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purgatory, if they be buried therein, may not be passed over with silence. The pain and grief of salting made monks Aee to Monks

why they their cloister. Nay, (say they) we went thither of pure run to devotion to pray for the people. Yea, but for all that, the cloisters. more ye encrease, and the more ye multiply your prayers, the worse the world is. That is not our fault (say they) but theirs, that they dispose not themselves, but continue in sin, and so are unapt to receive the influence of our prayers. O! hypocrites, if ye were true salt and had good hearts, and loved your neighbours (if dead men be neighbours to them that are alive) and would come out of your dens and take pain to salt and season them, ye should make a great many of them so apt, that your prayers might take effect. But now seeing as ye say, they be so unsavoury that your prayers be to them unprofitable, though their goods be to you profitable, and ye have no compassion to come out and salt them, it is manifest that ye love not them, but theirs; and that ye pray not for them, but under the colour of praying, mock them and rob them.

Finally, salt which is the true understanding of the law, of faith, and of the intent of all works, hath in you By salt is

understood lost her virtue, neither be there any so unsavoury in the the true world as ye are, nor any that so sore kick against true salting

standing of as ye: and therefore are ye to be cast out and trodden the law, as under foot and despised of all men, by the righteous judg- works &c. ment of God.

If salt have lost his saltness, it is good for nothing but to be trodden under foot of men. That is, if the preacher, Spiritual

ty: why which for his doctrine is called salt, have lost the nature they be of salt, that is to say, his sharpness in rebuking despised. all unrighteousness, all natural reason, natural wit and understanding; and all trust and confidence in whatsoever it be, save in the blood of Christ; he is condemned of God, and disallowed of all them that cleave to the truth. In what case stand they then that have benefices and preach not ? verily though they stand at the altar, yet


are they excommunicate and cast out of the living church of almighty God.

And what if the doctrine be not true salt ? verily then Ceremonies is it to be trodden under foot. As must all wearish and must be salted. unsavoury ceremonies which have lost their significations,

and not only teach not, and are become unprofitable and
do no more service to man; but also have obtained
authority as God in the heart of man, that man serveth
them, and putteth in them the trust and confidence that
he should put in God his maker through Jesus Christ his
Redeemer. Are the institutions of man better than God's ?
yea, are God's ordinances better now than in the old time?
The prophets trod under foot, and defied the temple of
God, and the sacrifices of God, and all ceremonies that
God had ordained, with fastings and prayings, and all
that the people perverted and committed idolatry with.
We have as straight a commandment to salt and rebuke
all ungodliness as had the prophets. Will they then have
their ceremonies honourably spoken of? then let them
restore them to the right use, and put the salt of the true
meaning and significations of them to them again. But
as they be now used, none that loveth Christ can speak
honourably of them. What true christian man can give
honour to them that taketh all honour from Christ? who
can give honour to that that slayeth the soul of his bro-
ther, and robbeth his heart of that trust and confidence
which he should give to his Lord that hath bought him
with his blood ?
Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an

hill cannot be hid. Neither do men light a candle, and
put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick, and so
giveth it light to all that are in the house. Let your
light so shine before men, that they may see your
good works, and praise your Father that is in heaven.

Christ goeth forth and describeth the office of an aposile and true preacher by another likeness ; calling them

as before, the salt of the earth. Even so here the light of the world: signifying thereby that all the doctrine, all the wisdom, and high knowledge of the world; whether it were philosophy of natural conclusions, of manners and virtue, or of laws of righteousness; whether it were of the holy Scripture and of God himself, was yet but a Darkness. darkness, until the doctrine of his apostles came: that is all knowto say, until the knowledge of Christ came, how that he darkness, is the sacrifice for our sins, our satisfaction, our peace, knowledge atonement and redemption, our life thereto and resurrec- of Christ's

blood-shed. tion. Whatsoever holiness, wisdom, virtue, perfectness ding be in or righteousness, is in the world among men, howsoever the heart. perfect and holy they appear, yet is all damnable darkness, except the right knowledge of Christ's blood be there first, to justify the heart before all other holiness.

Another conclusion: As a city built on a bill cannot be hid, no more can the light of Christ's gospel. Let the world rage as much as it will, yet it will shine on their sore eyes whether they be content or no.

Another conclusion: As men light not a candle to whelm it under a bushel, but to put it on a candlestick to light all that are in the house : even so the light of Christ's gospel may not be hid nor made a several thing, as though it pertained to some certain holy persons only. Nay, it is the light of the whole world, and pertaineth to all men, and therefore may not be made several. It is a madness that divers men say, the lay people may not know it: except they can prove that the lay people be not Lay. of the world. Moreover it will not be bid, but as the The lay

ought to lightning, that breaketh out of the clouds, shineth over all, have the even so doth the gospel of Christ. For where it is truly

gospel. received, there it purifieth the heart, and maketh the person to consent to the laws of God, and to begin a new and a godly living, fashioned after God's laws, and without all dissimulation. And then it will kindle so great Gospel. love in him toward his neighbour, that he shall not only The prohave compassion on him in his bodily adversity, but much the gospel.

poor to

other poor

Gospel. more pity him over the blindness of his soul, and to The true

minister to him Christ's gospel. Wherefore if they say, gospel is not hid in

It is here or there, in St. Francis' coat, or Dominick's dens,

and such like, and if thou wilt put on that coat, thou If the spitualty were

shalt find it there, it is false. For if it were there, thou a light as

shouldest see it shine abroad, though thou creepest not they ought to be, they into a cell or a monk's cowl, as thou seest the lightning would make thenselves

without creeping into the clouds; yea, their light would so

shine that men should not only see the light of the gospel, make other rich ; but but also their good works, which would as fast come out they make

as they now run in. Insomuch that thou shouldest see and them them make themselves poor, to help other as they now selves rich. make other


to make themselves rich. This light and salt pertained not then to the apostles,

and now to our bishops and spiritualty only. No, it Kings

pertaineth to the temporal men also. For all kings and ought to be learned. all rulers are bound to be salt and light, not only in en

sample of living, but also in teaching of doctrine unto their subjects, as well as they be bound to punish evil doers.

Doth not the Scripture testify that king David was chosen to be a shepherd and to feed his people with God's word ? It is an evil schoolmaster that cannot but beat only. But it is a good schoolmaster that so teacheth, that few need to be beaten. This salt and light therefore pertain to the temporalty also, and that to every member of Christ's church : so that every man ought to be salt

and light to other. The order Every man then may be a common preacher, thou wilt how every man may be say, and preach every where by his own authority. Nay, a preacher, verily : no man may yet be a common preacher save he and how

that is called and chosen thereto by the common ordinance of the congregation, as loug as the preacher teacheth the true word of God. But every private man ought to be in virtuous living, both light and salt to his neighbour: insomuch that the poorest ought to strive to overrun the bishop, and preach to him in ensample of living. Moreover every man ought to preach in word and deed


ment do differ.

unto his household, and to them that are under his governance, &c. And though no man may preach openly save None ought

to preach he that hath the office committed unto him, yet ought openly,

but such every man to endeavour himself, to be as well learned as

as are ad. the preacher, as nigh as it is possible. And every man mitted by

the ordi may privately inform his neighbour, yea, and the preacher

nance of and bishop too, if need be. For if the preacher preach the congre

gation. wrong, then may any man, whatsoever he be, rebuke him, first privately, and then (if that help not) to complain farther. And when all is proved, according to the order of charity, and yet none amendment had; then ought every man that can to resist him, and to stand by Christ's doctrine, and to jeopardy life, and all for it. Look on the old ensamples and they shall teach thee. The gospel hath another freedom with her than the Spiritual

and tempo. temporal regiment. Though every man's body and goods ral regibe under the king, do he right or wrong, yet is the authority of God's word free and above the king : so that the worst in the realm may tell the king, if he do him wrong, that he doth nought and otherwise than God hath commanded him, and so warn him to avoid the wrath of God, which is the patient avenger of all unrighteousness. May 1 then, and ought also, to resist father and mother and all temporal power with God's word, when they wrongfully do or command that hurteth or killeth the body; and have I no power to resist the bishop or preacher, that with false doctrine slayeth the souls, for which my master and Lord Christ hath shed his blood. Be we otherwise under our bishops than Christ and his apostles, and all the other prophets were under the bishops of the old law? Nay verily: and therefore may we and also ought to do as they did, and to answer as the apostles did. (Acts v.) Oportet magis obedire deo Every man quàm hominibus. We must rather obey God than men. send În the gospel every man is Christ's disciple, and a person doctrine in for himself, to defend Christ's doctrine in his own person. his own The faith of the bishop will not help me, nor the bishop's


must de

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