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rů, an ủsoorů. Gănga-dhúrŭ, he who caught the goddess Gũnga in his hairh. Vrishủ-dwủjů, he whose standard is a bulli. Shõõlēē, he who wields the tridentk. Sthanoo, the everlasting. Shŭrvă, he who is every thing. Girēēshủ, lord of the hills, he who dwells on the hills.

The following account of the heaven of Shivŭ is translated from the work called Krityŭ-tŭtwŭ. This heaven, which is situated on mount Koilasů, and called Shivắpoorů, is ornamented with many kinds of gems and precious things, as pearls, coral, gold, silver, &c.—Here reside gods, danŭvủs', gündhŭrvės m, úpsŭrūs”, siddhủs', charūnėse, brůmhúrshees , dévŭrshees', and muhúrshees*; also other sages, as Sủnatınă, Sănătkoomarŭ, Súnŭndŭ, Ŭgústyú, ůngira, Poolústyŭ, Poolúhủ, Chitrů, Angirŭsŭ, Goutămŭ, Bhrigoo, Pŭrashŭrů, Bhủrůdwajŭ, Mrikůndŭ, Markúndéyŭ, Shoonishephu, Ushtayukrũ, Dhoumyu, Valmềekee, Vùshishtohu, Doorvasa, &c. These persons constantly perform the worship of Shivŭ and Doorga, and the ủpsůrès are continually employed in singing, dancing, and other festivities. The flowers of every season are always in bloom here: among which are, the yõõthēēt, jatēžu, můllika”, malūtēzy, dorů", túgúrúa, kúrůvēērŭ , kúlhară , kŭrnikarúd, késhůrů,


In Gůnga's descent from heaven, Shivů caught her in the bunch of hair tied at the back of his head.

i Shivů’s conduct, on the day of his marriage with Parvůtēē, puts us in mind of Priapus. The Indian god rode through Kamů-rõõpů on a bull, naked, with the bride on his knee.

* Here Shivů appears with Neptune's sceptre, though I cannot find that he resembles the watery god in any thing else.

A particular kind of giants. m The heavenly choiristers, Dancers and courtezans. Gods who act as servants to some of the other gods. 9 Sacred sages. + Divine sages.

Great sages.

" Jasminunt auriculatum. u J. grandiflorum. J. zambae. y Gætnera racemosa. z Unknown Tabernæmontana coronaria, b Nerium odorum.

Nymphæa cyanea. Pterospermum acerifolium. * Mimusaps elengi.



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poonnagŭd, drona°, gündhŭrajú', shéphalikas, chủmpůküh, bhốômee-chămpukui, nagi-késhiruk, moochikoondu), kanchủnům, pioolee", jhintēē', nēēlu-jhintēēp, rúktú-jhintēē9, kŭdumbú", răjúnēēgúndhủ, túrku', tăroolúta“, parijată*, &c. &c. Cool, odoriferous, and gentle winds always blow on these flowers, and diffuse their fragrance all over the mountain. The shade produced by the parijatŭ tree is very cooling. This mountain also produces the following trees and fruits : shalay, talú?, tūmalúa, hintalú b, kúrjöörů“, amră", júmvēēră, ġoovaků“, pănăsús, shrēēphủlŭ ", draksha', ingoodēēk, vătă', ŭshwăt'hům, kŭpitt hú", &c. A variety of birds are constantly singing here, and repeating the names of Doorga and Shivă, viz. the kakė", shookŭP, paravătă”, tittiree", chatīků, chasè', bhasů“, kõkilă”, sarasăv, datyöõhủ”, chủkrúvaků“, &c. &c. The waters of the heavenly Ganges (Mundakinēē) glide along in purling streams. The six seasons are uninterruptedly enjoyed on this mountain, viz. vúsúntu (spring), grēëshmă (summer), vărsha (rainy), shŭrŭt (sultry), shishirŭ (dewy), and shēētă (cold). On a golden throne, adorned with jewels, sit Shivů and Doorga, engaged in conversation.

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& Rottlera tinctoria. • Phlomis zeylanica.

f Gardenia florida. & Nyctanthesarbor tristis.

b Michelia champaca. Kempferia rotunda. k Mesua ferrea. Pterospermum suberifolia. Bauhinia (several species). Linum trigynum. • Barleria cristata. P Barleria cærulea. 9 Barleria ciliata. - Nauclea orientalis. *The tuberose. ! Æschynomenesesban. Ipomea quamoclit. * Phænix paludosa. ► Phænix sylvestris. Erythrina fulgens. Shorea robusta.

Borassus flabelliformis. Diospyrnis cordifolia. & Mangifera Indica. e The citron or lime tree. f Areca catechu. 8 Artocarpus integrifolia. 4. Ægle marmelos. The grape vine. k Unknown. | Ficus Indica. m Ficus religiosa. - Feronia elephantium. •The crow.

* The parrot. The pigeon. The partridge.

• The sparrow

' Coracias Indica. « Unknown. * The Indian cuckow y The Siberian crage.

: The gallinule. Anas casarca.

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The Shrēë-bhagúvŭtă contains another description of the heaven of Shivă Sixteen thousand miles from the earth, on mount Koilasă", resides this god, in a palace of gold, adorned with jewels of all kinds. This palace is surrounded with forests, gardens, canals, trees laden with all kinds of fruit, flowers of every fragrance. The kúlpŭ tree also grows here, from which a person may obtain every kind of food and all other things he may desire. In the centre of a roodrakshů forest, under a tree, Shivè frequently sits with his wife Parvėtēē. The fragrance of the parijată flowers extends 200 miles in all directions; and all the seasons are here enjoyed at the same time. The winds blow softly, filled with the most refreshing odours. At the extremities of this heaven southwards and northwards Shivŭ has fixed two gates, one of which is kept by Nŭndēs, the other by Múha-kală. A number of gods and other celestial beings constantly reside here, among whom are Kartikeyŭ and Gúnéshủ, the sons of Shivă; also the female servants of Doorga, Jủya, and Vijủyar, eight nayikas, and sixty-four yoginēēs, with bhõõtės, pishachús, Shivè's bull, and those disciples of Shivă (shaktūs) who have obtained beatitude. The time is spent here in the festivities and abominations of the other heavens.

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Sonini, during his travels in Greece and Turkey, made a journey into ancient Macedonia, and paid a visit to mount Olympus, the abode of the gods. It was the middle of July when this excursion was made, and although the heat was extreme towards the base of the mountain, as well as in the plain, vast masses of snow rendered the summit inaccessible. “ It is not astonishing,” says Sonini, “ that the Greeks have placed the abode of the gods on an eminence which mortals cannot reach.” The monks of the convent,“ who have succeeded them in this great elevation,”. confirmed what has been sometimes disputed, the perpetual permanence of ice and snow on the top of the mountain, With the exception of chamois and a few bears, there are hardly any quadrupeds to be seen beyond the half of the height of Olympus, Birds also scarcely pass this limit.

* Eleocarpus ganitrus.

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As has been already mentioned, Brúmha, Vishnoo, and Shivŭ derived their existence from the one Brumhŭ. The Hindoo pủndits do not admit these to be creatures, but contend that they are emanations from, or parts of, the one Brümhů.

Brúmha first produced the waters, then the earth; next, from his own mind, he caused a number of sages and four females to be born : among the sages was Kŭshyėpė, the father of the gods, giants, and men. From Oditee were born the gods; from Ditee the giants; from Kūdroo the hydras;, and from Vinėta, Gŭroorŭ and Ŭroonủ. After creating these sages, who were of course bramhŭns, Brúmha caused a kshŭtriyŭ to spring from his arms, a voishyŭ from his thighs, and a shõõdrŭ from his feet. In this order, according to the pooranŭs, the whole creation arose. The Hindoo shastrès, however, contain a variety of different accounts on the subject of creation. I have thought it necessary to give this brief statement, as it seems connected with the history of this god.

Brúmha is represented as a man with four faces, of a gold colour; dressed in white garments ; riding on a goose. In one hand he holds a stick, and in the other a kůmúndŭloo, or alms' dish. He is called the grandfather (pitamühủ) of gods and mens, He is not much regarded in the reigning superstition; nor does any one adopt him as his guardian deity.

Jupiter was called the father and king of gods and men. VOL. I.


The bramhŭns, in their morning and evening worship, repeat an incantation, containing a description of the image of Brúmha; at noon they perform an act of worship in honour of this god, presenting to him sometimes a single flower : at the time of a burnt offering clarified butter is presented to Brémha. In the month Maghủ, at the full moon, an earthen image of this god is worshipped, with that of Shivă on his right hand, and that of Vishnoo on his left. This festival lasts only one day, and the three gods are, the next day, thrown into the river. This worship is accompanied with songs, dances, music, &c. as at all other festivals; but the worship of Brămha is most frequently celebrated by a number of young men of the baser sort, who defray the expences by a subscription.-Bloody sacrifices are never offered to Brúmha.

Brúmha, notwithstanding the venerable name of grandfather, seems to be as lewd as any of the gods. At the time that intoxicating spirits were first made, all the gods, giants, gundhŭrvės, yükshús, kinnŭrůs,&c. were accustomed. to drink spirits, and no blame was then attached to drunkenness: but one day Brůmha, in a state of intoxication, made an attempt on the virtue of his own daughter, by which he incurred the wrath of the gods. Some time afterwards, Brúmha boasted in company, that he was as great a god as Shivů. Hearing what Brůmha had been saying, the latter, inflamed with anger, was about to cut off one of Brumha's heads, but was prevented by the intercessions of the assembled gods. Brůmha complained to Doorga, who appeased him by saying, that Shivă did not attempt to cut off his head because he aspired to be greater than he, but because he (Brůmha) had been guilty of a great crime in endeavouring to seduce his daughter. Brúmha was satisfied with this answer, but pronounced a curse on what

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