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which the Dr. shews that it gives no countenance to such doctrines, and this he evinces from the design and history of the article, and the sentiments of the principal compiler of it.

This section opens with our 17th article, as compiled by our reformers in the time of Edward VI, he alterations made by the revisers of the articles under Elizabeth being subjoined in the margin. A comparisoni is then made of t'ie several parts of the definition of predestination or election in the article, with the corresponding texts of scripture, and it is worthy our observation how nearly the compilers expressed themselves in scripture words. To this are added the judicious observations of Dr. Waterland*

upon this article, which Dr. Winchester remarks “no one has been able to confute," and which we shall now quote as deserving the attention of all, but more particularly of those whom the slanderers of our establishment may endeavour to seduce.

The article of predestination has been vainly enough urged in favor of the calvinistical tenets. For not to mention the saving clauses in the conclusion, or its saying nothing at all of reprobation, and nothing in favour of absolute predestination to life, there seems to be a plain distinction (as Plaiseret has well observed) in the article itself of two kinds of predestination, one of which is recommended to us, the other condemned -- -- predestination, rightly and piously considered, that is, considered (not iRRESPECTIVELY, not a BSOLUTELY) but with respect to faith in Christ, faith working by love, and preserving, such a predestination is a sweet and comfortable doctrine. But the sentence of God's predestination (it is not here said in Christ as before) that sentence simply or ABSOLUTELY considered (as curious and CARNAL persons are apt to consider it) is a most DANGEROUS DOWNFALL; leado ing either to security or desperATION, as having no respect to foreseen Paith, and a GOOD LIFE, nor depending upco it, but ANTECEDENT in order to it; the article then seems to speak of two subjects, first of predestination soberly understood with respect to faith in CHRIST, which is wholesome doctrine; secondly, of predestination simply considered, which is a dangerous doctrine. And the latter part seems to be intended against those gospellers whereof Bishop Burnett speaks how is it imaginable that any true and sound doctrine of the gospel, should of itself have any aptness to become a DOWNFALL even to CAR

Supplement to the case of Arian subscription, p.57
† Plaiserc's analysis of the 17th article, p 198, edit 1719.

“The doctrine of Predestination having been generally taught by the Re. farmers, many of this sect (the Gospellers) began to make strange inferences from its reckoning that since every thing was decreed, and the decrees of God could not he frustrated; therefore men were to leave themselves to be carried by these decrees. This drew soine into great impiety of life, and others into desperation. The Germaus soon saw the ill effects of this doctrine. Luther changed his mind about it; and Melancthon openly writ against it. And since that time, the whole stream of the Lutheran church has run the other way. But Both Calvin and Bucer were still for maintaining the doctrine of these decrees; only they warned the people not to think much of them, since they were secrets which men could not penetrate into. But they could not so clearly show how these consequences did not flow froin such opinions. Hooper, and many other good writers, did often dehort the people from entering into these curiosities; and a caveat to the same purpose was put afterwards into the article of the Church about predestination."-liurnet's History of the Heformution, vol. ii. p. 107.

Vol. V. Churchm. Mag. Nov. 1803.

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NAL persons, but CARNAL persons are apt to corrupt a second doctrine, and suit it to their own busts and passions, thereby falsifying the truth. This doctrine so DEPRAVEV and MISTAKEN

our Church condemns. That is, she condemns ABSOLUTE, IRRESPECTIVE predestination, not the other."

The history of the formation of our articles is very interesting as it evinces the zeal, the Christian temper and moderation, and the caution of the compilers.

They were drawn up by Cranmer with the assistance of Ridley—The good Archbishop having observed with concern, the differences that had arisen among Protestants on the doctrine of the Sacraments, on the divine decrees, on Church discipline and other points, and the contempt which they had drawn on themselves from the Papists in consequence of these dissensions, in 1549. proposed to Melancthon the important and weighty scheme of having one common confession of faith, for all the Protestant Churches, drawn up out of the pure word of God, which they might all own and agree in. He communicated his design to Bullinger and Calvin, the leading men among the reformers in Helvetia and France. From Calvin he received a letter signifying his entire approbation of his plan. Melancthon wrote to him also exhorting him to the good work he had in hand, and intermixing friendly cautions with respect to the execution of it. In one of his epistles he remarks Nimis horridæ fuerunt intro stoice disputationes apud nostros de futo, di disciplinæ nocuesunt. Quare se rogo, ut de tuli aliquu formula doctrine cogites. And he had already in the Augustan confession, after assert. ing the preaching of repentance and promise of grace to be universal, and explaining the grounds of the remission of our sins and justification, remarked—"Non est hic opus disputationibus de prædestinatione aut similibus hanc promissio est universalis, & nihil cletrahit operibus, imo exuscitat ad fidem & vere bona opera.” Cap, de Fide.

And it is probable that Cranmer, when our articles were compiled, inserted the 17th, in

consequence of the above admonition of Melancthon.

But this grand design of Cranmer's, for a general comprehension of the Protestant Churches, being frustrated by troubles both at home and abroad; he proposed about the year 1550 to draw up a body of articles of religion, for the use of the Church of England only." "In the drawing up of these articles, next to the scriptures and the doctrine of the Primitive Church, he had an eye to the Augustan Confession... to the writings of MelanCTHON, whose assistance he desired, and whom King Edward invited over hitherto the works of ERASMUS and to the NECESSARY DOCTRINE AND ERUDITION FOR ANY CHRISTIAN MAN, which the Archbishop had so great a hand in drawing up—The doctrine of that book, as to the point we are upon will give us the earliest notice of his opinions concerning predestination, and the points necessarily connected with it, opinions which he entertained 10 the last.”—How different these opinions are from the rigid doctrines of Calvin, the following extracts will sufficiently evince. They are taken from the last three chapters of that work which were added by Cranmer, viz. those on FREE-WILI, JUSTIFICATION, AND GOUD WORKS.

or in the first, after asserting free will in man, he adds,—It is surely of the grace of God onely, that first, we be inspired and moved to any good thing: but to resiste temptations and to persyst in goodnes, and go for



#arde , it is both of the grace of God, and of our free will and endevoure. And finally after we have persevered to the ende, to be crowned with glo !!therfore, is the gift and inercy of God, who of his bountifull goodnesse Dath ordeyned that rewarde to be given after this life, according to suche good workes as be done in this life by his grace And again in the same chapter,—"God is naturally good, and willeth all men to be saved, and carethi for them, and provideth all thing, by whiche they may be sav. ed, excepte by their owne malice, they wolī be evyl, and so by righteous judgen:ent of God, perishe and be loste. For truely men be to them. selves the autours of sinne and damnation. God is neyther autour of sinne, nor the cause of damnation. And yet doth he mostę righteouusly damne those men, that do with vice, corrupte theyr nature, whiche he made good, and do abuse the same ro evyll desyres, against his most holy wyll. Wherefore men be to be warned, that they do not impute to God theyr vice, or theyr damnation, but to themselves, whiche by free will have abused the grace and benefites of God.

“ All men be also to be monished, and chiefly preachers, that in this highe mater, they lokinge on both sides, so attempte and moderate them. selves, that neyther they so preache the grace of God, that they take away therby free will, nor on the other side so extolle free will, that in. jury be done to the grace of God.”

"In the chapter on Justification, he says" And albeit God is the prin cipal cause, and chieië worker of this Justification in us, without whosa grace no man can do no g od thyng, but tollowing his free wyll in the stars ota synner, encreaseth his own'injustice, and inultiplieth his synne : yet so it pleaseth the highe wisdome of God, that man prevented by his grace (which being offered, man may if he wyll refuse or receive) shall be also a worker by liis free consent, and obedience to the saine, in the atteyning of his own justification, and by Goddes grace and helpe, shall walke in such workes, as be requisite to his justification, and so conti. nuyng come to the perfect end thereof, by such meanes and waies as God hath ordeyned."

"Wherin it is to be considered, that although our Saviour Christ hath offered hymselfe upon the crosse, a suficient * redemption and satisfaction for the synnes of all the world, and hath made hyinselse an open way and entre unto God the Father for all mankynd, onely by his worthy merite and deservyng, and willyng all men to be saved, cal. leth

upon all the world, without respect of persones, to come and be partakers of the ryghtuousnesse, peace, and glory which is in hyin : yet ior all this benignitie and grace, shewed universally to the hole worlde, fone shall have the etiect of the benetyte of our Saviour Christe, and enjoye everlasting e salvation by him : but they that take such ways to atteyn the fame, as he hath taught and appointed by his holy word."Again, in the saine chapter, And it is no doubt, but although we be ones justified, yet we may fall there fro, by oure owne free wyll and consentyng unto synne, and folowyog the desires therof. For albeit the hous of our conscience be ones made clene, and the foull spirit be expelled from is in baptisme, or penaunce : yet if we wax ydle and take not hede, he will returne with seven worse spirites, and possesse 11s agayn. And although we be illuminat, and have tasted the heavenly gyft, and be made partakers o' the holy goste : yet may we fall and dis. please God. Wherfore as saint Paul sayeth, He that standerb, let him take bede that he fall not."

* See below, how uniform Cranmer was in this opinion of UNIVERSIL


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" And here all phantastical imagination, curious reasonyng, and yain trust of predestination, is to be laid apart. And according to the plain maner of speaking and teachyng of scripture in innumerable places, we ought evermore to be in dread of our owne fraielty, and natural pronity to fall to synne, and not to assure ourse!fe, that we be f elected any otherwise, than by felying of spiritual motions in our hart, and by the tokens of good and vertuous livying, in following the grace of God, and perseverying in the same to the ende.” And again, ib.

" And whereas in certain places of scripture our justification is ascribed to fayth, without any further addition or mention of any other vertue or gift of God: it is to be understand of fayth in the second ac. ceptation, as before is deglared in the article of faith, wherein the feare of God, repentance, hope, and charitie be included and comprised, all which must be joined togitler in our justification : so that no fayth is sufficient to justification or salvation, but suche a fayth, as worketh by charity, as is plainly expressed by Saint Paul in his epistle to the Galatians,'!

“ These were CRANMER's doctrines in the year 1543. How opposite to the rigid ones of Calvin I need not observe. That he continued in the same to the last will appear from the following quotations, wherein he asserts universal redemption through Christ; a doctrine, which pursued in its just consequence, will overthrow the whole of Calvin's system on these points.

"-Christ was suche an hygh byshop, that he ones offerying himself, was sufficient by ones effusion of his bloud, to abolystie' synne unto the worldes end. He was so perfect a priest, that by one oblation he purged an infinite heape of synnes leavyng an easy and redy remedy for al synners, that his one sacryfice shulde suffise for many yeares unto all men that wolde not sbew theimselves 10 woorthye. And he toke unto hymself not onely their sinnes that many yeres before were dead, and put theyr trust in hym, but also the synnes of those, that untyl his comyng agayn, shuld truly beleve in his gospell. So that nowe we may loke for none other priest nor sacrifice, to take away our synns, but only hym and his sacrifice. And as he dying ones was offered for all, so as muchę as pertayned to hym, hệe toke all mens synnes unto hiniself."Cranmer on the Sacrament, Lond. 15:0. p. 106. b. 107. a.

“ Speaking before in his Preface to the saine, of the reason of Christ's coming into the world, he says,--"and to preach and give pardon and a full remission of synne to all his elected, and to perform the same, he made a sacrifice and oblation upon the crosse, which was a full re. demption and propitiation for the synnes of the whole world.” Again in his prayer at the stake

“ o God the Son, thou wast not made man, this great mystery was not wrought, for few or small offences, nor thou didst not give thy Son unto death o God the Father, for our little and small synnes only, but for all the greatest synnes of the world: so that the sinner return unto thee with a penitent heart.

" If we add the words of bishop Ridley, in the Preface to his Disputation at Oxford, a little before his inartyrdom, we shall have reason to conclı:de from what quarter our XXXI Article and these words in the communion-service came-" Who made there (upon the cross) by his

+ Cranmer here expresses much the same, that the second paragraph of the 17th Article does, which evinces the truth of archibishop lancroit's observation at the Hampton-court conference, that concerning our election in Christ, we are not to argue descendendo but ascendendo.-In these quotations from the riecessary doctrine, we have plain traces of our X. XVI. and XXXI. Articles.


one oblation of hinself once offered, a full, perfect, and sufficient sacri. fice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world."

“ The Bishop's words are these-'Ex epistola ad Hebræos patet unicam esse oblationem et unicum verè vivificui sacrificium, oblatuin in ara Crucis, qui fuit, est et erit in perpetuum propitiation pro peccatis totius mundi,"

(To be Continued.)

Britain's Defenis. A Sermon preached August 21, 1803, in the Pro!cstun!

Dissenting Meeting House Buttersea. By Joseph Hughes, f. . 8vo. pp. 42, A MONGST the numerous patriotic discourses which the extra

ordinary situation of the country has called forth froin the pulpit and the press, we feel no scruple in pronouncing the one before us as entitled 'to distinguished' notice. Though the author admits the necessity of our becoming an armed nation ai this awful cri-is, he admits it also to be a fearful necessity, as what may prove in too many respects injurious to our moral and religious character. His observations on this point are worth attending to :

“ He, who arms from the love of novelty, from an attachment to gaudy exhibition, or as the blind follower of a custom which he has not conscientiously examined, is an object, fellow-christians, whom I recon mend to your pity. For he is either effeminate, and will therefore render his country no service; or profligate, and will therefore do his companions much harm. 'I am jealous over those of you,' who have associated for our defence,' with a golly jealousy; not that I blame you for associating ; but the very infidel confesses that military habits are, in a moral view, incalculably dangerous. The counteracting influence of good principles must be kept constantly on the stretch. You will have intercourse with persons both void of piety and addicted to all the vices. You will be assailed, as sume of you never were before, with indecent and profane langage. From the field of exercise not a few, whom you are obliged to acknowledge as comrades, will adjourn to the ale-bench; there they will spend what common honesty requires them to save, there they will contract an aversion for liome, there they will roar out their drunken loyalty, there they will rage and fight, and thence they will return to disturb the neighbourhood, and to fill their various families with lamentations at the midnight-hour. And are these the defenders of their country, these our patriots ? My brethren, they are Britain's burden and Britain's curse. • When the host goeth forth against thine enemies, then,' it is Heaven's command, keep ihee from every wicked thing.'' Othat my country would regard this solemn charge !”

The practice of Sunday drilling afterwards calls for our author's disapprobation, and we cannot but lament with him that such a practice should have received the sanction of the legislature.

Though Mr. Hughes approves of the measures taken for the defence of the nition, he yet properly calls upon his hearers, and he does so in very solemn and animated terms, lo cultivate the favour of God as that


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