Obrazy na stronie




concentrating the genial conclusions of a slow to close. They who had the privilege thoughtful life, write therewith in a few of his friendship, have, in their memory of hours a triumphant refutation of Burke's him, a dear image that will live with them Theory of the Sublime and Beautiful. undimmed through their remaining years;

That Mr. Greenough should give his and long after all the friends who will mind to painting and architecture, and carry his memory to their graves, shall the fundamental principles of all Art, was, have joined him in that spirit-land where with his eager nature, a necessity. But there are no struggles and no tears, will he also found time for literary study. He be visible the impress his genius has made was not only a thorough master of Italian, upon his country. which he spoke like a native, but of As the appropriate conclusion to this French, which he likewise spoke correctly insufficient record of his life and character, and fluently; and latterly, during a re we append a catalogue of his works. sidence at Gräfenberg, he taught himself German. Moreover, he took a deep in

HORATIO GREENOUGH's terest in politics, and sympathized strongly with the recent great popular move 1. Mr. Greenough's first ideal work ment in Europe. He was a cordial De was a statue of Abel, modelled in Rome, mocrat. His sojourn abroad, during his in 1826, but never executed in marble. whole manhood, strengthened him in re 2. Statue of Byron's Medora. For R. publicanism, converting youthful inherit Gilmor, of Baltimore. ed impressions into virile convictions. 3. Group. The Chanting Cherubs. After living so long in Italy, under the For J. Fenimore Cooper. yoked tyrannies of Prince and Priest, he 4. The Ascension of the Infant Spirit. seemed here on American soil to revel in A group of an Infant and Cherub. liberty. To his friends it was an enjoy 5. Group. Portraits of two Children ment and also a profit, to see him, on his of David Sears, playing with a squirrel. return home eighteen months since, throw 6. Statuette. The Genius of America. himself with such ardor into the great For J. Hoyt, of New-York. questions and interests of the day. He 7. Portrait Statue of Miss Grinnell, of discussed them with the vivacity and di New Bedford, (now Mrs. N. P. Willis.) rectness of one whose appetite had been 8. Portrait Statues of two Youths, sons sharpened by long abstinence.

of J. Thompson, of New-York. It was however to topics and things 9. Monument to Mr. and Mrs. Gibbs. whereon the light of Art shines or ought For Miss Gibbs of Newport. to shine, that he most often recurred. A 10. Statue of Washington, by order of walk with him in Broadway or the Fifth Congress, for the Capitol. Avenue, was a lively dissertation on archi The sum, twenty thousand dollars, votecture. He sought to have every where the ted by Congress, was intended to be an beauty of fitness. He wished all products honest compensation for this work. The of man, like those of Nature, to be children amount was the same as that paid by of the marriage between Beauty and Uti Massachusetts to Chantry for his statue lity. He liked to go into foundries; and of Washington, the size of life. Greenthen on coming out he would make draw ough, determined to spare neither time ings of iron fences, or bedsteads, or stoves. nor expense to make his work worthy of He had an earnest purpose to spread the country and himself, made it colossal throughout the land a knowledge of how (twice the size of life), involving an ex, practical beauty is. He wished to give pense threefold beyond what it would his country the benefit of his poetic per have cost of the natural size. ception, and of his life of study on the The embellishments of the chair have general applicability of principles of a significance which often escape observabeauty.

tion. The statuettes of Columbus, and But these his lofty aims were not to be an Indian Chief, supporting the arms of fulfilled. He was only permitted to point the chair, and the trident, have found public attention to this high matter. He favor as being so obviously illustrative of had just made a brilliant beginning by our country's history. But the bas-reliefs two lectures in Boston, when he was sud of the Rising Sun on Apollo's chariot on denly cut off. The nervous fibre of ge the one side, and the infant Hercules nius often snaps from the very fineness of strangling the serpent on the other, are, its texture and its hypervitality. So it by many, looked upon as mere classical" was with Horatio Greenough. By his embellishments, independent of the subdeath, his country has lost one of her ject. Were they no more than this, they most gifted sons. An accomplished, as would be disfigurements instead of adornpiring, noble-minded man has passed from ments. The artist originally designed to our midst. The gap he has left will be have inscribed two lines from an ode of

Virgil;~under the Apollo, Nunc nascitur is beautiful, at once to the generosity of lucidus ordo; and under the Hercules, his friends and to his own månly gratitude. Incipe, parvepuer, cui non risere pa It is now in the possession of George rentes. These verses would have inter Ticknor, of Boston, to whom it was prepreted the bas-reliefs. Greenough finally sented by Greenough, in recognition of omitted them, because sculpture should the part which that gentleman had taken speak its own language so distinctly as to in the transaction. need no aid from letters.

17. Bas-relief of Castor and Pollux. 11. Child seated on a bank, intently 18. Greenough's last ideal work was a gazing at a butterfly that has just lighted Venus, contending for the golden apple. on the back of its hand. For a Hunga It is of heroic size, that of the Venus of rian nobleman.

Milo. This statue was much admired in 12. Statuette of Venus Victrix. For Florence, and Browning, the English poet, John Lowell, and presented by him to the urged Mr. Greenough to send it to the Boston Athenæum.

World's Fair, in London. 13. Colossal Group, for the Capitol, by It was modelled entirely in plaster of order of Congress.

Paris (as was also the second group of This work, which was finished in July, the mother and child) by a new process. 1851, occupied the artist eight years, be “ The merit of this invention seems to be sides a delay of four years occasioned by shared between Greenough and Powers. his not being able in all that time to They commenced about the same time to obtain a block of Serravezza marble suit make trials in this material, and by interable to his purpose. It consists of four change of experiences and views the figures, a mother and child, an American method was perfected. The gain to artIndian and the father. This group illus- . ists by this invention is two-fold; plaster trates a phasis in the progress of Ameri of Paris does not expand like clay, and can civilization, viz., the unavoidable con there is no need of the precarious and exflict between the Anglo-Saxon and abo pensive process of casting." riginal savage races. The composition Besides the above enumerated statues may be thus briefly described :—The and bas-relief, he executed a large nummother has sunk in terror to the ground, ber of busts; among these were portraits clasping to her bosom the infant. Over of John Adams and of John Q. Adams, her stands the savage, his tomahawk up Henry Clay, Mrs. R. Gilmor, Josiah lifted. Behind, the father, a stalwart Quincy, Sen., S. Appleton, Jonathan pioneer, has just seized the Indian by Mason, Thos. Cole, the late celebrated both arms, with one knee planted on the landscape-painter, N. P. Willis, the Marhollow of his back. The firm grasp of the quess Gino Capponi, for many years a father satisfies the beholder that the personal friend of Greenough, and latterly savage is now powerless for harm. But Prime Minister of Tuscany. His last words cannot adequately translate a sculp bust was one of his friend, J. Fenimore tured composition. The huge mass of Cooper. This he executed last summer marble seems to writhe, awakening in the in Brooklyn. beholder conflicting emotions.

In giving a list of Greenough's works, The figures of the mother and child it should be recorded here, that he is virwere entirely remodelled in the years tually the architect of the Bunker Hill 1846 and '47.

Monument. While he was a student in 14. Statue of the Angel Abdiel retiring Cambridge, a prize was offered by the from the assemblage of rebellious Angels; Bunker Hill Association for the best defrom Milton's Paradise Lost.

sign of a monument. The judges were 15. Monument to his friend Giusti, the Washington Allston, Gilbert Stewart, and Italian poet; erected at Pescia, Tuscany. Warren Dutten. There were many com

16. Bas-relief, representing an artist petitors, and they awarded the prize to whose labors are suspended by the failure Horatio Greenough. The project of erectof the light by which he is working. He ing a monument was not carried into efis seated in an attitude of pensive dejec fect at that time; but when some years tion, while a hand from a cloud supplies later it was resumed, his plan was in the oil to the lamp.

essentials adopted. This work, Mr. Greenough has been Mr. Greenough was wont to speak of heard to say, was intended to record a himself as a sculptor of few works; but fact in his personal history. At a time the above list proves with what zeal and when he almost despaired of being able to industry he devoted himself to his Art, pursue his studies in Italy, for want of that he could effect so much in the term funds, he received the loan of a large sum, of twenty-seven years. without knowing whence it came. This Most of his works were executed at bas-relief is a monument, as noble as it extremely low prices. For many years

his charge for busts was only from one to two hundred dollars, which is about half of what is charged by Sculptors of the present day, and of what he himself received for his late busts.

The two large works for the Capitol at Washington, cost the Government, the one $20,000, the other $21,000. On

these, to which he gave his best energies during many years, he expended more money than he received. When his friends complained of this, he would say, that a money-making artist could never be a great one; and that having been honored by his countrymen with national works, he would do his best for them.


Continued from page 184.

we were compelled to inquire: Ya-t'il


should have said perhaps, for they seemed never to have heard of the other,) and they answered at length that there was no tavern, unless we could get lodgings at the mill, le moulin, which we had passed; or they would direct us to a grocery, and almost every house had a small grocery at one end of it. We called on the public notary or village lawyer, but he had no more beds nor English than the rest. At one house, there was so good a misunderstanding at once established through the politeness of all parties, that we were encouraged to walk in and sit down, and ask for a glass of water; and having drank their water, we thought it was as good as to l.are tasted their salt. When our host and his wife spoke of their poor accommodations, meaning for themselves, we assured them that they were good enough, for we thought that they were only apologizing for the poorness of the accommodations they were about to offer us, and we did not discover our mistake till they took us up a ladder into a loft, and showed to our eyes what they had been laboring in vain to communicate to our brains through our ears, that they had but that one apartment with its few beds for the whole family. We made our a-dieus forthwith, and with gravity, perceiving the literal signification of that word. We were finally taken in at a sort of public-house, whose master worked for Patterson, the proprietor of the extensive saw-mills driven by a portion of the Montmorenci stolen from the fall, whose roar We now heard. We here talked, or murdered French all the evening, with the master of the house and his family, and probably had a more amusing time than if we had completely understood one another. At length they showed us to a bed in their best chamber, very high to get into, with a low wooden rail to it. It had no cotton sheets, but coarse home

VOL. 1.-21

made, dark colored linen ones. Afterward, we had to do with sheets still coarser than these, and nearly the color of our blankets. There was a large open buffet loaded with crockery, in one corner of the room, as if to display their wealth to travellers, and pictures of scripture scenes, French, Italian, and Spanish, hung

Our hostess came back directly to inquire if we would have brandy for breakfast. The next morning, when I asked their names, she took down the temperance pledges of herself and husband, and children, which were hanging against the wall. They were Jean Baptiste Binet, and his wife, Geneviève Binet. Jean Baptiste is the sobriquet of the French Canadians.

After breakfast we proceeded to the fall, which was within half a mile, and at this distance its rustling sound, like the wind among the leaves, filled all the air. We were disappointed to find that we were in some measure shut out from the west side of the fall by the private grounds and fences of Patterson, who appropriates not only a part of the water for his mill, but a still larger part of the prospect, so that we were obliged to trespass. This gentleman's mansion-house and grounds were formerly occupied by the Duke of Kent, father to Queen Victoria. peared to me in bad taste for an individual, though he were the father of Queen Victoria, to obtrude himself with his land titles, or at least his fences, on so remarkable a natural phenomenon, which should, in every sense, belong to mankind. Some falls should even be kept sacred from the intrusion of mills and factories, as waterprivileges in another than the millwright's

This small river falls perpendicularly nearly two hundred and fifty feet at one pitch. The St. Lawrence falls only 164 feet at Niagara. It is a very simple and noble fall, and leaves nothing to be desired; but the most that I could say of it would only have the force of one other

It ap


testimony to assure the reader that it is being the immediate valley of the St. Lawthere. We looked directly down on it rence and its tributaries, rising by a single from the point of a projecting rock, and or by successive terraces toward the mounsaw far below us, on a low promontory, tains on either hand. Though the words the grass kept fresh and green by the per Canada East on the map. stretch over petual drizzle, looking like moss. The many rivers and lakes and unexplored rock is a kind of slate, in the crevices of wildernesses, the actual Canada, which which grew ferns and golden-rods. The might be the colored portion of the map: prevailing trees on the shores were spruce is but a little clearing on the banks of the and arbor-vitæ, the latter very large and river, which one of those syllables would now full of fruit, also aspens, alders, and the more than cover. The banks of the St. mountain ash with its berries. Every em Lawrence are rather low from Montreal igrant who arrives in this country by way to the Richelieu Rapids, about forty miles of the St. Lawrence, as he opens a point above Quebec. Thence they rise graduof the Isle of Orleans, sees the Montmo ally to Cape Diamond, or Quebec. Where renci tumbling into the Great River thus we now were. eight miles north-east of magnificently in a vast white sheet, making Quebec, the mountains which form the its contribution with emphasis. Rober northern side of this triangle were only val's pilot, Jean Alphonse, saw this fall five or six miles distant from the river, thus, and described it in 1542. It is a gradually departing further and further splendid introduction to the scenery of from it, on the west, till they reach the Quebec. Instead of an artificial fountain Ottawa, and making haste to meet it on in its square, Quebec has this magnificent the east, at Cape Tourmente, now in natural waterfall to adorn one side of its plain sight about twenty miles distant. harbor. Within the mouth of the chasm So that we were travelling in a very narbelow, which can be entered only at ebb row and sharp triangle between the mountide, we had a grand view at once of Que tains and the river, tilted up toward the bec and of the fall. Kalm says that the mountains on the north, never losing noise of the fall is sometimes heard at sight of our great fellow-traveller on our Quebec, about eight miles distant, and is right. According to Bouchette's Topoa sign of a north-east wind. The side of graphical Description of the Canadas, we this chasm of soft and crumbling slate too were in the Seigniory of the Côte de steep to climb, was among the memorable Beaupre, in the County of Montmorenci, features of the scene. In the winter of and the District of Quebec; in that part 1829 the frozen spray of the fall descend of Canada which was the first to be seting on the ice of the St. Lawrence, made tled, and where the face of the country a hill one hundred and twenty-six feet and the population have undergone the high. It is an annual phenomenon which least change from the beginning, where some think may help explain the forma the influence of the States and of Europe tion of glaciers.

is least felt, and the inhabitants see little In the vicinity of the fall we began to or nothing of the world over the walls of notice what looked like our red-fruited Quebec. This Seigniory was granted in thorn bushes, grown to the size of or 1636, and is now the property of the Sedinary apple-trees, very common, and minary of Quebec. It is the most mounfull of large red or yellow fruit, which tainous one in the province. There are the inhabitants called pommettes, but I some half-a-dozen parishes in it, each condid not learn that they were put to any

taining a church, parsonage-house, gristmill, and several saw-mills. We were now in the most westerly parish called Ange Gardien, or the Guardian Angel, which is bounded on the west by the

Montmorenci. The north bank of the By the middle of the forenoon, though St. Lawrence here is formed on a grand it was a rainy day, we were once more on scale. It slopes gently, either directly our way down the north bank of the St. from the shore, or from the edge of an inLawrence, in a north-easterly direction, terval, till at the distance of about a mile, toward the Falls of St. Anne, which are it attains the height of four or five hunabout thirty miles from Quebec. The set dred feet. The single road runs along tled, more level, and fertile portion of the side of the slope two or three hun· Canada East, may be described rudely as dred feet above the river at first, and from a triangle, with its apex slanting toward a quarter of a mile to a mile distant from the north-east, about one hundred miles it, and affords fine views of the north wide at its base, and from two to three, or channel, which is about a mile wide, and even four hundred miles long, if you reckon of the beautiful Isle of Orleans, about its narrow north-eastern extremity; it twenty miles long by. five wide, where







grow the best apples and plums in the another, and that they should reduce their Quebec District.

parishes to the form of the parishes in Though there was but this single road, France as much as possible. The Canait was a continuous village for as far as dians of those days at least, possessed a we walked this day and the next, or about roving spirit of adventure which carried thirty miles down the river, the houses them further, in exposure to hardship and being as near together all the way as in danger, than ever the New England colothe middle of one of our smallest straggling nist went, and led them, though not to country villages, and we could never tell clear and colonize the wilderness, yet to by their number when we

range over it as coureurs de bois, or the skirts of a parish, for the road never runners of the woods, or as Houtan preran through the fields or woods. We fers to call them, coureurs de risques, were told that it was just six miles from runners of risks; to say nothing of their one parish church to another. I thought

thought enterprising priesthood; and Charlevoix that we saw every house in Ange Gar thinks that if the authorities had taken dien. Therefore, as it was a muddy day, the right steps to prevent the youth from we never got out of the mud, nor out of ranging the woods (rle courir les bois) the village, unless we got over the fence; they would have had an excellent milithen indeed, if it was on the north side, tia to fight the Indians and English. we were out of the civilized world. There The road, in this clayey looking soil, were sometimes a few more houses near was exceedingly muddy in consequence of the church, it is true, but we had only to the night's rain. We met an old woman go a quarter of a mile from the road to directing her dog, which was harnessed to the top of the bank to find ourselves on a little cart, to the least muddy part of the verge of the uninhabited, and, for the the road. It was a beggarly sight. But most part, unexplored wilderness stretch harnessed to the cart as he was, we heard ing toward Hudson's Bay. The farms him barking after we had passed, though accordingly were extremely long and nar we looked any where but to the cart to row, each having a frontage on the river. see where the dog was that barked. The Bouchette accounts for this peculiar man houses commonly fronted the whatner of laying out a village by referring to ever angle they might make with the road; " the social character of the Canadian and frequently they had no door nor peasant, who is singularly fond of neigh- cheerful window on the roadside. Half borhood,” also to the advantage arising the time, they stood fifteen to forty rods from a concentration of strength in Indian from the road, and there was no very obtimes. Each farm, called terre, he says, vious passage to them, so that you would is, in nine cases out of ten, three arpents suppose that there must be another road wide by thirty deep, that is, very nearly running by them; they were of stone, thirty-five by three hundred and forty rather coarsely mortared, but neatly whitenine of our rods; sometimes one-half washed, almost invariably one story high, arpent by thirty, or one to sixty; some and long in proportion to their height, with times in fact a few yards by half a mile. a shingled roof, the shingles being pointed, Of course it costs more for fences. A re for ornament, at the eaves, like the pickets markable difference between the Canadian of a fence, and also, one row half way up and the New England character appears the roof. The gables sometimes projectfrom the fact that in 1745, the French ed a foot or two at the ridge-pole only. government were obliged to pass a law Yet they were very humble and unpreforbidding the farmers or censitaires tending dwellings. They commonly had building on land less than one and a half the date of their erection on them. The arpents front by thirty or forty deep, windows opened in the middle, like blinds, under a certain penalty, in order to com and were frequently provided with solid pel emigration, and bring the seigneurs' shutters. Sometimes, when we walked estates all under cultivation; and it is along the back side of a house, which thought that they have now less reluc stood near the road, we observed stout tance to leave the paternal roof than for stakes leaning against it, by which the merly,“ removing beyond the sight of the shutters, now pushed half open, were parish 'spire, or the sound of the parish fastened at night; within, the houses were bell." But I find that in the previous or neatly ceiled with wood not painted. The 17th century, the complaint, often re oven was commonly out of doors, built of newed, was of a totally opposite character, stone and mortar, frequently on a raised namely, that the inhabitants dispersed platform of planks. The cellar was often and exposed themselves to the Iroquois. on the opposite side of the road, in front of Accordingly, about 1664, the king was or behind the houses, looking like an iceobliged to order that “they should make house with us, with a lattice door for sumno more clearings except one next to mer. The very few mechanics whom we

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