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But the judgment shall fit, and they shall takeaway his dominion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions Thall serve and obey him. Hitherto is the end of the matter. - The angel's interpretation of this vision plainly extends to the end of the world. . This account of the little horn I consider then as an epitome of the whole history of Antichrift. - Keeping this idea in view, let us proceed to the next vision, which fele&is the second and third kingdoms, i. e. the Persian and the Grecian, and a “ little horn which came forth out of one of the four horns b of the He-goat,” or “ the

. King

* Daniel vii. 23—28.

It may be observed, that the account of the little horn precisely resembles an episode in an epic poem - the history of the four kingdoms was given without it in the image ; but here it is described as rising out of the last, and contri. buting to the catastrophe..

► The source of this figure, of horns for kingdoms, as Spanheim observes, must be derived from the Oriental languages, in which the same word fignifies a horn, and a frown, and power, strength, and Splendour. A horn was an embiem of royalty among the Phoenicians, and the


must be deri

coses, in which

King of Grecia,” to form a diftin&t picture of a particular train of events, which we are thus naturally led to suppose will take place in the eastern part of the world.

Third Vision-The Ram and the He-Goat, · including the LITTLE HORNof the


In the former vision, which was a general history of the four kingdoms, Persia was described as a bear, to mark its character for cruelty and oppression. In this, which shews. only the rise, progress, and decline of two of the kingdoms, apparently with a view to the principal subject of it — the little horn, which was to arise after them — Persia is designated by its common symbol, a rami.

" Be

Chaldee Paraphrasts explain the Hebrew word keren, a horn, by the term mulchutha, which fignifies a kingdom. Newton, c. XV.

i It was usual for the kings of Persia to wear a ram's head made of gold, and adorned with precious stones, instead of a diadem; for fo Ammianus Marcellinus describes them. Bishop Chandler and others farther observe, that Y 4


** Behold there ftood before the river, a ram which had two horns, [Media and Persia] and the two horns were high, but one was higher than the other, and the higher [Persia] came up lastk. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward, [it had possession of the East] so that no beast might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great, [as in the time of Xerxes and Darius.] And as I was considering, behold, an hegoat came from the west [the king, or rather kingdom of Grecia] on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground : [he came with such bounding rapidity, that he seemed not to touch the ground) and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. [Alexander king of Macedon, who had first fubdued Greece.] And he came to the ram that had

rams heads with horns, one higher and the other lower, are still to be seen on the pillars at Persepolis. Newton.

The goat is made the type of the Grecian or Macedo. nian Empire, because the Macedonians were denominated Ægeadæ, or the goat's people, 200 years before the time of Daniel. - It is also remarkable, that Alexander's fon by Roxana was named Alexander Ægos, or the fon of the goat: and some of Alexander's fuccefiors are represented in their coins with goat's horns. Newton. '* Daniel viii. 3, &c.


two horns -- and ran unto him in the fury of his power. And I saw him come close unto the ram, and he was moved with choler against him, and smote the ram, and brake his two horns, and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. Therefore the he-goat waxed very great : and when he was strong, the great horn was broken ; [Alexander died at the height of conquest, and in the prime of life) and for it (or, instead of it) came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven. [Alexander's four Captains, who divided his kingdom; Caffander held Macedon, and Greece, and the western parts --Lysimachus had Thrace and Bithynia, and the northern regions - Ptolemy poffeffed Egypt and the Southern countries - Seleucus obtained Syria and the eastern provinces.] And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land. And it waxed great, even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host, and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he magnified


himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily facrifice was taken away, and the place of his fanctuary was cast down. And an host was given him against the daily facrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practised, (or wrought) and prospered.” To this description I fubjoin the explanation given by the angel previous to any observations upon it - ". And in the latter time of their kingdoms, [that is, of the four kingdoms which fucceeded Alexander's kingdom] when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark fentences, shall stand up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power : and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand, and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many : he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes, but he shall be broken without hand. And the vision of the evening and the morning [an Hebraism fignifying a day) is true : wherefore shut thou up the vision, for it shall be for many days.”

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