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mer, living near a small town, might advantageously contract to take the whole of the blood at this
LIME, AND ITS CHEMICAL CHANGES. price. There are many other sources of animal
Lime is not, as it was once supposed, an element, but consists matters which will at once occur, available for
of the metal calcium united with the gas oxygen, and is promanures. Of these, we may particularise the refuse of glue and oil-boiling works, which yield, perly an oxide of calcium, just as potash, soda, and magnesia annually, a considerable quantity of nitrogeous pure in nature, except occasionally in the craters of volcanoes,
are oxides of potassium, sodium, magnesium. It is never found offal; and the two analyses of seal and glue refuse which follow will show that, even when they are
but is usually united with carbonic acid, for which it has a prepared without much care, they may become strong attraction. In this state it is neutral
, and insoluble in useful manures :
pure water. When limestone or any other form of carbonate
of lime is exposed to a sufficiently high temperature with Seal Refuse. Glue Refuse.
access of air or moisture, the carbonic acid gas is driven off, Ash
and the lime which remains is called quick or caustic, from its Organic matter 41.85
strong alkaline re-action. When such lime is plunged into Water 21.34
water for a short time, or water is poured upon it, heat is
evolved, the lime swells, cracks, gives off much watery vaponr, 100.00
and finally falls to a powder. This powder or slaked lime is a 2.24
hydrate of lime, water being chemically combined with it. In The large quantity of ash in these cases is due to this state it is still caustic, though somewhat milder than when the admixture of earthy matters, for the purpose of fresh from the kiln. drying up and rendering portable the animal matter; and, though this has not been done in the
The rise of temperature is so great when large heaps of good most suitable manner, the value of the manure is lime are suddenly slaked, as to enflame gunpowder and scorch about five times as great as that of good farmyard wood; it certainly exceeds, according to Pelletier, 500°; and manure.- PROFESSOR ANDERSON,' in the Trans- when the operation is performed in a dark place, light is also actions of the Highland Society..
evolved. All sorts of imaginary causes have been assigned to account for these phenomena. They are referable, however,
to a very simple and universal law. All substances during GRINDING FEED.
their change from a gaseous to a liquid, or from a liquid to a
solid state, evol heat, and vice versa. The intense cold proExperimental farmers have long urged the im- duced by liquefying ice or snow by admixture with salt is a portance, and even necessity, of chopping or familiar instance of the latter; and the beat evolved in solidi. grinding hay, as well as other food, for cattle and fying carbonic acid under intense cold and pressure is somehorses. The lazy drones have had a hearty times dangerous evidence of the former—the expansion of air laugh over the idea, and called it “ Book Farm- consequent on the sudden liberation of heat from the carbonic ing."
acid in the moment of congelation not unfrequently shattering Now the theory of chopping and grinding food the vessel to atoms. is based on a principle which lies at the foundation of animal physiology. Rest is essential to the
Lime in slaking will absorb one-fourth its weight of water; accumulation of muscle, as well as fat. Jf we wish
but the slaked lime is not more moist than before. The water to increase an animal in flesh or fat, we do not unquestionably, therefore, is chemically combined with the work him.
lime, and becomes solidified; and it is simply owing to this Now a cow wants one-thirtieth of her own
solidification of the water that heat is evolved, weight in hay a day, to keep her in good order ;
Caustic lime has a strong affinity for water and carbonic and we may thus calculate the amount of labour re
acid. When kept in a dry place it gradually slakes, cracking, quired to masticate the food, and fit it for the splitting, and crumbling to powder with the evolution of heat stomach. The labour of chopping or grinding - which, however, is not 90 perceptible on account of the twenty-five pounds of dry hay a day, is no small length of time during which the process is extended—just as item. This excessive labour is performed by one though it had been slaked by pouring on water. In this case set of muscles—the jaws; but, by sympatlıy, affects the lime bas obtained from the atmosphere the 25 per cent. all the other muscles; causes the blood to circulate of water it needs to slake it. There is this difference, howquicker, the breath faster, the consumption of
ever, between air-slaked lime and that which is water-slaked : food greater; and still the growth of the animal is
the former is slaked precisely as the latter, by the absorption retarded.
of water, but it also absorbs carbonic acid from the air, and If a machine was invented to grind hay, the instead of being simply a hydrate of lime as when water-slaked, ground article would approximate, in value, to un
it is a definite compound of hydrate and carbonate of lime, ground oats, in producing fat and muscle. Chop- 42.6 per cent. of the former, and 57.4 of the latter. Air slaked ping hay and stalks is valuable just in proportion lime, therefore, is far from being so caustic as water-slaked, as it approximates to grinding, and relieves the animal of the labour of grinding it. An animal fed upwards of one-half of it being reconverted into the same
chemical state as it was in before burning. on ground or minced food may perform an amount of labour equal to grinding it fit for diges- After the lime has absorbed sufficient water and is completely tion, and fat as fast as another which does not fallen to pieces, carbonic acid is absorbed much less rapidly, labour, but grinds its own food.
especially in damp situations. In fact, though there is a conPrematurely grey whiskers and beard, while the stant tendency in lime to return to the state of carbonate in hair is still black, show the relative amount of labour which it existed previous to burning, yet, by mere exposure to performed by the jaws and the head.
the air, it does not attain this state in any assignable time.
In some walls 600 years old the lime has been found to have compound of hydrate and carbonate of lime is formed as in the absorbed only one-fourth of the carbonic acid necessary to case of air-slaked lime. convert the whole into carbonate; in others, built by the The original limestone, or any other form of carbonate of Romans 1800 years ago, the proportion absorbed bas not ex- lime, then, is perfectly mild. By driving off the carbonic acid ceeded three-fourths of the quantity contained in natural by heat we get lime which is very caustic : by slaking this limestone.
with water we get a less caustic substance-hydrate of lime: When slaked in the ordinary way, by the application of by allowing it to air-slake we get a still less caustic compound water, lime falls to pieces without the absorption of but little -a definite compound of hydrate and carbonate of lime: and if any carbonic acid ; but when slaked and exposed to the air, by exposing it to the air for a sufficient length of time we the absorption of carbonic acid is at first very rapid, but it ultimately get the whole recouverted again into its original gradually becomes very slow, and probably the same definite mild form-carbonate of lime.
The true criterion of farm-management will be cessional than principal crops, adopts autumnal falfound in the result; and when we see different systems lowing as his system, purchases manures ad libitum, producing nearly similar results, it is worth inquiry produces grain crops in successive seasons on the same how they have been brought about. We generally have land, abolishes every previous rule of rotation, and two classes of farmers in every district—the first, as consequently in some seasons his acreable quantities of he is called by his modern neighbours,“ one of the grain will far exceed those of others. His expenditure old school”; the second, as he is termed by the other, also in labour varies greatly, but is generally materially “one of the new school”—both titles expressive of increasing in amount, both as regards horse and their modes of proceeding.
manual. His outlay in implements, cattle, oil As regards the first of these, we have one who acts cake, and cattle food is so large, he becomes subject, methodically: he adopts a system, and pursues it, to a great extent, to the Auctuations that attend without in any way diverging from it. His ex- trade. His returns are doubtless increased; but his penses are reduced to a certain standard, and from outlay is in like ratio; and what perhaps is worst of year
almost wit out variation in all, the current year does not exhibit its profit and amount. His returns differ only as
or loss sufficiently clear to demonstrate to bimself what is prices dictate, the proportions in acreable quantity the actual profit or loss, or how things are really probeing always the same; and whether he adopts the gressing. four, five, or six-course shifts of husbandry, his pur- It is not our intention to deprecate improvements or suing it for years together, without the slightest altera- high-farming ; but our object is to exhibit to farmers tion, enables him annually to estimate the result, so far that a methodical system, whon carried out, is most as external operating causes will permit him to do so; advisable, and generally most conducive to success; while the varying success or failure, in a single year, will for just so far as a farmer strikes out a new path, he necessarily depend upon circumstances which he cannot becomes also subject to greater risks, and which, control. Upon a farm of 400 acres of arable we shall without corresponding talent and adequate capital, is find regularly 100 acres in wheat, 100 in barley and not likely to lead to any beneficial results. Whatever oats, 100 peas, beans, or clover, and 100 acres green is done well continuously carries its own reward; or fallow crops—such as rye, vetches, turnips, but an indiscriminate application of capital, without mangolds, or rape. By pursuing this uniform a corresponding increase of skill and perseverance, system the quautum of labour requisite for the will be almost certain to lead to disasters; cultivation of the farm is invariably the same; and, and we therefore caution experimental and ardent that being the case, all other proportions of expendi- cultivators to pause as they proceed ;' for although ture necessarily follow; so that year by year the varia- we are quite aware that a large return of any particution will scarcely be appreciated, excepting, as already lar description of produce can be sometimes obtained, stated, when it has arisen from circumstances alto still there are certain limitations, to which, upon an gether beyond his power. The prices may vary, but average, it must be reduced ; and even then much will the measure will remain the same: thus rent, labour, depend upon the skill used in arriving at such an end. and seed-corn continue in the same proportion ; pa. We have lately read of a very large expenditure about rochial charges, tradesmen's bills, and tithe rent- to be made upon an estate, very far exceeding the value charge fluctuating only to a limited extent, but never of the fee. We have before heard of this in other materially affecting the general result; and house- quarters; and whether it be as example or experikeeping and personal expenses rarely vary more mental farms that they come before our notice, it is not than from five to ten per cent. Thus each year has sufficient to inform us that the production has been its fixed expenditure; the farm thus striking, as it doubled, if the investment and expenses have been were, its own annual balance of profit or loss as it doubled also. The clear profits, after all, must become proceeds.
the test by which the speculation has been carried on. On the other hand, we find the experimental farmer | It is an old adage, but a true one, that we see the ships adopting every theory as it arises : he pursues no only that arrive in port; those which have gone stated system. In some years his various descriptions down are forgotten. The successful agriculturists have of grain crops far exceed those of others; he has learnt mostly been found amongst the class first named ; to autumn-fallow, and his principal exertion, if it and when we consider the operating causes producing may be termed such, is to farm as little without it such results, we feel we shall be only anticipating the as he may be able. He produces roots rather as suc conclusions of our readers that this must ever be so.
THE CLASS OF PLANTS MOST LIKELY
with clean flinty straw, draw strongly on the soil, and the
straw is but of little value. TO ENRICH THE SOIL.
Barley is appreciated because of the little injury it does to SIR,—There is too general an idea abroad among farmers, the soil, and is more flaggy than wheat. Whent, when the especially our moderns, that he who buys the most menure, crop has fine clear straw, is, to every observant farmer, more artificial or otherwise, is, and must be, the best farmer. I exhausting than the mildewed field. Beans, peas, and other happen to think differently, and consider that he who gets the leguminous plants, are considered fertilizers from the same greatest return for the capital expended displays the most cause--that the quantity of leaf-surface presented absorbs wisdom. The sorts and varieties of plants grown have, Icarbonaceous and nitrogenous matter from the air ; and conthink, much to do with profit, with the same management. sequently they gain more than they lose. And if the principle It is a well-received opinion that plants absorb a considerable be true, that in the process of combustion the same elements amount of material from the air, as carbon, &c. Now, if the return to the air which had been absorbed from it by the plants leaf of the plant, as philosophers tell us, be the medium of or otherwise, the effort of the farmer (when confirmed by pracconveyance of matter existing in the air, what is the natural tice) should be to produce and cultivate those plants the agency inference but that we ought to grow those plants which pre
of which would profit without the direct aid of manures, in sent the greatest surface to its influence ? Take, for instance, many cases too costly. the turnip plant-how is it that with the same appliances The subject is one of importance to the farmer, and these we get one quarter of barley more per acre (with a certainty) few hints may lead abler hands to investigate it, and see after a crop of globe turnips than where swedes have been whether science and practice in this respect agree; then, pergrown ? The thing is clear to our mind; and as matter can- haps, we may not object to a drum-headed-cabbage turniptop, not spring out of nothing, so no more can a good or more and kettle-bottom-sized.
8. G. superior crop come without a cause. I have grown most Normanton, Alfreton, March 16, 1858. varieties of the turnip for many years, and have always found that sort to give the best return which had the greatest top or
FIARS' PRICES. most leaf. Some years ago there was, and with some even now is, great anxiety displayed to get that kind of turnip which had
We give below a table of the fiars' prices of grain as struck
up to Saturday, for purposes of comparison between counties. the largest bulb and the very small top. The after-corn re
From the various methods taken in striking the fiars, it canturns disappointed that choice as a natural consequence, be- not be expected that a near approach to equality can be cause the nitrogenous medium had been curtailed. We should reached. Some counties take the purchasers and others take aim at a bulb as large as possible, and a top as nearly resem
the sellers of grain, and one or two add to or deduct from the bling the cabbage as may be.
prices after the averages are ascertained. In looking over the
various prices, the fiars of oats, beans, and meal appear to run It does not follow, as some may suppose, that an increase of nearly on a par and with no great difference in value, but the top tends to injure the quality of the bulb ; far otherwise. wheat and barley prices vary in a surprising degree. The The large leaf supplies the bulb with the flesh-forming mate
general average of wheat appears to be £2 18. 20. per qr.;
and while Dumfries is 7s. 4d. above this, Edinburgh is 49. rial it could not otherwise obtain ; and in winter affords to
3d, under it-in fact Edinburgh is within 8d. of being the that bulb a natural protection pleasing to behold. What lowest wheat fiars' price; and, in like manner, take the price farmer at all observant, on a cold frosty morning, has not seen struck for barley in Wigtown, 33s. 10d., and the Edinburgh the providential adaptation of the leaf to the bulb when that averages of the three prices etruck, 248. lld.-making Edinleaf has succumbed to the coldP I am not recommending
burgh for barley 8s. Ild. below Wigtown. The first class
barley average in Edinburgh is stated at 278. 30.; the second, the globe variety, or the swede, but that in either case the
259.; the third, 22s. 6d.; while during same period the aveleaf should be as large as possible.
rage of all kinds sold in Edinburgh stock market would reach As regards the manurial properties of the leaf, I consider 28s., or thereby, while first-class barley would certainly be them always worth as much, in the early winter, to plough in
above 29s, 6d. to 308. of average :
FIARS' PRICE8-CROP 1857. as to eat. The same reasoning holds good with other plants.
SHIRE. Wheat. Barley. Oats. Beans. Meal. A field of rape, because of its immense leaf, stands first as an improver. Last year the writer had a field sown with it, and
$ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ 8. d 8. d. £ 8. d. at the same time seeded down with mixed grasses, and it kept Dumfries 2 8 6 1 9 6 10 10 1 19 5 0 17 3 and fatted ten abeep to the acre during the summer. The Renfrew..
2 5 0 1 9 8 1 1 81 2 0 10 0 17 10 practical farmer will know what the high after-condition of
Inverness 2 3 6 1 6 3 1 1 10 2 0 0 0 18 10
0 0 17 9 that will be; and this spring it will afford, from the stems
Wigtown . 2 1 6 1 13 10 i 0 8 1 18 0 0 16 il left, fine early food for sheep.
Ayr...... 2 3 2 1 10 8 0 18 9 2 1 0 0 16 3 Oa all inferior worn-out lands nothing can equal the fertil- Dumbartn. 2 2 11 7 5 1 6 1 19 0 0 17 9 izing power of the rape plant. Let the land intended be well Elgin 2 5 5 1 1 1 1 2 7 1 9 8 0 18 4
2 3 0 1 6 9 0 19 7 1 19 5 0 16 autumn-cleaned, ploughed early in the winter, manured and Lanark
Roxburgh. 1 17 10 i 8 7 1 3 0 1 18 8 0 16 8 limed in early spring (not ploughed after keeping both on the
Linlithgow. 1 18 91 9 5 1 2 0 1 17 80 17 1 surface), and sown with rape, about 7lbs. to the acre; and at Berwick .. 1 18 3 1 7 2 1 2 0 1 16 0 1 0 1 the same time seeded with mixed grass seeds for two years Clackman
2 2 after grazing ; and no soil, I think, will refuse the benefit. As
2 1 7 3 1 0 5 1 16 9 0 16 6
Selkirk 1 18 0 1 7 3 1 1 01 2 0 0 0 15 10 regards the cereal crops, the same rule holds good; the more
Stirling 1 1971 6 9 0 19 10 1 17 4 0 16 9 flaggy it is, as it is called, the less exhausting the crop.
Edinburgh | 1 16 11 1 4 11 1 1 6 1 17 3 0 16 The variety called Scotch oat stands pre-eminent in this re- Fife.. 1 16 4 1 6 10 1 1 0 1 13 4 0 17 3 spect : in itself quite a favourite with the miller, from the oily Perth 1 16 9 1 5 4 0 19 3 1 14 10 0 16 1 nature of the grain, and consequently high mealing qualities ;
Total 37 1 3 25 4 818 19 5 33 18 415 9 10 and the straw so good, that it stands next to hay as fodder, full of flag, and easily consumed by cattle ; while the Ameri- Averages 2 1 2 1 8 0 1 1 0 1 17 8' 0 17 2 can, Poland, Zealand, short white oats, and similar varieties -Scotsman.
THE SPANISH OR MERINO BREED OF | defended the system, which brought George III. under
the lash of ridicule of Peter Pindar, viz., that of feeding SHEEP.
sheep on horse chestnuts. Monsieur Lasteyrie thus writes : [COMMUNICATED BY LORD WILLIAM LENNOX.]
“ In Saxony great care is taken to collect the horse chest
nuts, which are regarded as a wholesome aliment, and a Prejudice founded on system, devoid of experience, is specific against the rot. These are given to the sheep in the greatest and most insuperable bar to improvement in autumn, when the green food ceases. The chestnats are
cut into pieces, which it would be dangerous to omit
, as every art and science. It was through false impressions they might otherwise stick in the throat of the animal
, thus imbibed, that although the fine-woolled sheep of Spain and cause its death. Sheep, as well as cattle, refuse at first had been long ago found to retain their valuable qualities to eat this food; but, when accustomed to it, they seek it in countries still more unfavourable to them than Great with avidity, and even like to eat the prickly husk in Britain; such as Sweden, Denmark, Saxony, Prussia, and which the nut is enveloped.” Holland: get it was not until seventy years ago that
One of the first toasts at sheep-shearing feasts used
to be George III., guided by his own good sense and the most
“ The glorious memory of George the Third, patriotic motives, gave orders for the importation of Merino
Who first to Britain Spanish sheep transferred." sheep, for the improvement of British wool. In 1791 his
In the Consort of our Gracious Sovereign we have one Majesty received a small stock of four rams and thirty-six who possesses the good sense, sound judgment, and patriotic ewes from the Negrette flock, and about ten years after spirit of her royal grandfather, and who, as a practical another importation of two thousand from the Paular flock, farmer, will exert his influence to improve the breed of deemed the best in Spain, of which only fourteen hundred cattle, pigs, and sheep, by never rejecting without a trial
any rational hint of improvement. ewes and a hundred rams survived the voyage and the seasoning in this country. Prejudice for awhile opposed the improvement of fine-woolled sheep as an innovation. The breeders fancied that the quality of the fleece depended on
ORDER UPON THE FARM. the climate, soil, and pasturage of their native country, and It has been very correctly said that order or method is the that the Spanish sheep would not thrive in our island, or secret of success of many wealthy men of the mercantile class. would decline, and only yield wool of an inferior quality; The above being true, the rule is equally applicable to the in fact, they maintained the erroneous opinion that the farming classes. What we mean by order is, “a place for
everything, and everything in its place.” By everything, we British sheep sent to Spain would, by the same advantages,
mean all that a farmer uses in his business. A farmer should become equal to those of the latter country; and that the
see that every rail and board about his premises is in its proper Merinos imported to England would soon become similar place; that his fences are in condition to prevent the entrance to our own breeds, even without any crossing or intermixture. It required all the influence of the King, the late Every one who neglects this neglects his peace of mind, as
or exit of his own or other people's cattle without his consent. Duke of Bedford, Lord Somerville, Dr. Parry, Mr. Tollet, well as subjects himself to losses that must be repaired by and various others of the most enlightened gentlemen and means that could have been otherwise profitably employed. most scientific breeders, to combat this daugerous opposition; and it was only by proof the most irrefragable that it
I have known cultivators of the soil to succeed well in began to decline; and it is now admitted that Spanish lose the most valuable part of their labours. But I am glad
maturing crops, but by neglecting to keep their fences in order, sheep, with nothing more than the common care administered to our own flocks, will not only maintain tbeir natural su
to state that such cases are not frequent in these times. In periority, but will confer the same qualities to other breeds, used in the farm-work to be scattered indiscriminately over his
the next place, the farmer should not allow his cattle that are is due precaution is taken to preserve the strain in its purity. The chief and only obstacle that remained, was
fields, as much time is lost in getting them to their places, and the article of expense to the small farmer or grazier. The
as “time is movey,” it should be economised as much as pos. woolstaplers and the butchers also raised some objection to
sible. He should be careful to have his harness all in using the newly-naturalized animals ; but it having been ascer
trim, his working cattle near his harness house: then but a few tained that the wool of the Anglo-Merino is equal, if not
minutes are required to prepare for his day's ploughing and superior, to that imported from Spain, and that the flesh, hauling. His implements, of every description, should be kept as an article of food, is also of a superior quality, their
near his dwelling, that no time be lost in repairing those things clamours have also subsided, and reason has taken the place dad time to do all these things. Stop, dear reader; I know
that are out of order. Many persons will say that they cannot of unfounded declamation.
you can, because whenever you see a rail missing from your The advantage of the Anglo-Merino strain being thus fence, go and put it back immediately, for then is the right acknowledged, the only thing that remained was to con. time. In case the rail should be destroyed, appropriate the sider the best method of bringing the improvement into first idle one you come to; if you should have no idle ones, general practice. It had been ascertained that not less lose no time in procuring some; for if you do not, nine chances than four removes from a pure Merino would ensure all that in ten you lose more by neglect than if you stop the plough was required; and the breeder therefore, having purchased long enough to make them. Whenever you have done using a the best Merino ram, persevered in breeding in-and-in to plough, hoe, rake, hay fork, thresher, reaper, or anything else, the fourth remove, when he found himself the possessor of take it immediately to the barn-make this an invariable rule, a pure breed, without any danger of retrograding, proper and let all your men know it: the result will be, that wben care being taken to prevent commixture with any less pure anything is wanted, the person sent for it will know where to strain. The result was most satisfactory, for from actual find it. I would have every farmer have some of the most experiments made by Dr. Parry the Merino-Ryeland carried necessary tools used in making and repairing his implements more than three times the value of wool on the same living of husbandry, for I know every one who is able to own a farm weight of carcase than its Ryeland ancestor did; almost is able to have such things. The rainy season, in which much four times as much as the Southdown and Lincoln, and could be done in the way of making and repairing, is always nearly five times and a half as much as the New Leicester. lost to most farmers, because they have not the implements of It appeared moreover, from Lord Somerville's trials on the manufacture. During such times he might put all his farming Ryeland and Merino-Ryeland breeds, that the value of the utensils in excellent working order; whereas if it is neglected wool on the latter is as five to two of the foriner-an until fair weather, he has scarcely had it done before another increase which more than compensated for any additional rainy season overtakes him : thus, all fair weather, in which expense or trouble. To those who are interested upon the he might have ploughed, passes in repairing. To concludesubject of Spanish sheep, we recommend a perusal of a very Farmers, preserve order in everything, and peace, prosperity, clever trealise by Monsieur Lasteyrie, an intelligent and health will accompany you through life.--Watchman and Frenchman, which has been translated into English. He | Reflector.
In the infinity of agricultural topics we are now peculiar breed”; but a better known one amongst us, continually discussing, it is curious to notice how rarely that reared in Galloway, Aberdeen, Kincardine, and we touch on our different breeds of stock. We of Angus. “ How that breed has come to be what it is, course learn the individual excellence of animals from forms a difficult question-whether they be a species of their positions in the show-yard, and occasionally test the West Hiylılander somewhat changed, and having the merits of a herd by the prices it will bring at the lost their horns, I don't know; but there is a pecuhammer. There is many a man, too, ready and anx- | liarity regarding them. Those in Galloway are larger ious enough to cry up the sort he himself is interested and thinner from the hook to the tail, though not so in; but what we want is, that these opinions should be broad as others; while those in Aberdeen are broader brought into rather more direct comparison. At this over the back. It may be mentioned that the latter very moment there are two or three beasts that make county bas at this time the honour and glory of supply. “the best butcher's meat”--the Scot, the Welsh runt, ing what in the London market is called pure Scots, and the Devon. Then the Short-horn is good to feed, and they carry the bighest price for beef in the Lonbut bad to milk; or, on the other hand, he is as useful don market. In regard to their milking properties, I for one purpose as the other. The very essence of dis- have the authority of Mr. M.Combie, of Tillyfour, that cussion is difference of opinion, and here we should be they are excellent milkers; and he scouted the idea of sure of it. Still we scarcely remember a single occasion an Ayrshire being compared with them in Aberdeenon which the object of a meeting has been to consider shire. I may mention that his place is by no means a which are the best kinds of stock. The Highland garden of Eden, being without shelter, on the top of Society certainly gave an evening some two years ago a hill; and yet there are to be seen some of the to the assumed advantages of crossing; and the London most magnificent animals you can conceive. Long Club has two subjects on its card this season on the inay tho Aberdeen folks have the credit of producing management of stock. We ropeat, however, that the the best Scots for the London market.” great question itself is seldom or ever put :- Which is So that even in Scotland there are two or throe variethe best beast-a Hereford, a Short-horn, or a Devon ? ties which make “the best London beef.” We have, Which is the best sheep-a Southdown, a Leicester, then, the Fifo breed, “ few in number," and according or a Cotswold? And which the best horse--a Suffolk, to another speaker, “coarse in quality, and not to be a Clydesdale, or a Lincoln ? We do not say it would recommended.” The discussion from this point asbe possible to pass any very definite resolution in sumed a more general tone, as it touched upon the answer to such queries; but nevertheless a great deal merits of two sorts of which we have all more or less of interesting information might be obtained by such a some experience. These were the Ayrshires and the means. At present we would almost seem to agree Shorthorns-animals that would appear to be not only with Mr. Mechi in regarding our flocks and our beeves bred, but reared, and cultivated for diametrically oppomerely as necessary nuisances, and so saying little or site uses. The over-feeding of the Shorthorn, so that he nothing about them.
shall do nothing but make flesh, is an old story. Mr. A comparatively young association in the North of Home dwelt upon it at some length :-“I am far from Scotland has within these few weeks taken the bull by thinking that if you keep them according to the present the horns. Mr. Home, the Chairinan of the Stirling English rules you will be greatly benefited by them. Farmers' Club, has opened a discussion “On the various Some of the means at present adopted go to deprive the Breeds of Cattle.” In doing so, he naturally dwelt animal of its milking powers, and render it unnatural in chiefly on such kinds as be himself and his brother- its inclination to take on fat; but if they are made to members were best acquainted with :-"I speak of our keep in a good, fair, growing, breeding state-in fact, well-known black catile, which, although reared in in that state of exuberant health which makes them many parts of our country, are yet shown to greatest suitable for breeding-the country would greatly benefit advantage and perfection in the county I have named, by their introduction. Unfortunately, the great run Argyle. It cannot fail to be observed that good spe- has been upon shape only, to tho neglect of milking cimens of our black cattle possess almost every point and breeding qualities. I may mention, in confirmathat the breeders of cattle of England and elsewhere tion of my remarks about the fattening of the Shortare endeavouring to produce. We all know their fine- horn, that I was at the Newcastle show of the English ness of hide, straightness of legs, length and breadth Society some years ago, and was going round the yard of hind-quarters, fine development of breast and chest; with Mr. Booth of Killerby. Ho was reckoned the and we know that that breed which is most highly first breeder of fat stock in Yorkshire, and was only csteemed, so far as we can compare a large beast with equalled by Mr. Bates, whom he never liked to meet, a small one, is almost exactly the same. The quality so close was the competition. Mr. Booth's cattle were of their flesh is considered wholly unsurpassed, there very high fed; and one cow he had at that show being a fine degree of marble mixture of fatty matter (Necklace, I think, was her name) was as magnificent which cannot be surpassed. It is well known that the an aniinal as one could wish to behold. But then she pobility and gentry of England get up our Scotch had, as it were, pillows of fat sowed on to her hind kyloes as their finest beef. They are in a hall-wild quarters and along her back. I remarked that the slate, and must be fed fat upon grass, for the Highland calves of such an animal must be very valuable. He ox takes as long to get accustomed with a byre us answered, 'I am sorry to say I have been rather unforanother to be fed fully fat in it. As milkers they do tunate in that respect-the calf died.' After expressing not excel in quantity; but the quality is shown by the my regret, I said, 'Do you not think she is rather manner in which they suckle their calves.”
fat?' He said that perhaps she was a little." This is more than commonly well put, and certainly The Ayrshires are to be condemned for the very so far our Northern friends have no fault to find with reverse of all this. “It is a breed generally allowed their champion. He proceeds to what he terms “al to be superior to all others for quantity of milk. The