Obrazy na stronie


Dec. 22, 1865.

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society.



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the gun-cotton from which it is prepared, as will appear Dr. Roscoe, therefore, suggested that I should under by the following comparison :

take some experiments on this subject, and kindly placed Pyroxyline.

Chlorinated product. the necessary time and apparatus at my disposal. I may C24 144


here be allowed to express my thanks for his kindness, and

for the advice I have received from him during the proseO20



cution of these experiments.


It appeared from the observations of Vogel on the air 5NH


of the Baltic and of the Channel that the sea abstracts to 594


a very considerable extent the carbonic acid from the

atmosphere; and this conclusion was apparently confirmed 816.5

by the experiments of Emmet on the air over the Atlantic With respect to the yellow combinations obtained by and at Bermuda, and by the determinations of Watson at the action of ammonia upon gun-cotton of various kinds, Bolton, made on the air blowing from the seaward. I find that they are all distinguished by their ready merely qualitative, and the circume tances under which

These experiments were, however, for the most part, solubility in wood spirit, and in mixtures of ether and they were made, together with the inaccurate nature of alcohol, but that alcohol alone is for them but an indiffe. the methods employed, render such a conclusion premarent solvent. The solutions obtained do not offer any ture. In fact, the experiments of Lewy and Morren on promise of being successfully employed as photographic the nature of the gases which sea water holds in solution collodion ; firstly, on account of their objectionable at different periods of the day and during various seasons colour ; and, secondly, by reason of the opaque and puls of the year would appear to show that the sea may posverulent qualities of the film left on eraporation.-Pho- sibly act in quite the opposite direction, and cause a sentographic News.

sible increase in the con parative amount of atmospheric carbonic acid.

The air contained in sea water consists of variable PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES.

quantities of free carbonic acid, oxygen, and nitrogen,

and Morren and Lewy hare shown that the changes in MANCHESTER LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL the relative proportions of these gases depend-(1) upon SOCIETY.

alteration of temperature affecting the relative amounts of November 28, 1865.

the dissolved gases in accordance with the laws of gaseous

absorption ; and (2) upon the variations in intensity of R. Angus SMITH, Ph.D., F.R.S., &c., President, in the direct and diffused solar ligl.t, producing a corresponding Chair.

effect upon the vitality of sea plants and animals, and Dr. Roberts drew attention to the injurious effects pro hence altering the composition of the dissolved gases. duced by burning Pharaoh's serpents in close rooms, and Some further experiments by Lewy, on the composition gare the particulars of a case which had lately come under of the atmosphere above the Atlantic ocean in the tropics, his notice.

tend to confirm the above supposition of the possible inDr. Roscoe stated that in his opinion persons could not crease in carbonic acid in the atmosphere above the sea. be too carefui respecting the inhaling of even small quan- In fact, if it is possible that the composition of the air tities of mercury vapour, and he alluded in support of his above the sea in our latitudes can be sensibly altered by opinion to the fact that two German gentlemen who were this phenomenon of the variation in the nature of the engaged in a London laboratory, in the preparation, for a gases in solution in sea water, as Lewy and Morren assert, scientific purpose, of volatile organic mercury compounds, we might expect that the atmosphere above the tropical had recently been poisoned by the accidental absorption oceans would manifest to a much larger extent variations through the lungs or skin of very small quantities of the in the relative amounts of carbonic acid and oxygen, since vapours of these substances. The symptoms character- infusoria exist, as is well known, in enormous quantities istic of this form of mercurial poisoning are of the most in these oceans, and the composition of the air in their painful and distressing kind, the first patient dying in a waters must necessarily undergo rapid variation, and a state of mania shortly after his admission into the hospital, considerable evolution of the dissolved gases must conand the second, on whom the effect became first percep- sequently occur. At the instance of the French Academy, tible three months after he had ceased to work with the Lewy collected air at different times during a royage from substance, now lying in a hopeless state of idiocy. Havre to Santa Marta, and on subsequent analysis not

A paper was read “On the Amount of Carbonic Acid only did it appear that the mean quantity of carbonic contained in the Air above the Irish Sea,” by Mr. T. E. acid was sensibly greater in the air of the Atlantic ocean Thorpe, Assistant in the prirate Laboratory, Owen's Col- in the tropics than in the air of the land, but also that the lege, communicated by Professor H. E. Roscoe, F.R.S. air of the day was appreciably richer in carbonic acid and

The determination of the amount of carbonic acid con- oxygen than air collected in the night. tained in the atmosphere over the land has been made the On comparing the means of each series we have, in subject of investigation by many experimenters, and from 10,000 volumes of air, for the the results obtained by Thcodore de Saussure, Brunner,

Day (mean of Night (mean of Boussingault, Angus Smith, and others we are acquainted

7 experiments.) 4 experiments.) with the exact proportion of this gas contained in the Carbonic acid


3'459 atmosphere under varying circumstances of situation and Oxygen


2097'412 weather.

and this variation appeared to increase in proportion as But hitherto the influence which à priori must neces- the middle of the ocean was approached. sarily be exercised by large bodies of water on the pro- This remarkable phenomenon, of the variation in comportion of carbonic acid in the atmosphere has scarcely position of the air above the tropical oceans, may doubtbeen sufficiently studied. The fact that a considerable in- less be accounted for, without any reference to the direct fluence is exercised has certainly been noticed, but beyond action of infusoria, by the heating effect of the sun on the incomplete results of one or two observers, we have the sea water and the consequent disengagement during no numerical data from which to judge of the extent of the day of gas proportionately rich in carbonic acid and this influence, and we therefore know but little of the oxygen. During the night, on the other hand, as this changes in the comparative amount of the atmospheric source of action is removed, the disengagement may be carbonic acid as effected by the waters of the ocean. assumed not to occur ; and, following Lewy, one may



perceive that this difference would become more appre- cubic centimetre of it corresponded to one milligramme of ciable and easier to trace in air at great distances from any carbonic acid ; it thus contained 2.864 grms. of pure crys. continent than in air collected nearer the coasts, and, con- tallised oxalic acid per litre. Twenty-five cubic centisequently, liable to be mixed with the air of the land. metres of the baryta solution were originally made to

Although the precision of these results is certainly re- correspond to about twenty-eight of oxalic acid ; but, of markable, they still require contirmation. The air was course, the exact strength of the baryta water was ascercollected in glass tubes of about 100 c.c., and analysed tained previous to each experiment. The bottles were eighteen or twenty months after in the eudiometric appa- generally filled with the air by means of the bellows; but ratus of Regnault and Reiset. The fact pointed out by sometimes when the wind was strong it sufficed to hold Regnault that air which has remained for any great length them up for a minute or two in such a manner that the air of time in glass tubes in variably exhibits notable diminu- could circulate freely within. The baryta water remained tions in the amount of carbonic acid, since the glass absorbs in contact with the enclosed air for three-quarters of an a portion of this gas; and the difficulty generally expe- hour to one hour, during which time the bottles were rienced in accurately noting contractions so minute as the frequently agitated. Although even this is longer, perabsorption of the carbonic acid from a small volume of haps, than is actually required for the complete absorption atmospheric air, are circumstances which may possibly of the carbonic acid, still, for the sake of conclusiveness, influence the reliability of the results.

in experiment 4 the bottles were allowed to stand for The kind permission of the Honourable Board of Trinity three hours, and in experiment 13 for six hours, before House has enabled me during the vacation of last summer the solutions were tested. The capacities of the two to make some additional experiments in this direction on bottles which served for all the experiments were 4815 C.C. board the Bahama Bank Light.vessel, situated in the Irish and 4960 с.c. The burette was Mohr's modification, for sea, latitude 54° 21' and longitude 4° 11', seven miles which a table of calibration had been constructed by W.N.W. of Ramsey, Isle of Man, and consequently weighing and interpolating in the ordinary way. nearly equidistant from the nearest shores of England, The fact that the various meteorological changes influScotland, and Ireland. The ship is placed to mark the ence to such a remarkable extent the nature and amount proximity of a dangerous bank, by which, for the greater of the gases dissolved in sea-water renders it necessary, in part of the day, a strong current, setting in from the any investigation on the constitution of the atmosphere southward, flows through the North Channel and thence over the sea, to take particular account of these changes. into the Atlantic.

Accordingly the temperature, pressure, and degree of These experiments were made in the early part of humidity of the air ; direction and force (estimatedAugust, at the same periods of the twenty-four hours- Beaufort's system) of wind); amount (estimated-overnamely, about 4 a.m. and 4 p.m., or nearly the times of cast = 10) and nature of clouds, and general appearance minimum and maximum temperature.

of the day, together with the temperature of the seaPettenkofer's method of analysis was adopted, with the water and amount of sea disturbance (1 to 9), were noted improvements in the practical details suggested by Angus at the time of each experiment. Smith. This method is in principle similar to the one The following table shows the results of these observaadopted by Watson and Emmet, but admits of far more tions, together with the amount, in volumes, of the car. delicacy and precision in practice. Baryta is substituted bonic acid in 10,000 volumes of air. All the experiments for lime water, and oxalic for sulphuric acid. The solution which were made are here given. The hours of observaof oxalic acid for these experiments was made so that one tion, as before stated, were 4 a.m. and 4 p.m. :


Temp. of Air.



Carb, Acid.

Night Aug 1865





of Sea.

Direction and
Force of Wind.

Sea Distr. (i to 9),

Amount and Nature of

(Overcast = 10.)


D. Bulb.

W. Bulb.

1 Ex. 2 Ex.




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4th D.
762'5 164°C. 11'1°C. 16'o°C. N. W.by W.v.lt. calm cirrus

2.66 3'07 Day v. fine & cl. 4th N. 762'0 139 129 150 S. W.bys. It. br. cirro-cumuli

9 2'92 3:05 3 5th / D. 7612 16:1 14'4 150 S. W.bys. It. br. cirro-cumuli

9 308 3:21 Not much sun. 6th N. 753'4 14'2 13'3 15'0 S. W. by W. lt. Icirro-cumuli

9 330 3:22 Bryt.wtr.exp.zh 7th D. 757'5 172 15ʻI

N.W. light. I cirro-cumuli 6 3:20 3:15 Sunny, v, fine. 7th N. 760.2 13.6 150 N.N. W. mod.


cirro-cumuli 8 3.06 3:19 8th D. 7610 183 13'1 16'o N.N. W. lt. br.


3.32 3.02 Fine and sunny. 8 8th N. 75897 133 12'2 15'0 S.W.by W.It.br


7 2'93 3:10
9 9th D.
756'4 15'0
Igo 8. by W. mod.

7 3'09 2'23 Rain.

[day: 10 10th D. 749'3 | 150 139 14'5 S. by W. fresh


9 3:11 3:11 V. wet, rain all uth N.

75005 13:4 11'9 14'5 S. W. by W. str. Ś nim. & cirro-cum. a 3.09 3:102 V.windymuch 12 16th D. 652'314'7 12.8

150 N.W. by W. It. cirro-stratus 8 2'93 2.951 rain fr.11-16. 13 16th N. 753'1 | 13'9

W.S. W. fresh


9 3'122.94 Byrt.wtr.exp.6h
Day mean of 14 determinations

3.085 In comparing these results with the following deter- ,

No. of

Vols, in mination of the carbonic acid contained in land air, it is




19,000 of geen that the air of the Irish Sea contains a much smaller

air. proportion of carbonic acid than in the air of the neigh

Roscoe, ist series, London & Manchester, 108

3.97 bouring land. The most extensive observations on the


Manchester, 53 3'92 land air hare given as means :


4'03 General mean of land air,

4'04 Observer.

Vols, in
No. of

Mean of 26 expts. on sea air
10,000 of

3'086 Th. de Saussure Chambeisy,

It would also appear that no difference is discernible in

104 4'15 3 the amount of carbonic acid in the air of day and night Boussingault,


142 3.97 over the Irish Sea. On the other hand, from Saussure's Verver,



420 I observations, a decided difference may be traced between

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Dec. 22, 1865.

Pharmaceutical Society - Academy of Sciences.


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day and night air on the land--a conclusion subsequently Mr. Squire replied that he had no wish to expose nogconfirmed by several experimenters.

trums. In the present case it was asserted that this extract, In noting the above mean 3.08, and the apparent which was usually thrown away, was much superior to identity in the amount of carbonic acid in the air of day the oil which was preserved, and he thought it of importand night over the sea, it should be borne in mind that ance to establish the truth or falsehood of this assertion. July and August are, in general, the hottest periods of the Dr. EDWARDS contended that the discussion was one year (these months were unusually hot this year, 1865), which the Society could not enter upon. They could not and that, consequently, all the influences may be supposed decide upon the therapeutic value of a medicine. at work which would tend to increase the relative amount The CHAIRMAN suggested that Mr. Squire should induce of carbonic acid, and render appreciable any difference in a medical friend to make some experiments with the extract, the air of night and day.

and report the results to the Society. The conclusions therefore to be drawn from these ex- Mr. Barr (?) said that the extract itself was sold to periments are:

druggists or medical men, who could use it in whatever 1. That the influence of the sea in our latitudes in forin they pleased. Under the first patent, he might abstracting the carbonic acid from the atmosphere is not explain, only the aqueous extract was used, but under the 80 great as the old experiments of Vogel and others would second this extract was treated with alcohol and ether, lead us to suppose.

and all the extracts (so we understood) were used together. 2. That the sea in our latitudes does not act in increasing The subject was then dropped. the amount of carbonic acid in the air above the ocean, as Dr. ATTFIELD read a note from Mr. Groves, who claimed found by Lewy over the Atlantic near the equator. to have first made known, in a communication to the

3. That the differences observed in the air of night and Pharmaceutical Conference on the “ Rancidity of Fats," day by Lewy on the Atlantic are not perceptible in the the fact that some essential oils, especially those of pimento air above the Irish Sea.

and cloves, prevent ointments from becoming rancid. 4. That in the month of August, 1865, the mean quan

Mr. REYNOLDS exhibited some models of fungi of tity of carbonic acid in the atmosphere of the Irish Sea German manufacture. was 3'08 in 10,000 volumes of air.

The Chairman expressed an opinion that a set should In conclusion, I beg to acknowledge the kind attention be purchased for the Society's museum. which I received from Captain Temple and from his crew Professor BENTLEY called attention to specimens of Vicduring my stay on board his ship.

torian products lately exhibited at the Dublin Exhibition, and now presented to the Society. Among them was some

of the oil of the Eucalyptus odorata, now imported into PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY.

this country in considerable quantities, and used to scent Wednesday Evening, December 6.

soaps. Mr. Hills, Vice-President, in the Chair.

Dr. ArtField then read a long communication “ On the AFTER the usual preliminary business, Mr. SQUIRE called Physics of Filtration," a report of which we are obliged the attention of the Society to “ Cod Liver Extract." He to defer. had brought with him the extract resulting from the evaporation of the water which oozes out of the cod's liver

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. when extracting the oil. He finds that on the average 28lbs. of large and fresh livers yield 12lbs. of oil and ulb.

December 11, 1865. of water ; this evaporated yields 2 oz. of extract. 5 grs. SEVERAL communications on the subject of “ Cholera" of the extract, when purified, is stated by Messrs. Barr

were read.

We need only mention that by M. Rezard de and Co. to be equal to a tablespoonful of cod liver oil. Wouves " On the Diagnosis of Cholera by the Presence of It was this startling announcement that induced him to Albumen in the Urine of the Patient at the Commencement have the water collected and evaporated, in order that the of the Malady.The presence of albumen in the urine members of the Society might examine the product and is regarded by the author as the one characteristic and judge for themselves, and if it was thought worth while distinguishing symptom between simple diarrhea and to have it analysed in their laboratory. He thought it true cholera. was highly important for us to know whether or not that M. Nickles presented a note “ On a New Character we were throwing away so valuable a nutrient as these Distinctive between Cane Sugar and Glucose.The gentlemen state it is.

behaviour of cane sugar and glucose, when heated with A gentleman who attended for Messrs. Barr and Co. bichloride of carbon, is as different as black from white. explained that the cod liver extract was in no wise a secret In other words, cane sugar sealed in a tube with the or quack remedy. The method by which it was prepared, bichloride and heated for some time to about 100° C., soon he said, had been patented, and he read the specification turns black ; while glucose, under the same circumstances, of the first of the two patents taken out by the proprietors. keeps its colour. Although the bichloride of carbon alone

Mr. SQUIRE wished to know how the value of the extract is not decomposable at a temperature of 98°, the author was estimated, so as to compare it with the value of the believes that in this experiment a decomposition takes cod liver oil.

place, chlorine being set free in the first instance, and It was explained in reply that the amount of extractive passing subsequently to the state of hydrochloric acid by and inorganic matters yielded by a given amount of the its action on the organic matter. That chlorine is formed oil, and supposed to be the same as those contained in the first, and then hydrochloric acid, the author conextract, give the means of determining the relative value siders is proved by the following experiments :-In one of the oil and extract.

tube, dry glucose and bichloride of carbon are sealed ; in Dr. ATTFIELD said that he would not shrink from making another, dry tartaric acid and bichloride of carbon; in a the analysis suggested by Mr. Squire; but he thought the third, a mixture of dry tartaric acid and dry glucose, and question one on which chemistry could throw but little bichloride of carbon. All three tubes are then heated in light. It was a matter for physicians, who observed the a steam bath. In the first two tubes no action is effects of medicines, to decide.

observed ; in the third, the mixture is seen to swell up Mr. Denne thought it was no business of the Pharma- and turn brown, and on opening it the tube is found to ceutical Society to take up the analysis of proprietary contain free chlorine. The explanation of this appears to medicines. If one was alleged to be poisonous or dan- be that the decomposition of the bichloride is determined gerous, it was another matter ; but in general it was no by the elements of water separated during the production part of the Society's business to expose nostrums. of the gluco-tartaric acid.



M. Caron, in a note, announced his “ Discorery of glass, and iron, and steel, and for other like purposes." Niobium and Tantalum in the Tin Ore of Montebras A communication from H. Boetius, Schaunstein, near (Creuse) to the extent of some 2 or 3 per cent. of the Obernkirchen, Germany.-August 15, 1865. mineral.

2219. H. Terrell, Basinghall Street, London, and T. Dow, M. E. Kopp communicated an account of the “ Chemical | Alpha Road, New Cross, Kent, “ Improvements in the Examination of some Ornaments Found in a Celtic Tomb." method of and apparatus for treating peat and other He gives the analyses of two rings, composed chiefly of plastic materials.”—August 29, 1865. tin and copper, and of a third ring, which seems to hare 2482. C. H. L. Wintzer, Osnabrück, Hanover, “Imbeen made of some very bituminous or resinous fossil provements in separating phosphorus from iron and other wood.

metals in metallurgical processes." --September 27. 1865. M. Houzeau addressed a short note on “ Ozone." He 2870. F. Prange, Liverpool, “ Improvements in the is very unwilling to believe that his paper will not really manufacture of steel.” A communication from J. Rosendetect ozone in the atmosphere, while he admits that it thal and F. Gierow, Berlin, Prussia.—November 7, 1865. gives no decisive proof of the presence. He agrees with 2964. W. E. Newton, Chancery Lane, “An improved M. Frémy ihat such decisive proof is wanting ; but he process for hardening malleable and non-malleable cast still believes in the existence of atmospheric ozone. iron.” A communication from T. H. Jenkins, New York,

M. Payen replied to the note of M. Personne last week, U.S.A.- November 17, 1865. and claimed the first publication of the explanation of the 2187. C. A. Watkins, Greek Street, Westminster, “Imdecolouration of iodide of starch by heai in 1843. M. provements in apparatus for supplying carbonic acid gas Personne made his communication on the subject in 1861. to casks and other vessels from which beer, wine, and other

fermented liquors are drawn."-Aug. 25, 1865:

2682. W. Beardmore, Parkhead, Lanarkshire, “ImNOTICES OF PATENTS.

provements in furnaces.”– Oct. 17, 1865.

3025. W. A. Lyttle, General Post Office, London, GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION FOR “Improvements in furnaces."—Nov. 25, 1865.

Communicated by Mr. Vaughan. PATENT AGENT, 54, Chancery

Lano, W.C.
2952. R. Jones, Botolph Lane, London," • Improve-

Nero Cornish Minerals, ments in preserving animal and vegetable substances, and in means or apparatus employed therein.”—Petition

To the Editor of the CHEMICAL NEWS. recorded Nor. 16, 1865.

SIR,—IIard work may bring its own reward, but it some3042. W. R. Lake, Southampton Buildings, Chancery times brings other things which are not very nice. On the Lane, “An improved composition for enamel, paini, whole it is better not 10 labour overmuch. I'o analyse and varnish, cement, or plaster." -A communication from describe a really new and interesting mineral is, it seems, W. B. Watkins, New York, U.S.A.-Nov. 27, 1865. an unwarrantable liberty for a chemist to take. To analyse

3071. W. Thompson, Lower Gardiner Street, Dublin, and describe several new minerals is more than a mistake; “ Improvements in fining. purifying, and mellowing it may even amount to a crime, if the wretched chemist spirituous liquors, by combining therewith other sub-chance to speak of the crystallography of any of his new stances for the production of a new spirituous or vinous species. Most chemists, however, do not commit this compound therefrom.”

offence; they are generally content with the safe, though 3075: J. Gamgee, Bayswater. Middlesex, “ Improve- vague, expressions “ the substance crystallises in delicate ments in disinfecting stables and cattle sheds, and in the tufts of needles ; or, “in hard and lustrous prisms.” apparatus employed therein."-Nov. 30, 1865.

But I must now describe my own offence, and try to show 3095. E. D. Wilson, Edinburgh, • Improvements in that I have not been so very wicked after all. furnaces."

In the Chemical News of September 15 I gave a brief 3101. I. N. Bennie, Gowan, Lanarkshire, “

• Improve note on a new phosphate of cerium. Shortly afterwards ments in apparatus for distilling oils and condensing oily Mr. Greville Williams established the presence of didyvapours."'-Dec. 2, 1865.

mium in the mineral, and was good enough to name it 3109. W. Beardmore, Park head, Lanarkshire, “ Certain Churchite. But before this occurred, I had sent to the improvements in the construction of forge furnaces.” Chemical Society my full memoir on three new mineral

3111. A. Paraf and R. S. Dale, Manchester, “A new species from Cornwall, cerous phosphate being fully decolouring matter for producing scarlet colours upon woven scribed therein. My paper should have been read at the fabrics and yarns."

first meeting of the present session of the Chemical Society, 3115. J. Tomlinson, Eden Mount, Carlisle, “Improve- had not the Secretary accidentally mislaid it. So, as five ments in the manufacture of disinfectants."-Dec. 4, 1865. minutes' notice, I gave a lame account of my chief results. 3119. R. A. Brooman, Fleet Street, London,

A new

Afterwards, Professor Maskelyne, although he did not or improved cement or composition applicable to the agglo- accept my opinion as to the crystalline form of the new meration or moulding of various materials, and to other mineral, yet spoke of the interest attached to my discovery, useful and decorative purposes.” A communication from in courteous and congratulatory terms. But a change has S. Sorel and E. J. Menier, Paris.- Dec. 5, 1865.

now taken place. Professor Maskelyne now speaks of me Notices to PROCEED.

as “the chemist who introduced the mineral ;" how ele1936. W. Richards and J. Richards, Oldbury, Wor- / gant a way of avoiding the suggestion of Mr. Church's cestershire, “Certain improvements in the manufacture discovery !"- and thinks that it would have been well if of sal ammoniac."-Petition recorded July 26, 1865. I had adopted in my paper the diffident tone with which

1964. E. Sabel, Moorgate Street, London, Improre. he credits my speech before the Chemical Society. Proments in the manufacture of iron and steel." A com- fessor Maskelyne further says “there are no grounds what. munication from M. D. Henvaux, Saint Servais, near ever at present for calling the mineral oblique," &c. In Namur, Belgium.-July 29, 1865.

answer to this statement, I beg to say that my paper is 2015: E. L. Ransome,' Ipswich, Suffolk,“ Improve- essentially chemical, and is so entitled ; that the attempted ments in paints or preparations for coating surfaces.- description of the crystalline form of the species is conAugust 3, 1865:

fessediy imperfect, and is prefaced by the modifying words 2105. J. F. Boetius, Smethwick, Staffyrdshire, “Im- " It would appear,” &c.; and that my opinion thus doubtprovements in furnaces to be used in the manufacture of fully expressed was not formed hastily, but after numerous

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Dec. 22, 1865.

301 angular measurements, and after careful study of the have yet reported thereupon. The indifference manifested cleavages. For these purposes my specimen must be far by the metropolitan companies to this simple mode of more suitable than the specimens which Professor Maske- purifying their gas from these troublesome sulphur comlyne possesses, and which, he says, are in every respect pounds and ammonia, with correlative improvement in inferior.

illuminating power, whilst not unprecedented in manuProfessor Miller, of Cambridge, was good enough to facturing annals, is certainly unique in its way. Thus inform me that from a small fragment which I forwarded they have been for a long time past constantly censured to him he had not been able to detach a crystal so as to by the examining chemist to the Corporation for violating obtain the necessary reflexion. I stated this at the Society's the Act of Parliament regarding the purity of their gas, meeting ; I did not say that Professor Miller “could not until they have at last provoked the formation of a new meet with any angles good enough for measurement." company, backed by the Corporation itself, with, at the

As to the fancied resemblance of Churchite to Wavellite, same time, a sort of waste product of their manufacture, I never mistook the former for the latter. Had I been generated in their own works, crying out, as it were, under this impression, I should not have been so glad to · Why will you not let me purify your gas ? " secure the curious fragment, nor so eager to investigate

I am, &c. its chemical composition.

Alfred GEORGE ANDERSON, Professor Maskelyne very justly complains of the want

Professor of Chemistry in Queen's College, of a laboratory at the British Museum. But when Mr.

Birmingham. Talling sent the new mineral to the Museum on approba- December 12, 1865. tion, might not Professor Maskelyne have tried a blowpipe experiment with it at home? Thus he might have saved

Composition of Rice. me the labour of investigating, as far as I could, all the

To the Editor of the CHEMICAL News. chief physical and chemical features of this new mineral, of which, I confess, I am now very fond ; thus, also, 1 SIR, -The results of the analysis of fourteen samples of should have been spared the trouble of writing this reply: East Indian rice will probably interest some of your I wait for Professor Maskelyne's promised crystallo

readers : graphic determination of my new phosphate of cerium.

Greatest variation in.

Starch and fibre. I am sorry he did not accept my offer to lend him my own


4'45 Gluten

6'02 specimen. I am, &c. A. H. CHURCII.

Sugar and gum

3'09 Cirencester, Deceniber 18.



Associate of the Royal School of Mines.
To the Editor of the CHEMICAL News.

They comprised varieties of Bengal, Madras, Java,
Sır, –The reply of the Registrar of the Royal School of Siam, Rangoon, Moulmein, and Arracan.
Mines to the inquiry I ventured to make is complete and

I am, &c.

R. RANSFORD. to the point. It is satisfactory to know that this title of Brompton, December 18. “ Associate of the Royal School of Mines” is warranted by recognised authority, and conferred with the sanction of

MISCELLANEOUS. a representative of the Crown. The knowledge that the title is thus bestowed must tend to enhance its value in general estimation. I am, &c.

Royal Institution of Great Britain.—The fol

J. DENHAM SMITH. lowing are the lectures for the ensuing week :-Tuesday, December 11.

Dec. 26, Thursday, Dec. 28, and Saturday, Dec. 30,

3 o'clock, Professor Tyndall, “ On Sound (juvenile Removal of Bisulphide of Carbon from Coal Gas.

lectures). To the Editor of the CHEMICAL News.

Suicide of Storer.---This young man, who, it will Sır.-Your notice at page 277 of the CHEMICAL News for be remembered, was assistant to a surgeon at Salisbury, December 8 respecting the results obtained in my experi- whose daughter he was accused of poisoning by strychnia, ments upon the removal of bisulphide of carbon froin coal committed

suicide in Fisherton Gaol. From a letter he gas by "scrubbing" with ammoniacal liquor of gas works left behind him, it appears that he prescribed some pills is not quite correct, and you will oblige by allowing me to

for the young lady, each of which contained gth of a grain give some explanation.

of strychnia- a dangerous dose, which could only have You remark that my results are not equal to those been ordered by a rash or ignorant prescriber. The young obtained by others, and you mention it had been found lady was directed to take but one at a time. She probably that nine-tenths of the sulphur compounds is removed at

took four at once, or at short intervals, and death was the the Nottingham Gas Works. In the summer of this year

result. I found that all the bisulphide of carbon and such allied How it Ought (!) to bo Taught that Fat is sulphur compounds, could be taken out of the gas without Formed in the Body.--"Let him teach that the difficulty in this way; and some experiments conclusively hydrogens are generated to a large amount in the system proving this were published in the Journal of Gas Lighting from the fat taken, and consequently absorb oxygen freely, for September 5 last, in reference to which a leading article the natural results being aqueous elements, which become in the same number I now quote from says : “ The means by inspissated, and fatty deposits are the result. When there which Professor Anderson has succeeded in completely is a diminished supply of oxygen to the intestines, with a purifying coal gas from sulphur in any form is by repeated full supply of hydrogen, then greater quantities of fat and copious washing with sulphide of ammonium.” necessarily ensue. But let them give up the idea that

I have heard that experiments have been made upon the eating fat itself, or fat-producing elements, supply fat same points at Nottingham ; but as they have not been per se, for they do no such thing. This can only be done published until my own papers appeared in the Journal of in the way I have previously said, by their conversion 'Gas Lighting, gas companies have been, I believe, without into hydrogens, and then combining with oxygen; and if much information upon this subject. It is also within my this is not done many persons, to my own knowledge, who recollection that the Corporation of the City of London are great consumers of fat, never made fat nor carried fat some fifteen months ago appointed a scientific commission themselves in any like proportion."—Writer in a Medical to investigate the matter ; but it does not appear that they | Journal.


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