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its second year, doubled its price, we felt the heaviest of the seas as they approach. If this certain of its entire success. Since that precaution be neglected, it is almost a matter of time, it has grown steadily in popularity and certainty that the boat will broach to broadside influence, and now it wears an appearance of to the sea and be capsized. In truth, in this strength and permanence that leaves no manner nearly all the crews of distressed vessels room for doubting that it will soon become who take to their boats, and attempt to land one of the best paying newspaper establish-through a heavy surf
, are drowned. ments in the country. It is now one of the chant seamen may, I believe, be instrumental in
The circulation of this information among merbest mediums for every description of adver- saving many lives. It is not, of course, pretended tising, and it will not be long before it is that it is an infallible rule of safety. A boat may crowded with that species of business. be so short or small in proportion to the magni.
We had intended, in this connexion, to tude of the waves, that they may break over her notice somewhat in detail, a series of articles bow and stern (whichever is to seaward) and fill now in course of publication in the Times, her at once, or throw her “end over end ;" but under the title of "The Great Conversation- in such a case it is their only chance. ists,” but we have left ourselves little room With a boat under the command of oars this for the fulfilment of our purpose. We recog- management may be readily effected, but not so nize in them the hand of an esteemed friend under sail, since, even if the sails be lowered, -a man of the finest literary attainments, the boat will probably still retain too much speed, and an elegant writer. He has already and if she broach to with the top weight of a treated of Jefferson, Calhoun, and several mast and sail, nothing can prevent her capsizing last number is devoted to the “ Lesser Lights with a considerable amount of ballast, a lifeboat other of the great lights of the South. His if the sea be very heavy.
Without the top weight of a mast and sail, and of South Carolina.” As a specimen of his may, in the like circumstances, go no further style, we give an extract from his sketch of than her beam-ends, merely half filling with George McDuffee. The fidelity of his lim- water, and then turning round head to the sea. ning will be recognized by all who have had It cannot, I conceive, be too urgently forced an opportunity to hear that very able man on the attention of the crews of such lifeboats as and powerful orator.
have the means of both rowing and sailing, that
if they have been off to a distant wreck under From the Examiner. sail, their proper course, on nearing the land and
before getting into broken water, even if it be HOW TO HANDLE A BOAT AMONGST daylight, will be to get down their mast and sail, ROLLERS.
and to take their boat carefully in under oars.
In the night time, as was the case in this instance, A SCIENTIFIC lesson upon the handling of a when the breakers cannot be seen until the boat boat is of interest, for more than its novelty, is among them, to run over the bar of a river, or for humanity. And let it not be imagined through any heavy broken water, under sail, I that the lesson is practically not needed. consider to be an act of extreme imprudence. There is as much difference of skill in hand It may not be uninteresting, even to the genling a boat as in handling a horse, and it is eral reader, to point out what is evidently the notorious that men-of-war's men are most cause of this unexpected effect of the action of the deficient in this art. Captain Ward, of sea, which requires a treatment the reverse of the Shipwreck Institution, observing that that which we should pursue on an impending another life-boat under sail has been lost, collision between two opposite forces upon the offers these judicious and instructive re
land, and which makes it safer to boldly charge marks:
the danger than'to flee from it.
It would be unsuitable here to enter on the It is a well-known thing to the seamen on the theory of the waves, as far as it is understood ; most exposed parts of our coasts, that the chief and the fact is observed by every one, that, as danger to a boat does not occur when going off they approach the shore, and meet the rebound against a heavy sea, but on returning before it, of those which have preceded them, their violence at which time the greatest skill and carefulness is increased, and, acquiring now an actually proare necessary, even under oars, to prevent a boat gressive motion, their upper stratum rushes onfrom broaching to and turning broadside on toward, and falls over like a cataract, while a conthe sea. Their experience has taught them that, stant undercurrent, or backwater, at the same when seeing a heavy breaker following their boat time setting off against them, serves but to inup from astern, instead of yielding to the natural crease their fury, and adds greatly to their danimpulse of giving her all possible speed away gerous effects. from it, and so, as might be expected, to lessen On a boat advancing against one of these waves, the violence of the shock, their only safety lies in or, as they are now denominated, rollers, from checking the boat's way through the water, and their rolling or tumbling motion, or breakers, keeping her end on to the sea till it has passed from their broken surface, she receives the conthem, to effect which they back their oars, or even cussion of the blow, parts the wave with her bow, face a portion of the crew round the roverse way, by her own inertia retains her position, and the who row backwards with all their force against immediate danger is past. To be sure, if she be
too short and small in proportion to the height of the wave, she may be thrown almost into a perpendicular position, and turned “end over end,” as it is termed. Or, again, if she be too cumbersome, or her bow present too broad or bluff a surface to the water, she may, in a very heavy sea, lose her headway and" be driven astern, when, if she be straight sheered and have but little height at her ends, she may be forced down stern foremost or be turned over quarter Ways. If, however, she have sufficient height of bow to prevent the sea from breaking in a large body over it, and enough power to retain her headway over the crest of the wave, she has nothing to fear.
On returning to the shore, however, if she attempts to run from a heavy breaker or roller, it soon catches her, throws her stern up, and carries her away with it ; she cannot get away from it ; she and it together are running along at a frightful pace over the ground, yet she has not steerage way through the water, and is quite unmanageable ; it hugs her and crowds on her more and more ; it runs her bow under water ; the under current, acting on her fore foot, turns her round broadside to the sea, which still presses on her ; her whole lee side is under water, and, if an ordinary open boat, she is instantly upset. Even if she be a lifeboat, unless she has a large amount of well-secured ballast, and although she have no mast or sail up, she will probably be turned quite over either by the same wave or else by the following one, which will fall on her before she can recover her position.
It may, therefore, be considered an axiom in the management of all boats in a heavy sea and shoal water; when going to windward to give the boat the greatest possible speed against each sea as it approaches, and when rowing to leeward to check her way and back her against each wave until it has passed.
These last propositions may perhaps require some qualifications. The Brighton fishing boats, for example, run in under sail in the worst weather, and with a heavy sea on and broken water, and it is seldom that an accident happens. They are, as every one knows, of the shape of half a walnut shell, and have good free board.
We cannot quite assent to the axiom of giving the utmost way to a boat in meeting a heavy sea, especially if it be short and breaking: In such case it is more prudent to diminish the speed, for the same reason that, in sailing craft beating to windward in bad weather and a heavy sea, it is often advisable to haul a headsail to weather to deaden the way, and meet the sea more easily. In hard westerly gales, pilot-boats and small craft, beating through the Needles on the falling weather tide, can only make their passage over the Bridge with their foresails hauled to windward, not hove to, but keeping way on but diminished way. The same principle must apply to rowing boats, especially if strongly manned, as life-boats generally are.
O earth, so full of dreary noises !
His dews drop mutely on the hill ;
For me my heart that erst did go
MANAGEMENT IN PROMOTING MARRIAGE.
From Henry Taylor's “ Notes from Life."
sumed, as may sufice for a perfect discerning ON CIIOICE IN MARRIAGE.
till too late."* In our age the freedom of access is sufficient; but the access is, for the
inost part, at times and places where nothing If an unreasonable opposition to a daugh- can be discerned but the features of a restless ter's choice be not to prevail, 1 think that, and whirling life. And if Milton could say, on the other hand, the parents, if their views “ Who knows not that the bashful muteness of marriage be pure from worldliness, are of a virgin may ofttimes hide all the unlivelijustified in using a good deal of management ness and natural sloth which is really unfit for - not more than they very often do use, but conversation,” we, on the other hand, who more than they are wont to avow or than cannot reasonably complain of the bashful society is wont to countenance — with a view muteness of the virgins, may be in our own to putting their daughters in the way of such way perplexed in the attempt to discover what marriages as they can approve. It is the way is the life that lies beneath those dancing and of the world to give such management an ill glancing outsides of which we see so much. name—probably because it is most used by those who abuse it to worldly purposes; and
may. be observed, I think, that women I have heard a mother pique herself on never of high intellectual endowments and much having taken a single step to get her daugh- dignity of deportment have the greatest diffiters married—which appeared to me to have culty in marrying, and stand most in need of been a dereliction of one of the most essential a mother's help. And this not because they duties of a parent. If the mother be wholly are themselves fastidious, for they are often passive, either the daughters must take steps as little 80 as any, but because men are not and use management for themselves (which humble enough to wish to have their superiors is not desirable), or the happiness and the for their wives. inost important interests of their lives, moral Great wealth in a woman tends to keep at and spiritual, must be the sport of chance a distance both the proud and the humble, und take a course purely fortuitous; and in leaving the unhappy live-bait to be snapped many situations, where unsought opportunities at by the hardy and the greedy. If the of choice do not abound, the result may be wealthy father of an only daughter could be not improbably such a love and marriage as gifted with a knowledge of what parental caro the mother and every one else contemplate and kindness really is, it is my assured belief with astonishment. Some such astonishment that he would disinherit her. If he leaves I recollect to have expressed on an occasion her his wealth, the best thing for her to do is of the kind to an illustrious poet and philos- to marry the most respectable person she can opher, whose reply I have always borne in find of the class of men who marry. for
money. inind when other such cases have come under An heiress remaining unmarried is a prey to iny observation : “ We have no reason to be all manner of extortion and imposition, and surprised, unless we know what may have with the best intentions becomes, through been the young lady's opportunities. If Mi- ill-administered expenditure and misdirected randa had not fallen in with Ferdinand, she bounty, a corruption to her neighborhood and would have been in love with Caliban.' a curse to the poor ; or if experience shall put
But management, if it is to be recom- her on her guard, she will lead a life of remended, must be good management, and not sistance and suspicion, to the injury of her the management by which young ladies are own mind and nature. hurried from ball-room to ball-room, so that a In the case, therefore, of either high enhundred prelibations may give one chance to dowments or great wealth in a daughter, the he swallowed. A very few ball-rooms will care of a parent is peculiarly needed to mulafford the means of introduction and selection tiply her opportunities of making a good of acquaintances; and the intercourse which, choice in marriage ; and in no case can such by imparting a real knowledge of the disposi- care be properly pretermitted. tions, will give the best facilities for choice, will be that which is withdrawn, by one remove and another, from gay metropolitan
When the mother takes no pains, the mar assemblies — first, to intercourse in country riage of the daughter, even if not in itself inplaces ; secondly, to domestic society. Our eligible, is likely to be unduly deferred. For present manners admit, perhaps, too much the age at which marriages are to be confreedom of intercourse in public, too little in tracted, is a very, material consideration, private. The light familiarity of festive meet- Aristotle was of opinion that the bridegroom ings is carried far enough, further than tends should be thirty-seven years of age and the to attach ; but the graver intimacy is wanting.
bride eighteen; alleging physical reasons, Milton complained that in his time, choice in which I venture to think exceedingly incon marriage was difficult, because there was not clusive. Eighteen for the bride is the least " that freedom of access, granted or pre * Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, oh. 3.
DUE MATURITY FOR MARRIAGE.
to be objected to, and would yet be rather | ships, fill up the measure of life, and make early in this climate. A girl of that age may the single heart sufficient to itself. It is be not absolutely unprepared for marriage : when these things have partly passed away. but she has hardly had time for that longing and life has lost something of its original and yearning affection which is to be her best brightness, that men begin to feel an insuffisecurity after. Sir Thomas More, in account- ciency and a want. I have known it to be ing for Jane Shore's infidelity to her hus- remarked by a Roman Catholic priest, as the band, observes, that “foreasmuche as they result of much observation of life amongst his wer coupled ere she wer wel ripe, she not very brethren, that the pressure of their vow of fervently loved for whom she never longed." celibacy was felt most severely towards forty But whether or not the girl be to be con- years of age. sidered ripe at eighteen, I know no good reason, If a man have fairly passed that period moral or physical, why the man should with- without marrying or attempting marriage, hold himself till seven-and-thirty, and many then, I think, or very soon after, he may conexcellent reasons against it. Some few years clude that there is no better fortune in store of seniority on the part of the man I do con- for birn, and dispose himself finally for the life ceive to be desirable ; and on this, as well as celibate. on other grounds, the woman should marry
Till age, refrain not; but if old, refrain, young; for if the woman were to be past her first youth and the man to be some years says one of the shrewdest of the unpoetical older, it follows that the man would remain poets.* longer unmarried than it is good for him to
UNNATURAL ALLIANCE. be alone. The woman should marry, therefore, rather
The marriages of old men to young women before than after that culminating period of their motives as in their results; and the
are, for the most part, as objectionable in personal charm, which, varying much in dif- mistake of such marriages is generally as ferent individuals, is but a short period in any, and occurs in early youth in almost all. great as the moral misfeasance. "There is no years of age, but nearer the former than the sessing itself of what youth only can enjoy ; She should marry between twenty and thirty greater error of age than to suppose that it
can recover the enjoyment of youth by puslatter period. Now the man at such an age and age will never appear so unlovely as would probably be too light for the man's part when it is seen with such an ill-sorted acin marriage ; and the more so when marrying companimenta wife equally young. For, when two very young people are joined together in matri A chaplet of forced flowers on Winter's brow mony, it is as if one sweet pea should be put Seems not less inharmonious to me as a prop to another. The man, therefore,
Than the untimely snow on the green leaf. may be considered most marriageable when he For the yonng women who make such maris nearer thirty than twenty, or perhaps when riages there is sometimes more to be said he is a little beyond thirty. If his marriage than for the old men. When the motives are be deferred much longer there is some danger mercenary, there is nothing to be said for of his becoming hardened in celibacy. In the them; and but little when the case is one of case of a serious and thoughtful man, it need weak consent to the mercenary baseness of panot be deferred so long ; for, in such a case, rents, or when they sacrifice themselves (as a remark made in a letter of Lord Bacon's they will sometimes allege) in a rich alliance will probably be verified — that a man finds for the relief of a large family of destitute himself seven years older the day after his brothers and sisters. These are but beggarly marriage.
considerations, and might be eagerly plead in
defence of a less disguised prostitution. But There are other motives and circumstances a case will sometimes occur in which a young besides those connected with prudence, which, woman is dazzled by great achievements or in the case of men, militate against early mar-renown; and what is heroical or illustrious riages. If their first passion (as it happens may inspire a feeling which, distinct though with most first passions) have issued in a dis- it be from that which youth inspires in youth, appointment, and if they have passed through is yet not unimaginative, and may sufice to their disappointment without being, betrayed, sanctify the marriage vow. And there is anby the heart's abhorrence of its vacuum, into other case, not certainly to be altogether vinsome immediate marriage of the pis-aller kind, dicated and yet not to be visited with much resorted to for mere purposes of repose, they harshness of censure, in which a woman who will probably find that å first seizure of the has had her heart broken, seeks, in this sort kind guarantees them for a certain number of of marriage, such an asylum as, had she been years against a second. In the mean time, a Roman Catholic, she might have found in a the many interests, aspirations, and alacrities conyent. of youth, its keen pursuits and its fresh hard
From the Boston Atlas. The hospital is, in part, supported by the LEPROSY IN NORWAY.
government. The number of its inmates has
varied from eighty to one hundred and twenty, Messrs. EDITORS:- Much has been said of the average being about one hundred, some late in the papers relative to this disease, of whom arrive at old age. When I left both as to its being “contagious," not con- Bergen, twenty-threo years ago, I was not tagious, “a misnomer to call it leprosy,” aware that any serious attempt had been " a scrofula," "curable," “ incurable," and made to cure this disease, but I remember also that “its publication is made at the some quacks in the medical profession made instigation of the Norwegian government, for unsuccessful attempts. the purpose of throwing impediments in the A number of years ago, the attending phyway of emigration.” As a native of that sician, Dr. Danielsen, who had made this suhcountry, permit me to state a few facts ject his study, was sent by the government to derived from many years' personal observa- Paris and other parts of Europe, where distion, and full five years' frequent intercourse eases of similar symptoms had formerly existwith the diseased, being at that time con- ed, to study and collect every fact that could nected with one of the establishments in aid him in his investigation. He returned in Bergen, which furnished medicines to the due time, with fair prospects of beneficial hospital for that disease, the only one in the results. A large edifice has been erected country, which was established many years outside the city, in a healthy and beautiful ago, to which is attached one physician, one location, under his superintendence, furnished minister, and a church, in which is held with many of the modern improvements. I weekly religious services.'
went over the whole building, with a mediThe appearance of the disease is generally cal friend, four years ago, and found it far very loathsome. The parts of their bodies more comfortable than the old one, in which exposed to view are often covered with large I had been a frequent visitor. In this, Dr. knots on the face, eyes affected, with loss of D., who was then out of town, has greater nose, of fingers, of toes, limbs swollen, voice facilities to accomplish his object, to which he hoarse, amounting in many to a faint whis- has devoted himself, and from which I have per, and those whose appearance shows less been expecting to hear happy results. disease, suffer more internally from pains, to The cause of this disease is yet unknown. alleviate which, with internal and external The generally adopted opinion is, that it is applications, is the most that medical science caused by the constant living on fish, too frehas as yet affected.
quently badly prepared, together with the This disease does not show itself at any too little attention paid to personal cleanliness, particular age, but appears in children from which characterizes some of the districts in the age of ten, up to the aged of sixty. Its which this disease mostly prevails. For this first symptoms, I believe, are hoarseness and supposition there is some foundation. Bergen, the knotty appearance of the skin, and when and Bergenhuus Stift (State) derives its prosthis shows itself, the person is generally pro- perity from the great fisheries all along its vided with a certificate from the physician, coast and in its numerous bays; and to that the parish minister, or a magistrate, to the part of the country this frightful disease is trustees of the hospital, where, after exami- mostly confined; it is not often found in the nation, he is admitted.
interior. Bergen is situated on the south-west coast Norway is an independent kingdom. Its of Norway, in latitude sixty degrees and forty- nominal head is the King of Sweden, who is eight minutes, near the North sea, and the also king of Norway. She has her own flag, diseased come from a little more south of is republican in principles, has a most excelBergen, and northerly all along the coast, as lent and liberal constitution, to which her high up as to the seventieth degree. independent but law-abiding sons are much
The occupation of these people is mostly attached. There is no nobility, and every connected with the fisheries, but also with farmer is master of his own soil. Most of the forest and agriculture. It is, as before the municipal authorities in the cities and in observed, not confined to any particular age, the country are elected by the people, who nor is it frequent that more than one member also elect their representatives to the Storof a family is afflicted. A father, a mother, thing (Congress), consisting of two houses, a child may be diseased, but none else in the which makes the laws, regulates the financial family; and again, the disease disappears in affairs of the country, and meets every three one or two generations, when it reappears. years — for about six months -- and oftener, Those less diseased are permitted to walk if convened by the king on extraordinary abroad in the city, and dispose of the few occasions. His power is very limited; he articles made by their fellow-sufferers, and to possesses, however, the veto power - but if the disagreeable sight of these unfortunate the Storthing passes the same bill at three beings, the citizens have been accustomed successive sessions, then it becomes a law from childhood.
without his approval. CCCCLIII. LIVING AGE. VOL. I. 3