. Jud., 8, 6, 4.)— Chersonesus CIMBRica, a peninsula in the northern part of Germany, answering to the modern Jutland, Schless wig, and Holstein. (Ptol., 2, 11.)—III. Chersongsus Taurica, a peninsula between the Pontus Euxinus and Palus Maeotis, answering to the modern Crimea. The name was derived from the Tauri, a barbarous race who inhabited it. It was sometimes called Chersonesus Scythica and Chersonesus Magna. (Orid, Trist., 4, 4, 63.-1d., Pont., 3, 2, 5.)—IV. Cherson'ssus Thracica, often called simply the Chersonesus, and the most important of all. It was a peninsula of Thrace, between the Sinus Melas and the Hellespont. The fertility of its soil, and its proximity to the coast of Asia Minor, early attracted an influx of Grecian settlers, and its shores soon became crowded with flourishing and populous cities. From this quarter the Athenians drew their chief supply of grain. (Cramer's Anc. Greece, vol. 1, p. 322, seqq.) Cherusci, a people of Germany, between the Weser and the Elbe, southeast of the Chauci. Under the conduct of Arminius, they defeated and slew three Roman legions commanded by Varus, A.D. 10, in the Saltus Teutobergiensis, or Bishopric of Paderborn. They were afterward defeated by Germanicus, and never recovered their former eminence. (Tacit., Ann, 1, 56 and 59.—Id, ibid., 2, 17, 26, 41, 45, and 64.—Id, Germ., 36.—Cas., B. G., 6, 10.—Well. Paterc., 2, 105.) Chilo, a Spartan, ranked, on account of his wisdom and experience, among the seven sages of Greece. He directed his attention to public affairs, and became one of the ephori, B.C. 556. (Diog. Laert, 1, 68–Menag., ad loc.) Many of his maxims are quoted by the ancient writers, which justify the high reputation connected with his name. He died of joy at an advanced age, while embracing one of his sons who had gained a prize at the Olympic games. The story told by Herodotus (1, 59) respecting Chilo and the father of Pisistratus cannot be true, since Pisistratus usurped the government of Athens B.C. 561, only five years after Chilo became ephorus, and there could not have been any very great difference between their respective ages. Chilo appears to have travelled much abroad, and it is probable that he visited Sardis, the capital of Croesus, a monarch who had sought an alliance with Sparta. (Herod., 1, 69.) It was at the court of the Lydian monarch, in all probability, that he saw AEsop, since Diogenes Laertius *Peaks of a question put by the philosopher to the fabulist. (Diog. Laert., 1, 68, seqq.) Chiwera, a fabulous monster, the offspring of Typhon and Echidna (Hesiod, Theog., 319), which rav*ged the country of Lycia until slain by Bellerophon. It had the head and neck of a lion, the body of a goat (xualpa), and the tail of a serpent, and vomited forth fire. (Hom, Il., 6, 181.) Hesiod's account is somewhat different from that of Homer's, since he gives the Chimera three heads, one that of a lion, another *... goat's, and a third a serpent's. (Theog., 321.) ere is strong reason to believe, however, that this Possage in Hesiod is an interpolation. (Heyne, in Comment. Soc. Gott., vol. 2, p. 144.) The Latin P* in their description of this monster, have imitaas usual, their Grecian masters. (Consult Lu** 5, 903–Ovid, Met., 9,646.—Virgil, AEm., 6, *) The various explanations given to this fabulous legend by the Greeks may be seen in Eustathius (ad II, 6, 181, p. 634, 40). Servius, the great com*or on Virgil, gives a curious one : “This, in truth,” says he, speaking of the Chimaera, “is a *tain of Lycia, the top of which is on fire at the *nt day: near it are lions: but the middle region **upied by pastures which abound in goats. The . Parts of the mountain swarm with serpents.” (Serb. "d Virg., AEn., l.c.)—The geographers agree **pting this fable to the mountains on the coast
of Lycia; but Strabo seems rather to place the site m Mount Cragus (Strab., 665), while Pliny, on the authority of Ctesias, whose words have been preserved by Photius (Cod., 72), fixes it near Phaselis, beyond Olympus. (Plin., 2, 106.) Seneca, in his account of this natural phaenomenon, says (Ep., 79): “In Lycia regio notissima est, Hephaestion incola vocant; perforatum pluribus locis solum, quod sine ullo nascentium damno ignis wronorius circuit. Laeta itaque regio et herbuda, nil flammis adurentibus, sed tantum vi remissa ac langulda refulgentibus.” From this description it is plain that the fire in question had little of the usual volcanic character, being perfectly harmless. Instances of this sort of flame are, however by no means uncommon ; that of Pietra mala, in the Apennines, is well known, and there are others in Epirus and the Greek islands. We are indebted to Capt. Beaufort for an accurate account of the Chimaera flame, which, after the lapse of so many centuries, is still unsubdued. This able navigator and antiquary, being at the time to the east of Olympus, says: “We had seen from the ship, the preceding night, a small but steady light among the hills; on mentioning the circumstance to the inhabitants, we learned that it was a yanar or volcanic flame; and they offered to supply us with horses and guides to examine it. We rode about two miles through a fertile plain, partly cultivated, and then, winding up a rocky and thickly-wooded glen, we arrived at the place. In the inner corner of a ruined building the wall is undermined, so as to leave an aperture of about three feet diameter, and shaped like the mouth of an oven; from thence the flame issues, giving out an intense heat, yet producing no smoke on the wall; and though from tile neck of the opening we detached some small lumps of caked soot, the walls were hardly discoloured. Trees, brushwood, and weeds grow close around this little crater, a small stream trickles down the hill hard by, and the ground does not appear to feel the effect of its heat beyond the distance of a few yards. No volcanic productions whatever were perceived in the neighbourhood. The guide declared that, in the memory of man, there had been but one hole, and that it never had changed its size or appearance. It was never accompanied, he said, by earthquakes or noises, and it ejected neither stones, smoke, nor noxious vapours; nothing but a brilliant and perpetual flame, which no quantity of water could quench.” (Beaufort's Karamania, p. 47, seqq. — Compare Clarke's Travels, vol. 5, p. 427–Cramer's Asia Minor, vol. 2, p. 258, seqq.) Chimerium, a promontory on the coast of Epirus, opposite the island of Paxos. It is mentioned by Thucydides (1,30) as the place where the Corinthians formed a camp to protect their allies against the Corcyreans. (Compare Strabo, 324.—Pausan., 8, 7.) It seems to answer to Cape Saracinico, above Parga. (Cramer's Ancient Greece, vol. 1, p. 111.) Chion, a native of Heraclea Pontica, and disciple of Plato. Animated by the political fanaticism to which the young and inexperienced so easily abandon themselves, he lest Athens, where he had resided for the space of five years, attending the instructions of Plato, and returned home with the determination of freeing his native city from the yoke of tyranny. Clearchus, who ruled at Heraclea, was not, it is true, a good prince; but, in slaying him, Chion was the cause of this city's falling under a worse tyrant, Satyrus, the brother of Clearchus. Chion himself perished as the victim of the latter's elevation to power. We have seventeen letters said to have been written by this young philosopher. They are principally addressed to his father Matris; but their authenticity has been ealled into question ; and the real author is supposed to have been a Platonist of the fourth century. The style is clear, simple, *.*. o