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and sanguinary contest, in which it with him, would have amounted to an had fought with its accustomed bra- interference in the internal government very.
But the allied powers also and affairs of France. Yet it might wished to be free, tranquil, and happy with justice be answered, that every themselves. They desired a state of nation was entitled to refuse to make peace, which, by a wise partition of peace with the ruler of a people who strength, by a just equilibrium, might had proved his utter contempt of allenthenceforward preserve their people gagements. But although this policy, from the numberless calamities which which appeared the safest and wisest, had overwhelmed Europe for the last might not be the policy of the allies, twenty years. They would not lay every one expected, that before making down their arms until they obtained peace, they would deprive the French this great and beneficial result—the ruler of his preponderance. Yet how noble object of their efforts. They did they provide against this prepondewould not lay down their arms until rance ? T'hey offered to confirm to the the political state of Europe should be French empire an extent of territory re-established anew-until immoveable which France under her kings never principles had resumed their rights over possessed ; “ because a valiant nation vain pretensions—until the fidelity of does not fall from its rank, by having treaties should have at last secured a in its turn experienced reverses in an real peace to Europe.
obstinate and sanguinary contest, in The most important parts of this which it has fought with its accustomdeclaration, are those which expressed ed bravery.” Thus, although they a readiness to make peace with Buona. knew that France with her ancient parte, and intimated an intention of territory, and under her ancient family, leaving to France amore extended terri- whose ambition was moderation itself tory than she possessed before the re- when compared with the ambition of volution. Such a line of policy was her new ruler, was almost too strong by many persons considered as ex. for the repose of Europe, the allies tremely absurd, and utterly at variance were willing to conclude a peace, leawith the recorded sentiments of the ving in the hands of Buonaparte, and allied sovereigns. The Austrian de. contirming to him, not France, as old claration distinctly stated, that “ Buo. France, but an “extent of territory naparte would not make any sacrifice which France under her kings never to obtain peace.” The answer to knew.” After such reverses as France Buonaparte's attack in the Leipzig had experienced, no sovereign, Buo. Gazette, upon the Crown Prince, in naparte excepted, would have refused substance, contended that a safe peace terms such as these, which might have with the French ruler was impractica. given him the means of disturbing ble. The bulletins of the Crown again, in a few years, the repose of Prince asserted that Buonaparte was Europe, and of reducing the continennot desirous of peace. The object of tal powers to the necessity of again these papers, and indeed of all the uniting their strength against him. others published by the allies, was to But Buonaparte did refuse these terms ; shew, that a solid peace with Buona. and the world owed a great obligaparte could not be expected. Yet tion to his obstinacy. they were now ready to make peace On the 4th of December, the corps with him! It might have been argued, of the Prince Royal's army moved that their avowal of a different policy, forward ; and on their crossing the of a resolution never to make peace Strecknitz, Marshal Davoust precipi
tately retired upon Hamburgh, leaving was soon terminated. In the course exposed the right wing of the Danes, of three days, the whole duchy of Sles. which was posted at Oldeslohe. The wick was occupied by the light troops French Marshal was pursued by Ge- under General Tettenborn. This offi. neral Woronzoff, who moved beyond cer had, in conjunction with General Bergedorff, and defeated the whole Dornberg, so completely invested the French cavalry in a sanguinary engage: fortress of Rendsburg, that neither ment at Wandsbeck. General Wal- the garrison, nor even the cavalry bemoden marched upon Oldeslohe ; longing to it, could find an opportu. Marshal Stedingk maneuvered on nity of making a sally, for which Lubeck; and General Tettenborn, orders had been given, on account of with his light troops, pushed into the scarcity reigning in the town. The the interior of Holstein by Tret. list of conquests made by the army of tau, and hung on the flanks and rear the Crown Prince every day increased, of the French. He cut off all com- -Holstein was conquered-Sleswick munication between the French and overrun-and General Tettenborn had Danes, and took from the latter a established his head quarters within a number of prisoners, carriages, and mile or two of Colding, the frontier ammunition waggons. He likewise in- town of Jutland. On the 14th of tercepted some important dispatches.- January, however, a treaty of peace The enemy did not hold out against and alliance with Denmark was signthese combined movements, but com- ed by Mr Thornton on the part of menced a precipitate retreat on the England, and by Baron de WitterEyder. Lubeck was evacuated by stedt for Sweden ; according to which the Danes, who were defeated on the 10,000 Danes, who were at Rendsburg, 7th of December by the Swedes, and were immediately united with the arvigorously pursued by General Wal- my of the north of Germany.—“There moden, when an obstinate engagement is no longer any rivalship among the ensued betwixt a part of his troops and nations of the north,” said Bernadotte, the whole Danish force. The action on this occasion; “ they have acknow. was well conducted, and the Danes ledged that they have the same inwere finally compelled to retire to terests. United for the noblest obRendsburg:-The communication be. ject, they will combat together for the tween General Dornberg (who had liberty of the continent, the indepenbeen detached upon the right bank of dence of sovereigns and of nations! the Eyder) and General Walmoden' The nations of the north do not look was momentarily cut off. The enemy upon the French as enemies ; they rewas reinforced at Sleswick by four cognise no other enemy but him who battalions-a regiment of cavalry, has done every thing to prevent their and ten pieces of cannon, sent from the union ; him who, it cannot be too ofinterior. The critical position of Ge. ten repeated, has wished to enslave all neral Dornberg obliged Tettenborn nations, and to ravish from all their to direct his operations towards Sles. independence." wick, which place he was preparing to By the peace with Denmark, Berattack, when intelligence arrived that nadotte was enabled to move his vican armistice had been concluded with torious legions to the Rhine, and to the Danes bythe mediation of Austria. give the support of his auxiliary troops -The Danish cabinet, however, was to the grand undertakings of the alnot yet weaned from its attachments lies. Accordingly General Benninge to French politics ; and the armistice sen was left with 30,000 men to form the siege of Hamburgh, and 5000 to tive but to prosecute the war, and as blockade Harburg, while the remain- it appeared that the invasion of France der moved forward to the principal might be best accomplished through scene of action.
Switzerland, deputies were sent to Bernadotte probably felt the deli- Zurich to learn the disposition of the cacy of his situation, now that he was cantons. The Swiss in these circumabout to invade his native country; stances affected to adopt the extraorand he was anxious to explain his mo- dinary determination of remaining neutives, and the principles of his policy, tral. When they could be of service to to the people of France. . At the Buonaparte by their active hostility command of my king,” said he, “I against the allies, they thought not have taken up arms, for the purpose of neutrality; now that this neutra. of defending the rights of the Swedish lity must, if regarded, bave propeople. After having revenged the tected the most vulnerable part of insults which they had suffered, and the French frontier, they declared assisted in effecting the liberation of themselves neutral. If Switzerland Germany, I have passed the Rhine. thus shifted her attitude and chaAt the moment when I again see this racter as it might suit the policy of river, on the banks of which I have so Buonaparte, she could not complain often and so successfully fought for that the allies considered and treated you, I feel the necessity of again ap- her rather as the associate of the com. prising you of my sentiments. The
mon enemy, than as a neutral acting government under which you live has with strict impartiality towards the bel. continually had in view to treat you ligerent powers. The law of nations with contempt, in order that it might says, that “ should a neutral favour debase you ; it is high time that this one of the parties to the prejudice of state of things undergo an alteration. the other, she cannot complain of beAll enlightened people express their ing treated by him as an adherent and wishes for the welfare of France ; but confederate of the enemy.”—The neuthey at the same time desire that she trality of Switzerland was a fraudulent may no longer be the scourge of the neutrality, of which no nation could earth. The allied monarchs have not consent to be the dupe.-The head united themselves to make war upon quarters of the allies were accordingly the people, but to force your govern- removed to Frieburg, in the Brisgau, ment to acknowledge the independence within a few miles of Basle ; a step of other states. This is their sole mo- which formed a preliminary to the tive and aim, and I will pledge myself movement in contemplation, of passing for the integrity of their sentiments. through Basle, for the purpose of inAdopted son of Charles the 13th, and vading France on the side of Franche placed, by the choice of a free people, Comte. at the foot of the throne of Gustavus, Buonaparte, after several adjournI can in future be animated with no ments, met his legislative body on the other ambition, than that of securing 19th December, and, as usual, enterthe happiness of the Scandinavian pe- tained that venerable assembly with a ninsula. At the same time, it will speech. He alluded to the recent offers give me great satisfaction (after having of the allies to treat with him, and to fulfilled this sacred duty to my adopt the existing state of France. “ Negoed country) to secure the future hap- ciations have been entered into with piness of my former countrymen.” the allied powers," said he ; “ I have
As the allied powers had no alterna- adhered to the preliminary basis which
they presented. I had then the hope The secrets of the previous negociathat before the opening of this session, tions to which Buonaparte alluded, the congress
of Manheim would be as have never yet, indeed, been fully exsembled; but new delays, which are plained to the world. It was generally not to be ascribed to France, have de known, however, that during the are ferred this moment, which the wishes mistice, and even subsequently to it, of the world eagerly call for."-There different proposals, and projets were was much obscurity in the above al. submitted to him through the medium lusion. While Buonaparte was at of the Emperor of Austria, who, alDresden, and after Austria had decla- though he had assumed the attitude red against him, some overtures were of a belligerent, still wished to act as understood to have been made, which a mediator. Before he joined the alhe rejected. These overtures proceed- lies, he submitted the following as a ed upon the basis, that all the Prussian basis of negociation ; the cession to fortresses should be evacuated, and himself of the Illyrian provinces and that the French should retire behind of Venice ; the erection of Dantzic the Rhine, before the assembling of into a free city, and the evacuation, as a congress for peace. But after they already mentioned, of the Prussian for had been beaten across the Rhine, tresses. This proposal having been retheir ruler offered to treat upon the jected, Austria joined the allies. The same basis as before ; the offer was, course of events induced Buonaparte to of course, rejected by the allies. This do that by compulsion which he had was the negociation with the allies to refused to do from choice ; and he was which he alluded—this the basis to driven across the Rhine. A few days which he said he had adhered. He after he arrived at Metz, an officer was expected that his adherence would lead dispatched to Frankfort with a decla. toa congress, which he proposed should ration of his readiness to open a nego. be held at Manheim in the electorate ciation upon the preliminary basis of Baden, the only district of Germany which had been formerly proposed. which still remained attached to him. In the altered situation of affairs the It was evident, however, that the hopes allies rejected this overture ; but in which he entertained from a congress their turn they are said to have made were become less confident, or had en- offers to him, to which they alluded in tirely vanished. He spoke of new de- general terms in their declaration, viz. lays, which could not be ascribed to to leave France more powerful than him; he was anxious to throw the she had ever been under her kings. obstacles to the re-establishment of In reply to this, Buonaparte is said to peace upon the allies. “On my side,” have consented to the independence of said he, “ there is no obstacle.”—But Germany and of the peninsula-a he accompanied these expressions about mighty concession from him who had peace with a demand for numerous le- no longer a foot of ground in those vies, and an increase of taxes. - Italy, countries ! This proposal was answere at all events, it may be remarked, ed by a declaration on the part of the would have been an obstacle in limine, allied sovereigns, that the French em, not only to peace but to negociation; pire must be bounded on the side of for in a letter from Buonaparte, dated Italy by the Alps. To this Buonathe 16th of November, to the Duke of parte would not accede. Lodi, he declared that he would not, The project of making peace with under any circumstances, abandon his France, even on such terms, gave great people of Italy.
offence in England. It was justly remarked, that by peace, France would ful, less strong, less rich, less fruitful gain every thing. She would have re. was France in the year eight, when, stored to her at least 300,000 of her best threatened on the north, invaded on troops one half of her best officers the south, torn to pieces in the interior, and seamen sufficient, in numbers, to exhausted in her finances, disorganised man 50 sail of the line. The obstinacy in her administration, discouraged in of Buonaparte had thrown away the her armies, the seas brought her hope, military means of France. Never again the victory of Marengo restored her might 'Europe expect to find her so honours, and the treaty of Luneville much reduced in her armies, so ex. brought back peace to her.”—Now if hausted in her finances ; never again France was more powerful at the close could Europe expect to see a more of 1813, than she was in the year 1801, formidable military force opposed to the inference was obvious that she the ambition of this power. The crisis might insist upon being placed in a was great ; it was in favour of the al- better situation than she was by the lies, not only beyond expectation, but peace of Luneville. If France, with beyond example ; and if they did not inferior means in 1801, was able to reap the full advantage of it, they might dictate the terms of peace, with great. soon have cause to repent their folly. er means she would demand better In six months after peace, France might conditions.-In what situation did that have fifty sail of the line, well manned, peace place her? Absolute mistress of and an army of half a million of men, the Netherlands, the Frickthal, and of commanded by a great military genius. Italy, with the exception of the city One victory might give him possession of Venice, which was reserved for of Vienna, and Europe might be re. Austria.-Buonaparte thus announced plunged into all the difficulties against by one of his agents, that he would not which it was now in her power to erect hear of any proposition which should an effectual barrier. This barrier reduce him to the position in which he might be found in the confinement of stood at the peace of Luneville ; that France to her ancient limits, as exist. he would not be contented with Italy ing in 1789. Even those limits had and the Netherlands alone. He underbeen found scarcely compatible with stood, of course, that more than this the balance of power in Europe ; and was meant by the proposal of the soshall we, it was asked, extend them vereigns, to confirm to the French emnow that we have it in our power to pire an extent of territory “ which lay the foundations of a better and wiser France under her kings never knew." system of policy?
-No reasonable man could any longer That Buonaparte had not any se question the policy which demanded a rious intention of concluding such a continuance of the war till the French rupeace as the allies could prudently ac- ler and his adherents should be brought cept, was manifest from a passage in to a just sense of their condition ; and the speech of M. St Jean D'Angely, a sure basis should be laid, in their his favourite orator, who was appoint- entire discomfiture and humiliation, ed to explain his views. “Less power for the future repose of the world.