Obrazy na stronie


Wbile he advocated warmth, he was very far from saying that left the farm the animals were not only sold, but the farmer or animals should be shut up in places where the atmosphere was dealer had his money for them, and could thus employ it at at 100 degrees, or where there was no adequate provision for once. This was a very great improvement; in fact, one of ventilation. What he wished to point out was, that warmth the great facilities afforded by the railways. It was not nehad an important and necessary connection with the food cessary that he should say anything with regard to the dead which was given to animals. Having now said enough with meat markets, as they were all familiar with them. Here, regard to the breeding of sheep, he would say a few words again, bowever, was a comparatively new state of things. Meat with regard to sheep required as food for man. There was uo was now brought from Scotland and other distant parts of other animal so important in this point of view as the sheep. the kingdom, which did not come formerly ; and rapidly as Mutton constituted the grand staple food of this country; and people from various districts had located themselves in the hence, as he had before remarked, the improvement of the metropolis, the supply of meat had followed them in the same breeds had a close connection with the increase of ratio. The use of artificial manures had a close and interesting population. The Royal Agricultural Society and the connection with this subject. By using such articles the farSmithfield Club had both exerted themselves in the field of mer was euabled greatly to increase his growth of turnips, and improvement, by offering prizes and holding exhibitions before it was necessary for him to pay for the manures, he periodically; and great

had attended their had an ample return in the extra quantity of sheep which efforts. Similar exhibitions had recently taken place he was thus enabled to keep and send to market. He must in France; but the result thus far was that the English now conclude. He had told the commissioners that it was breeders and graziers who exhibited sheep swept away the quite impossible for him, within a single lecture, to exhaust prizes, and, pocketing the money, walked away with it the whole question of the culture of sheep. The wool pro(laughter). As regarded the distribution of the meat, some duction he had not yet touched, and he believed it was to preferred early lamb, and others preferred saddle of mutton be entered upon by a gentleman from the North of England with a black foot, and had to pay for the luxury ; while familiar with manufactures, who would take up the subject others, again, having less money to spare, made a different where he (Mr. Smith) had left it. The wool collection in choice. The whole thing was beautifully arranged, and the the museum was by no means complete; and as he had beculture harmonized well with the variety in the public de- fore intimated, he should, after his return home, do every. mands. Having been at Smithfield market early on Monday thing that might be in his power to supply the defects. morning, he had observed that the butchers from the West The great importance of sheep, in relation to their woolEnd had the first choice of the market; then came the pur. bearing properties, was daily increasing. Beyond our veyors for the mass of the middle classes; and, last of all, came own growth the imports of wool from Australia, in 1807, those whose business lay chiefly with the working-classes, and amounted to only 245lbs.; whereas in 1855, the latest who said they must have a great lot of meat for their money period up to which the returns extended, the importation (laughter). A very remarkable alteration had taken place of was 40,810,137lbs. In 1833 we received from India late years with regard to the conveyance of sheep to market, 3,721lbs., in 1855 4,594,5201bs. The total imports of wool and the return to the seller. When he was a lad, living in from all places, in 1855, amounted to 99,300,446lbs. Lincolnshire, his father's sheep and capital were a fortnight The lecture occupied one hour and tbree-quarters, the walking to the metropolis, and they each lost eight or ten whole of which being given from notes, made it the more pounds' weight of meat on the way. Of course no one got interesting to the audience. The lecturer concluded by the meat that was expended on the routeit was so much ab- thanking the audience for the patience with which they had solute waste. Now, sheep were conveyed from Lincolnshire listened to him, and on retiring he was loudly cheered. to London in a few hours, and within thirty hours after they


Swine are filthy animals in the cleanest condition in square, differing in a third or fourth from the true which they can be kept, and emit an offensive smell that equality of sides. The shortest sides are placed to form is very disagreeable to other animals, as to cattle, with the back part and open front, the former being divided which the nearest association is placed in the arrange- into a cooking-house, and sheds for the boar and brood ment of being reared and fattened. The manufactory sows; the extent being always proportioned to the size of pigs is best located in a separate position from the of the farm, and the number of swine that can be kept. farmery, but closely adjoining it, as the purposes are Au end door in the food-house affords a passage along combined, and require a juxtaposition of utensils with the front of the breeding sties, and a ready access with which to work in unison. The site of the farmery, and food and litter. A front door in the centre of the house the elevation of ground, will very much dispose the leads along a paved road between two rows of feeding arrangements. The piggery may stand in the front range sties, in which the bacon hogs are confined, in two toof either wing, in a small distance removed, and with an gether, and provided with sty and shelter-shed of the area open front to the most benign aspect. The walls of the of about 100 square feet. A light four-wheeled waggon of erection being low, the position in front of the farmery thin iron carries the food along the passage, and the swine will not much exclude the sun from shining on the are fed on the right and left with much convenience farm-yard behind, and a space of twenty or thirty and facility. The two rows of slies, and a centre pasyards being intervened between the piggery and the sage in width, occupy the length of the food-house on front of the farmery, no inconvenience will happen from large farms; on less extents, one row of sties will be the respective situations. As in all cases of the kind, paced, and an end-door will serve the feeding and circumstances will direct the arrangements.

breeding departments. The front of the breeding sties The exterior shape of the piggery is best in a long l in width, the short side of the piggery, minus the length


and a

of the cooking house, extends to the open front of the morning, and in the early evening before sunset, with whole erection, and forms a yard for store pigs, from the cooked food, in steamed potatoes mixed with meals of age of being weaned, till drawn into the feeding sties, any kind, moderately thickened, and given in a milkaccording to the forward condition. Shelter sheds are warm condition. This preparation is done in the food. placed along the side-wall of the store-yard, and low in house before-mentioned, which contains the steaming the roof, in order to preserve warmth, that is so essential apparatus and the meals in readiness. It is two storeys to the welfare of swine. The young pigs are placed in high, and the second floor is dry for the meals, which this yard immediately on being weaned, are fed for a are kept there for use. The daily allowance to the pigs time with wheys and milks, mixed with meals, and is ample to the full satisfaction, but none to remain in gradually entered into the food of vetches and clovers the troughs to become cold, and produce a nauseating during summer, and raw potatoes and turnips during effect. The quantity the animals can daily consume is the winter. Ample litter of straws and chaffs is supplied soon ascertained, and regulated accordingly. During to this yard, and the best is the strawy litter from the the last month of fattening, one daily meal is given of stables, which being warm in the dung of the horse, uncrushed grains, as oats and barley, and especially of supplies warmth to the pigs ; and being mixed with their beans, which contain the tannin principle, and impart saponaceous excrement, a manure of great value is a muscular firmness to the flesh, and the whiteness that formed. The refuse of the green vetches and clovers so much recommends the quality of the bacon. This adds to the mixture in the varied composition. In this firmness is a chief point by which the flesh is judged. yard is shown the great value of swine, as manufacturers Brood sows are constantly fed with liquid substances, of manure. The green food of summer, in clovers and as milks and wheys mixed with meals, which promote vetches, induces a large discharge of urine, which im- the secretion of milk for the hard task of suckling. pregnates and renders soluble the woody fibre of the Dry food for a time, after the pigs are withdrawn, much refused stems, and the straws that are used as litter; encourages the salacity. Weaned pigs are treated for a the cold saponaceous excrement is mixed with the time with warm gruels of meals and milk-thin and warm fæces of the horse ; while the noses of the animals warm at first, then gradually thickened and used lukebeing constantly employed in searching for food among warm into a cold condition, when the animal becomes the litter, turn over and mix the whole mass of sub- a gradual consumer of clovers and vetches, and raw stances in a very beneficial manner for the purpose of a food. vegetable compost. The yard must be frequently

It is very advantageous that a few small pigs from eovered with litter, and thinly and evenly spread : weaning have the liberty of wandering over the feedingthe different substances must be mixed in the layers, yards at pleasure, and to sleep and nestle in some chosen in order to produce a similarity of composition

A hole in the lower part of the gates lets the and condition in the mass when it is carried to the animals in and out the yards, in which they eat the manure heap in the fields, and placed in the layers of crumbles of the turnips, and search for pickles of grain alternate qualities. This attention is necessary to every among the straws of litter. The surface of the yards is preparation of manure in the farm-yards—a level sur- turned and tossed about by search with the noses, face, frequent coverings with litter, thinly and evenly beneficial mixture is effected of the different substances. spread, and a thorough impregnation of every part with Pigs, in a limited number, are brought forward in this the urinary moisture of the animals. If any part is way in a very fresh condition for the feeding sties, and seen to be too dry, it must be laid level, and covered when assisted with light grains laid on dry ground, the with moist substances ; if too wet, the dry litter of the full fattening is done as well as in fattening cribs. The stable must be strewed over the place, and each part of

meat may not be so large in quantity, but the quality is every yard must be thoroughly treated with moisture in superior both in texture and firmness. the proper quantity. A regular attention will prevent

The mode of rearing and feeding swine now detailed any deviations from this essential rule.

may be done on any farm according to the extent, from The season of curing bacon extends from October

one brood-sow to four, which will afford fift to sixty to the end of March, and during that time there may pigs yearly. The intervening numbers will fill the difbe preserved two fattenings of bogs in succession. The

ferent extents of occupation. Every method must be pigs in the store-yard, that are of the proper age and systematic-large or small, the performance must be most forward in condition, are placed in the feeding regular and orderly, with a constant adhesion to the sties, in two together, by the first of October, and will rules that are adopted. The buildings must be provided, be ready in the beginning of January : a second lot is and the food allotted ; the care must be bestowed, and drawn into the sties from the store-yard, and will be the attention unceasing. From want of systematic regu. ready in March, which concludes the season of curing. lations, there constantly happens desultory and languid The management after that time is wholly in the breed- performances, which fail to produce any valuable results, ing-stics and store-yards. Brood sows are best re- and sink into weak and unprofitable establishments. stricted to two litters of pigs in a year, and

Swine yield more flesh from the food consumed than any average of eight in a brood will afford a full supply of other fattened beast : the quality is very nutritious : it animals to be manufactured. More litters may be got takes the salt more readily than any other flesh, and, in a year, but the vigour of the pigs becomes puny, and from the smaller quantity required on that account, the the sow is much exbausted by the severe employment cured article is not so salt in the use as other flesh from of suckling. A less frequent propagation produces a animals. It enters very largely into the consumption of more vigorous progeny; and not only in swine, but in

naval stores, and for domestic use the flesh is very exevery animal whatever ; and if the system were adopted tensively entertained both in a fresh and cured condipursued, the result might wholly reproduce the animal tion. No other animal food enters so largely into organization.

general consumption ; yet in some few cases only has It has been very satisfactorily ascertained that swine the manufactory of the flesh been reduced into system, are benefited by cooked food in a very large degree; as with sheep and cattle-food is grudged, and attention while other animals, as horses and cattle, show a pro- withheld, and the animals wander about the farmery motion that does not compensate the labour of prepara- despised and unvalued. No farm is established without tion. The physical constitution of the pig, and its an arrangement for swine, than which no animal will delicate intestines, may account for this differential yield so much flesh for the food consumed, or is fattened benefit. Bacon pigs are fed twice a-day, by break of l with so little cost.






The first, or introductory lecture on the Commercial | 7,000 public conveyances plying for hire, and the omniProducts of the Animal kingdom, in

of buses alone einploy about 13,000 horses. The number of delivery at the South Kensington Museum, was vehicles passing along the principal thoroughfares in an delivered by Professor R. Owen, who gave a resumé ordinary day of twelve hours, is about 126,000. of the economic uses of animals generally to man, Having dealt with the statistics of living animals, let interspersed with much interesting information on us now look to the commercial products of the dead anatomy and physiology, in that pleasant and popular horse. From 250 to 300 horses die weekly within a style for which he is characteristic.

radius of five miles from Charing Cross, and the flesh The second lecture was delivered on the 25th Feb., of these is chiefly consumed by dogs and cats within by Dr. Lyon Playfair, C.B., on the use of refuse animal that area. matter; and it is this address to which we would chiefly Firstly, then, we have the hair, which may weigh call attention, as affording much curious detail. about 1 lb., and which sells for 8d. to 1s. Horse-hair Taking as his text, the uses and value of a dead horse, we know is applied to many purposes; it is made into the lecturer went over the whole range of seemingly hair-cloth for seatings, coloured hair damasks, bags for waste products, detailing their processes of re-conver- crushing seed for the use of the oil.crusher, cidersion, comparative value, and resulting products; makers, and others. A consumption of 800 tons of thus proving that if we but follow the example of horse-bair a-year, of home and foreign production, Nature, all substances, however apparently noxious valued at about £80,000, shows the value of this one and useless, are re-convertible into other and very im- item. portant commercial products.

Next we have the hide, weighing-say 30lbs., and We shall confine ourselves, in the present instance worth possibly 8s., for converting, when split, into the however, to his main illustration—the carcase of a finest Cordova leather; or, in its full thickness, for dead horse.

covering the large board-room tables of offices, &c. What the mortality may be of the equine race in the The tendons weigh probably 6lbs., and are converted, United Kingdom we have no means of ascertaining like other animal tissues, into fine glue, or gelatine. Indeed, we have correct data for estimating The flesh will weigh about 2241bs. boiled, and may very precisely even tho total number of horses in the be used as meat for men, dogs, poultry, &c. United Kingdom. We have returns for Ireland and Smile not, gentle reader, at the banquct offered-of Scotland, and the agricultural statistics for these viands which are just now in high repute on the con. countries for 1856, gives the number at 753,170. tinent. A society of economists, naturalists, and hardy Those in England and Wales must be guessed at. gourmands in Paris, aim at the introduction of horseSixteen or seventeen years ago Mr. M‘Culloch esti- flesh in the category of butcher's moat. They sot the mated the number of horses in Great Britain at example themselves, and this example is spreading. It 1,400,000 to 1,500,000. Now this guess must have is argued that the horse ought to contribute to the been somewhat wide of the mark, for there are scarcely nourishment of the human race, as well as the ox, the more than this in the whole kingdom at tho present sheep, and the pig. That it does so already in our own time, at least judging from the most careful calcula metropolis to a great extent, in the shape of nominal tions.

smoked “ox-tongues" from Russia, and chopped soThree or four years ago Mr. Braithwaite Poole, in called “beef” sausage-meat in Westminster, Whitehis “Statistics of British Commerce," took some pains chapel, and other suburban localities. But the penchant to arrive at the true figures; and his estimate, based for roast and boilod horse-flesh bas found adherents upon parliamentary returns and carefully-conducted even here, and our esteemed contemporary, the enquiries, brought out the numbers at about one" Journal of Agriculture,” of Edinburgh, has come million and a-half, classified as follows :

out strong in a recent number in its favour. Paying duty (of which 1,530 were race-horses) 320,982

M. St. Hilaire, the champion of this new addition to Exempt from duty


our food resources, reasons in this fushionPartly exempt from duty

77,827 " Horsefiesh has long been regarded as of a sweetish disHorses in Ireland


agreeable taste, very tough, and not to be eaten without diffiYomg horses, ponies, &c., &c.-Scotland and

culty. So wauy different facts are opposed to this prejudice, Wales

200,000 that it is impossible not to recognize its slight foundation,

The free or wild horse is hunted as game in all parts of the

1,500,745 world where it exists--Asia, Africa, and America--and forNow this is much below the number at the present itself is made use of as alimentary as well as auxiliary-in

merly, and perhaps even now, in Europe. Ti.e domestic horse time; for in 1847 the number of adult horses in the

some cases altogether alimentary--in Africa, America, Asia, Unito'l Kingdom was given at 805,458, of brood-mares and in some parts of Europe. 4,246, and of horses used in husbandry 900,000; and " Its flesh is relished by people the most different in their a parliamentary return of 1854 showed that there were manner of life, and of races the most diverse--negro, Mongol, 432,746 horses paying duty. We have also, of late Malay, American, Caucasian. It was much esteemed up to years been importing largely from the continent- the eighth century among the ancestors of some of the greatest especially from France and Belgium. For the four

nations of western Europe, who had it is general use, and years, ending with 1856, we received 18,293 horses gare it up with regret. Soldiers to whom it has been served

out, and people in towns who have bought it in markets, bare from the Continent. With the large traffic carried on in the metropolis habitually, it has been sold in restaurants, even in the best,

frequently taken it for beef. Still more often, and indeed by omnibuses, cabs, pleasure horses, brewers, carriers, as venison, and without the customers ever suspecting the travellers, and other draught animals, the numbers in fraud or complainiog of it. London must be very considerable. There are at least And, further, if horse flesh has been often accepted as good

ander a false name, it has also been pronounced good by those when aged, the bones contain too great a proportion of
who, to judge of its qualities, have submitted it to careful ex- phosphate of lime, and too little animal matter.
periment, and by all who have tasted it in proper condition Ground into dust, or crushed into half-inch bone, they
that is, when taken from a sound and rested horse, and kept make excellent manure ; while other special manures
sufficiently loog. It is then excellent roasted; and if it be
not so acceptable as bouilli, it is precisely because it furnishes for turnips, &c., are made from the blood, flesh, and
one of the best soups-perhaps the best that is known. It is bones combined.
good also, as experiments prove, made by myself as well as

The Kensington Museum catalogue, compiled by Mr. others, when taken from old horses, not fattened, whose age

P. L. Simmonds, lets us into the secret of a ready way was sixteen, nineteen, twenty, and even twenty-three years of cleaning the bones and divesting them of putrid animals thought worth no more than a few francs beyond the flesh, &c., so as to fit them for use in manufactures, value of their skin. This is a capital fact, since it shows the 'To take off the flesh by hand is a tedious and difficult possibility of utilizing a second time, for their flesh, horses operation. An ingenious Frenchman solved the diffi. which have already been utilized up to old age for their culty. He noticed that rats were very fond of horsestrength; and, consequently, of obtaining a further and almost flesh; so are fowls-other arguments in favour of M. gratuitous profit at the end of their life, after they had well. St. Hilaire's reasoning of the wholesomeness of the nigh paid the cost of their rearing and keep by their labour.”

food. Our Frenchman advised the authorities to So much for the great champion of horsefesh. colonize the dead horse-pound with rats. This com

Having disposed of the flesh, we come next to the mon pound is an errclosed area of about ten acres, surblood, heart, and tongue, weighing about 60lbs. The rounded by a stone wall, to which all carcases, &c. are former is used, like the blood of other animals, as a taken, and among the rest the 400 horses which die or decolorizer, tor manure, and for making, with other are killed in a week in Paris. The catacombs furanimal substances, the well-known salt, prussiate of nished rats by thousands; and now a dead borse put in potash. The disposal of the heart and tongue we will over night is picked beautifully clean by the morning, say nothing about, as there is somewhat of mystery and the bones are ready for the bone.dealer. A grand resting upon their appropriation.

battue is also periodically made, to keep under the The intestines of the horse, weighing about 80lbs., rats, and they are utilized by making their skins into are converted to several uses. When cleaned, they gloves, and possibly their fiesh into pies or ragouts. serve for covering polonies and sausages; or they are We have nearly done with the economic uses of our twisted into bands or strings for bowing cotton, or for worn-out hack; there remain but his pedal extremiother purposes.

ties to deal with. The hoofs, weighing about 6 lbs., are There is seldom much fat to be got from the hor:e: worth 8s. to 108. per cwt. for gelatine, or for making probably about 20lbs. may be obtained; and this is prussiates. They are not adapted to pressing into the, used, after being distilled, for burning in lamps. We so-called horn buttons, which are made from ox-hoofs, import horse grease largely from the River Plate, but possibly may turn up polished in the shape of a but we get better at home. The grease is also worked snuff-box, capped with silver. The shoes will work up up by the soap and candle makers in common with into shoes again, or sell for old iron; and the nails aro other fats, while the entrails and remnants are given to much esteemed for making gun barrels. hogs, to make food for home consumption—at least this We have now used up our “ old horse," and this is is so in the United States, where the porcine race are merely the example of many other animals whose car. less daintily fed than our own store-fed pigs.

cases are turned or might be turned to various useful The bones come next; and these weigh, say about purposes. Such a history points a moral that nothing 100lbs., and are sold at the rate of 4s. 6d. per cwt., should be despised, for out of many waste substances either to convert into knife-handles, or for making phos- money is to be made; and the large profits of scavengers, phorus, and superphosphate of lime. They will not do knackers, and dust-contractors are evidences of the for animal charcoal, because horses being usually killed utilization of offal and sweepings.

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SIR, -As you now and then receive some little matters I shall now make some remarks on the most valuable of written by me, and are so courteous as to give them a place those old practices which are too much neglected-feeding in the Farmers' Gazette, I now send another, in the hope cows and horses on furze (whins), the fiorin grass, and irriit may promote your object in being of benefit to gation. I have been for fifty years and more feeding my those who read your paper. It has been too much the cows and horses on furze; and I can say, from that long expractice of horticulturists to introduce and recommend new perience, that it is the cheapest and the best food for the plants and flowers, and to let the old pass into oblivion. autumn and winter months. I saw it in constant use at the Thus the beautiful moss-rose, the cabbage-rose, the York residence of the late Rev. Horatio Townsend, the author of and Lancaster, the double white-rocket, with others, which the statistical survey of this county, who strongly recomfifty years since were the delight of the cultivators, some mended it. I followed his example, and never have reare now never seen, and others, like poor relations, are left gretted doing so. I have had my horses, getting neither to take the lowest room, and new or scarce plants and flow- hay or oats, in more beautiful condition (sleek as mice) than ers, which bear no comparison in fragrance or beauty, are any of my neighbours, though they had costly grooms, the the ornaments of the garden. In the same way, in improved horses fed with best hay, oats, and beaus, and warmly clad. sgriculture—though there are few who join more in heart Mine were, perhaps, not as fit for the race-course or the and hand in the introduction of new plants and new prace hunting-fields; but for road-riding, carriage-work, or the tices to this land-though there are many of the old I long work of the land, they were most fit, although fed only on to see exploded, such as poorly-paid, badly-sed, and, as a chopped furze and steamed swede turnips; and I rejoice certain consequence, badly executed labour, small, weak, to see that this valuable food has been brought under the badly-fed horses, and consequently light and inefficient notice of the agriculturists. ploughing, and therefore scanty produce--still there are On arranging some papers lately, I found a letter, dated others of the old school I regret to see neglected

June, 1840, from one of the best practical agriculturists I " 'Tis right to be off with the old love,

know. He states, “ The most profitable crop I have planted Before we are on with the new."

is furze. With an acre and-a-half I fed five horses up to the

first of June. I have twelve tons of bay for sale, which I cows mostly, on it all autumn and winter ; he mows it every never had before. It would be much easier to induce the far- second year, and bas abundance for them from a piece of land mer to cultivate furze than to grow turnip ; and I believe it which cannot be ploughed, and which would produce nothing is more profitable. Land inaccessible to the plough, of which else; he cuts it with the straight spade, and it takes a man we see so great a proportion, would yield great crops of furze; for the entire day to prepare sufficient for six horses. Now and land remote from madure could not be better disposed of. tbat Richmond and Chandler have brought out such a machine, We are in the infancy of knowledge as to what ground is ca- there is no excuse for it not being in general vse ; and though pable of, or what plants are best saited to the varieties of furze will grow well on stony and rocky land (I have seen the soils. The forin is a plant that never got a fair trial in the roots several feet down in the chinks of a quarry), the test south of Ireland. I think the time will come when all the bog arable dry land will produce a far better and more abandant and low lands will be covered with it. If you look out about crop, and a more succulent shoot. Three acres of such land the latter end of June you will meet it at every step.” The appropriated to the growing of a plant which is perennial, and old practice of preparing furze was tedious, and comparatively requires no further culture (though, I doubt not, it would be expensive-by a block with transverse knives, sometimes with still better for annually opening the ground and digging or a long handle, and better with a chain, hooked on what is forking in manure), still an everlasting winter meadow, of no known by the name of a turner wattle, or by a straight spade, comparison better food than hay, is no slight benefit now that sometimes by thrashing. The great desideratum has been the difficulty of its preparation-the great obstacle—has been hit upon by Messrs. Richmond and Chandler, in their power- overcome. Cattle will not hove with it. They are always ful straw-cutters, varying in price from £7 to £10.

sleek, an indication of health. It is in a fit state from October I have just now attended my machine bought from Mr. to May, inclusive. It improves the wind; a thick-winded Thomas M‘Kenzie, Cork, for £7, a man cutting, and a boy horse becomes a free breather ; broken-winded have no apfeeding it, the furze ready, and in 17 minutes they cut 17 pearance of their being so; and I have seen horses cared of buckets full. The bushel contains 3} gallons. This is fully cough by feeding with it. I dare say many wbo know not its sufficient for four horses for 24 hours instead of hay; hay value, and who are of those who deprecate any innovation or is spread on the top of the furze, and cut with it; it improves change, will say all this is hyperbole ; this was often said of the cutting, saves the boy's hands from the prickles, and is fiorin and of turnip culture ; but when the failure of the an advantage in the feeding. When ready it is wetted with potato compelled turnip culture, they then saw that the new water, which makes the mastication easier.

The expense

was better ; and I pledge myself that any who henceforth use of the man and boy is ls. 5d. a day-say 10 working hours, furze, as directed, will fully agree in every word I say. Diand working little once a quarter-hour or (the one-fortieth rections for sowing the seed in fields would be very desirable. of 17 pence for the labour of preparing food for four horses, or

Yours, &c., WILLIAM R. TOWNSEND, about three-eighths of a penny a-head. A tenant of mine who Aghadda Reclory, Rostellan, lives in Carberry told me he feeds his horses entirely, and his Co. Cork, Feb. 12, 1858.





[TRANSLATED FROM FRENCH OF " JOURNAL D'AGRICULTURE PRATIQUE."] In according its kind approbation to my last researches on surprise on seeing my anticipations at fault in regard to the the solubility of fossil phosphates of lime, and in deigaing to action of the fossil phosphates employed alone, and in the slate encourage me, through the organ of its reporter, M. Payen, to of fine powder. My researches in the laboratory on some cofollow them up, the Academy of Sciences has marked out for efficients of solubility in carbonic acids, the laws of analogy, me a course in which I have proceeded with the anxious desire and, I must also add, the ignorance of actual science as to the of noticing in it some facts interesting both to physiology and modifications the nodules undergo in presence of the air conto agriculture. I propose to detail the first results to which tained in the arable soil—all this led me to regard these my experiments have conducted me.

manures as slowly assimilable, deserving on this account to be 'I was desirous, in the first instance, in spite of the unfa- classed far enough from bone charcoal. Nevertheless the agri. vourable season, to make in May some preliminary essays on cultural experiments seemed to contradict my precouceived the culture of wheat. For that purpose I commenced opera- ideas. We shall see, as we proceed, that this contradiction tions upon a piece of land cleared only a few days previous to manifested itself afresh in more conclusive essays. the experiment, and on which I have comparatively employed My second series of experiments were made on the culture nodules of pulverized phosphates at the rate of 55 per cent., of buckwheat, which in the west absorbs enormous masses of and animal charcoal (black) in small grains, 72 per cent. of animal charcoal. The surplus of the quantities assimilated by richness. The earth, rich in humus and acid principles, pos- this plant remain in the soil, in which its action is subsequently sessed the best conditions for dissolving the phosphates. The felt upon the winter wheats. dressing was employed at the rate of 6 hectolitres to the hec- In order to place myself as much as possible beyond the intare, and the results observed were as follow:

fluences, multiplied and unequal, of experiments on a large scale, Io the pieces which were planted with wheat there was no I resolved to make my experiments in pots, on substances ex. appreciable difference between the produce of the animal char- actly weighed, and in presence of elements of irrigation and coal, the fossil phosphates slightly animalized, and the same exposure perfectly identical. phosphate mixed with very porous charcoal. There was a very Eleven pots were filled with earth extremely poor, and demarked superiority, which I was far from expectiog, in another rived from the disintegration of schistose rocks. The earth piece in which the nodules, simply reduced to very five powder, was minutely mixed in each pot with 10 grammes of manure had been employed comparatively with animal charcoal in and two seeds of buckwheat, which were sown from the 25th small grains. In all these essays in other respects the produce of June to the 22nd of September, when the experiment pas was moderate, wbatever was the dressing adopted, in consc. completed. The watering of the pots was performed twice aquence of the very recent clearing of the land.

day with rain water. Vegetation proceeded well, except in Two pieces of land were sown with oats, and dressed, one the cases in which earth was used without manure, and with with powdered nodule, the other with animal charcoal. In nodules treated with 20 per cent. of sulphuric acid. In these both cases the produce was fine, but there was still no appre- two instances the plants were poor and weak, and the produce ciable difference observable, either in quantity or in the ap- insigoificant. We must not forget that the poverty of the pearance of the crops.

earth employed was extreme. Humus exist in it only in In spite of the unfavourable conditions in which these pre- very minute proportion. Its aptitude to retain water and liminary essays took place, I must confess I was struck with coadense the gases was as feeble as possible.

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