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the glory of co-operating with God, the certainty of his approbation, and the fublime hopes that he will make thofe happy hereafter, who have uniformly endea voured to make their fellow-creatures happy here. P. 10. E. P.

Thoughts on the late General Election: as demonftrative of the Progrefs of Jar cobinifm. By JOHN BOWLES, Efq. pp. 97.

HAVING fpoken of the author of this Publication, very recently, (fee Orth. Ch. Mag. for Sept. p. 167), we fupprefs, though not without reluctance, further teftimony to the purity of his intentions, the goodness of his heart, and the vigour and discernment of his intellectual powers. Of these the work before us furnishes ample proof.

Mr. Bowles affirms, that although Peace has been proclaimed, " the Jacobinical Diflurbers of Mankind have by no means left off their deteftable practices, or forgotten their pernicious arts. The late General Election fhews them to have been as mifchievou fly industrious as ever.

"In most of the violent contefts which have occurred, the ftruggle has been, not as heretofore, between the fupporters and opponents of the exifting administration, but between government and Jacobinifm; and the abettors of this horrid fyftem have triumphed in fome places of the firft confequence, and in others have paved the way to future triumphs, by the operations of its genuine and characteristic principles; by exciting the many against the few-the lower claffes against their fuperiors-nonproprietors against thofe poffeffed of property-and the inconfiderate and misguided multitude against the government, the laws, and the magistracy; in short, by a virtual application of the principle of univerfal fuffrage, to an election of reprefentatives in a British parliament."

Our author obferves that the elections" have exhibited various degrees of Jacobinifm; as the candidates were more or lefs infected with that malady, or as local circumftances were more or lefs favourable to its diffufion." Nottingham, Norwich, Weftminfter and Middlefex, have fhewn the moft fhocking fymptoms of that political malignancy, which the Jacobinical Virus always occafions.

"At Nottingham the Jacobinical mob obliged one of the candidates, for the fake of his perfonal fafety, to difcontinue the poll; and afterwards publicly celebrated their triumph, obtained in fuch a manner, by difplaying the tree of liberty and the French national tricoloured flag; by finging the revolutionary fongs, Millions be free," and the Marfeillois hymn; by venting the most horrible imprecations against their fovereign; and by a proceffion, in the true ftile of Gallic Jacobinifmin which a female, reprefenting the Goddefs of Reafon, in a state of ENTIRE NUDITY was a confpicuous figure!!! The like fymbols, with an exception only of the one laft mentioned, had, indeed, been there employed to commemorate the peace."

Mr. Bowles fubjoins-" Can it be doubted that so corrupt a place will foon be deprived, by disfranchisement, of the right of election, and, indeed, of all its corporate rights?"-Nottingham we have long regarded as the fink of Prefbyterianifm and Republicanifm. We have been told that for feveral years the Teft Laws were not put in force in that corpo ration. Aldermen were chofen, and aldermen ventured to perform their functions in that wretched town, without qualifying according to the ftatute. In a place disobedient to the LAW OF THE LAND, and difaffected to the ESTABLISHED CHURCH-the noxious Ferment of Jacobinism, muft ever find a proper Nidus. About eight years ago, if we remember rightly, fome young members of the corporation, compelled


the aldermen of Nottingham to qualify, or to refign their gowns. We know not how many occafional conformists this measure produced, or how many Martyrs to the Meeting-house it furnished.-We have fome valuable correfpondents in Nottinghamthire, and we fhall be glad to receive an authentic ftatement how the matter of qualification ftands at prefent.

The Norwich election is very briefly touched upon. Perhaps in a fubfequent edition of his Pamphlet, Mr. Bowles may be inclined to enter more into the detail of its occurrences; which we are led to think fayoured more strongly of Jacobinism than our author's moderation allowed him to fuppofe;-though he gives an extract from "the final Addrefs of Mr. Windham and Mr. Frere to the Electors of that city;" an extract which powerfully corroborates (if after all it wants corroboration) Mr. B's demonftration of the progrefs of Jacobinifm.

The Weftminfer election is next reviewed.

"Although utter Jacobinifm, has not triumphed in Westminster, the inhahabitants of that city have witneffed during the election, a fcene completely Jacobinica!. Among the candidates was a man, whofe chief pretenfions feemed to confit in the abfence of thole qualifications of rank, refpectability, or talents, which, with whatever principles they might be combined, had, till then, been considered as more or lefs effential to the character of a candidate. This man, by by the mere want of fuch qualifications, was enabled to obtain 3207 votes, and entirely to monopolize the fuffrages of the licentious rabble. The fituation of Mr. Fox, on this occafion, was, at once, mortifying and inftructive. That gentleman had, for many years, been in the habit of careffing and flattering the noify multitude whom he had dignified by the honorable appellation-the people. In grateful return they had hailed him with fhouts of applaufe, and denominated him--the Man of the People. But although he had preferved a perfect confiftency between his profeffions and his practice, no fooner does a man, of obfcure birth and of no confequence, folicit their capricious fmiles, than the giddy, inconftant, ungrateful, many, defert their old favourite, and beftow all their huzzas on his ignoble competitor. A better leffon for high-born demagogues could not be inculcated. What must have been the feelings of Mr. Fox, when he faw a man like Mr. Graham, ftanding by his fide; afpiring, like himfelf, to the honour of reprefenting the city of Weltminter; and engrolling the favour of that very populace, of whom he (Mr. Fox) had fo long been the idol, and for whofe fupport he had made fo many facrifices of dignity and real confequence! How fuch a fcene must have affected the feelings of the honourable patriot, during a poll of nearly a fortnight, may eafily be inferred from its having, on the very first day of the election, produced a very material change in his language; (to fay nothing of his declining, after his fuccefs, the accustomed bonour of being chaired!) In his introductory addrefs to the electors he made, as he had often before done, a profeflion of his political principles. Of thofe principles, it is well known that the fovereignty of the people had frequently been declared by him to be the most facred. But there was reafon to apprehend that the people would, on this occafion, exercife their fovereignty, in a manner not altogether agreeable to him; and, therefore, although for the fake of confiftency, he could not difavow the doctrine, for which he had fo frequently and fo ftrenuously contended, he artfully qualified it in fuch a manner, as to render it inoperative, when its operation threatened to be unfavourable to himself. In short he, in effect, dethroned the fovereign people, when he faw that he was not likely to be any longer their prime minifter; he told them that they had nothing to do with the fovereignty, except in theory, that, even in theory, the fovereignty only originated in them; and that, in practice, all they can claim is, that "the conftituted authorities," as in Gallican language, he termed the government, should "keep in mind the fovereign from whom they derived their power." It must not, however, be fuppofed that this doctrine, widely as it differs from the tenets formerly avowed by Mr. Fox, is admiffible. It is indeed, altogether unfound, and


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inexpreffibly mischievous*. There never was an inftance in which government de rived its power from the people. And the Whig fyftem, that government fo originates, and that the people have a right to choofe or to change their governors, is the foundation of the Jacobinical fyftem, that the fovereignty refides in them. The abettors of the former fyftem are Jacobins, in theory; and it has been proved that nothing but the fun of occafion is wanting, to ripen fuch perfons into Jacobin in practice. In the latter character Mr. Fox has appeared, whenever in an unqualified manner, he has afferted the fovereignty of the people. By qualifying that doctrine as he has now done, he has only retreated from the natural confe quences of his own conduct. And it is fortunate for him that thofe confequences were, in this inftance, confined within fuch narrow limits, and that the fovereign people were not actually fuperior to the reftraints of law and government; in which cafe, inftead of being merely an object of their neglect and contempt, he would probably have been one of their first victims at the Shrine of liberty."

"But it is the Middlefex Election, which, excepting only that at Not tingham, has moft ftrongly displayed in appropriate colours the character of Jacobinifm." Mr. Bowles's remarks on the views of the conftitution, and the intention of the legislature in requiring a pecuniary qualifi cation in voters, to the amount of, at least, 40s. per annum, arifing from freehold property, are very important; and put the question on its true conftitutional ground; in oppofition to the Jacobinical cant about that impracticable innovation which fome would introduce, called univerfal fuffrage.

"It is obferved by Mr. Juftice Blackftone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England, that "the true reafon of requiring any qualification with regard to property," in order to entitle a man to vote for Members of Parliament, is "to exclude fuch perfons as are in fo mean a fituation, that they are efteemed to have no will of their own. And the fame writer obferves, that "the freehold, conftituting a qualification, was originally required to be of forty fhillings annual value, because that fum would then, with proper industry, furnish all the neceffaries of life, and render the freeholder, if he pleafed, an independent man."-Thus abhorrent is the conftitution from the principle of univerfal fuffrage. No one will fay, that a freehold of the annual value of forty fhillings, anfwers, at this time, the purpose for which it was made the neceffary qualification of a county voter. the contrary, in confequence of the prodigious diminution which has taken place in the value of money, fince the time of Henry VI. the fituation of a voter, who has no other property than fuch a freehold, must be altogether dependent and fervile. The admiffion, therefore, of fuch votes, by depriving property of that weight and influence which, for the benefit of all claffes, it ought to poffefs, tends to prevent, in its true fense, a fair reprefentation of the people in parliament; and, as a grofs violation of the genuine and original principle of the conftitution in this respect, calls loudly for reform."


The rule nofcitur a fociis is applied to Sir F. B with great effect; p. 9, &c. where the reader will find what the new Whigs, in other words, the Jacobins (for there is certainly now A COALITION between them, and they are henceforth to be counted one body) mean by the phrase "a fair Reprefentation of the People in Parliament."-According to the evidence which was given at the State Trials in 1794, a fair and free Reprefentation of the People in Parliament was to be obtained by means of univerfal fuffrage.

"By an exercife of the pretended right of equal active citizenship; that it was an

*For a refutation of the doctrine, that government originates in popular choice, fee "The Retrospect," p. 277."


infidious term, employed to cover the traiterous defign of calling together a convention, which was intended to affume all political authority whatever; to exercise fovereign power; to act independently on Parliament, and in defiance of it; to fuperfede the Legiflature: to depofe the King; to eftablish a Government without either Monarchy or Ariftocracy; in fhort, to bring about a Revolution, fimilar to that which had taken place in France. That all this was included in the term a fair Representation, by the conftitutional, correfponding, and other feditious Societies, whole proceedings were made public at the Old Bailey, is incontrovertibly established by the Trials of Thomas Hardy, John Horne Tooke, and John Thel wall; and as the Hon. Baronet is in clofe fraternity with the leaders of those focieties, it must be prefumed that he fympathifes with their fentiments, approves of their principles, and concurs in their projects."

Sir F. B. is generally esteemed a pupil or a puppet of John Horne Tooke, to whom we cannot give the title of Reverend. This venerable "mafter of scholars," this dextrous manager of the wires, this political Flockton receives a very fevere caftigation in pp. 11–16.

Mr. Bowles enters, much at length, into all the atrocities, the exag, gerations, the inflammatory artifices, and the abominable falfhoods which characterize the Middlefex Election.

All the charges brought against the excellent Mr. Mainwaring, (whom to know as a Man, is to love; and as a Magiftrate, to revere;) relative to the management of the House of Correction in Cold-bath-fields, are refuted; and a complete body of evidence refpecting it is printed in the Appendix: and the cafe of the Proprietors of the Mill, is fully ftated and duly reprobated.

Mr. B. fays, that Sir F. B's fuccefs was atchieved by the force of one weapon only,-CALUMNY.-Subjoined to this word is a note which we beg leave to adopt into our text. It occurs p. 25.

"It is furprifing that Mr. Byng could fuffer fuch falfehoods to be daily published in his prefence, without contradicting them. As a Middlesex Magiftrate, and particularly as one of the Committee of Magif. trates, whofe office it was to vifit the House of Correction in Cold-bathfields, he could not but know that the accufations which were brought againft that prifon, and againft Mr. Mainwaring, were foul calumnies. How he can justify himfelf for giving, by his filence, his fanction to fuch calumnies on a brother Magiftrate; nay, in effect, on all the Magiftrates of the county; and on a prifon of which he was one of the guardians; is a matter well deferving his ferious confideration. A man, poffeffed of his powers of reflexion, cannot but know, that filence is capable of being no less injurious, and even more base than the fouleft afperfions."

We ought here to close our observations on this well-written and welltimed Pamphlet. Our limits are already exceeded, but we cannot refrain from giving one paffage more (p. 59,) out of many which have ftruck us forcibly.

"When the Proprietors of the ever memorable Mill prefented themfelves at the huftings, in order to take the oath refpecting their freeholds, (not one of these men was suffered to vote for Mr. Mainwaring;) a father came up accompanied by his fon. The latter, when he heard what he was to fear, rejected the oath. The father, unmoved by fuch an example, perfifted in perjuring himself."-This miferable wretch, we hope, was not competent to decide upon the cafe. He probably voted, as he was defired by the greater wretches, who brought him thither. Unhappy old man!


may God pardon thine ignorance, without taking vengeance on thine obftinacy; and may he lead to repentance those who have committed the crime, and incurred the guilt, and will probably fuffer the punishment confequent on Subornation of Perjury. L. C.

Remarks on the Controversy subfifting, or supposed to fubfift, between the Arminian and Calviniftic Minifters of the Church of England: in a fecond Letter to the Rev. JOHN OVERTON, A. B. Author of "The True Churchman Afcertained." By EDWARD PEARSON, B.D. Rector of Remptone, Nottinghamshire. 8vo. pp. 102.

THE fuppofed Calvinifm of the Church of England has occafioned frequent difputes between thofe divines who have adhered to that fyftem, and the advocates of more enlarged notions upon the fubje&t of man's falvation. At the beginning of the laft century, Dr. John Edwards published feveral books, in which all the decifions of the Synod of Dordt were ftrenuously afferted to be the doctrine of our Church; and the general body of the Clergy were furiously abufed by him for their fuppofed apostacy from the truth. There were but few, however, who thought it worth while to enter the lifts with this angry zealot, who, in all his writings, manifefted an uncommon regard to the Diffenters, and spoke very difrefpe&fully of rites and ceremonies, as well as of Church Communion itself. But what better could be expected from the son of a virulent Prefbyterian who declaimed vehemently againft toleration during the ufurpation of Cromwell? The queftion of the Calvinism of the Church flept for many years; and was not revived till many of the pulpits of the establishment began to be infected with the novelties of Methodifm. Then it was that the forgotten, and mouldy volumes of Edwards were ranfacked, and from them new apologies for Calvinifm were framed under the pretence of vindicating the pure doctrines of the Church of England. The late Mr. Toplady, who wrote the most ably of the modern Calvinifts, has, however, done little more than new drefs the teftimonies and arguments of Edwards, whose name, however, does not occur in his polemical tracts. The fpirit by which these two zealous predeftinarians was actuated was precifely the fame. Heady, captious, confident, and enthufiaftic, they thought coolnefs and good manners to Arminian heretics would have been to betray the caufe of Chrift. Overflowing with zeal for the divine decrees, they denounced anathemas upon their opponents, and charitably configned over to the devil those who denied irrefiftible grace, with its precious confequences. It must be confeffed that there were Calvinifts of a more pacific temper; men who believed the irrefpective decrees without condemning thofe as heretics who believe them not; and who thought the fubje&t fitter for private fpeculation than for public difcuffion.

We have given this brief view of the leading controvertifts, by way of introducing to our readers the author of the True Churchman Afcertained;" a title which, at the first infpection, startled us not a little. Great, thought we, muft be the boldnefs of that man, who ventures upon the arduous talk of fegregating the true from the falfe Churchman, in this day of fchifm, lukewarmness, herely, and infidelity. Such a man fhould be himself of no party, but be cool and candid, and poffeffed of no ordinary ftores of knowledge, as well as of fagacity. The first thing we find in the prefent adventurer is, that he is a Calvinift: and though not precifely of the temper of these polemics we have been mentioning, yet as



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