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320 CONG....30 Sess.
Special Session— Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
endeavored to reconcile his whole course of con protectorate? What power has she surrendered? what other Power on earth will be willing to stand duct as being consistent with what he stated in the What functionary has she recalled? What por forward and do that which England concedes it House of Representatives on the Panama mission. tion of the country-what inch of territory has prudent not to attempt? I may be permitted to Mr. DOUGLAS. I accept the explanation. It she given up? Will the Senator from Delaware
therefore, that the only issue that I desire to is perfectly satisfactory, but I am very unfortu inform me what England has abandoned in pur- see at this time, upon our foreign relations, as nate in apprehending the menning of language. suance or by virtue of the Clayton and Bulwer they are now presented to me, is upon the Bay He said that Mr. Polk had avowed himself in treaty? I can show him where she has extended || Island colony: and let us require that that be disfavor of asserting the Monroe doctrine. He then her possessions since the date of that treaty, and continued, and that the terms of our treaty stipusaid that Mr. Polk had abandoned and refused to in contempt of its stipulations. I can point him lations be obeyed and fulfilled. When that issue carry it out when this question arose. He said to the seizure of the Bay Islands and the erection shall have been made and decided in our favor, the President of Nicaragua, to use his own lan of them into a colony; to the extension of her we will not have much need for general resoluguage, “ poked that declaration into Mr. Polk's jurisdiction in the vicinity of the Balize; to her tions about the Monroe doctrine in future. own teeth.”
invasion of the territory of Honduras on the main But, sir, this was a digression. The point that Mr. CLAYTON. I used no such word. land; and to the continuance of her protectorate I was coming at was this: that while it has been
Mr. DOUGLAS. At least, that he thrust it over the Mosquito coast. I can point him to a a matter of boast for years that the Clayton and into his teeth.
series of acts designed by Great Britain to increase Bulwer treaty drove Great Britain out of Central Mr. CLAYTON. I did not.
her power and extend her possessions in that quar- | America, she has not surrendered an inch; and Mr. DOUGLAS. Well, never mind about the ter. Will he point me to any one act by which what is more, she is now proposing negotiations precise word. At all events, he went on to show she has reduced her power or curtailed her posses.
with us with a view to new arrangements, by that Mr. Polk was pledged to the Monroe doc sions? He boasts of having expelled the British | which she shall hereafter give up her protectorate. trine, that he failed to carry it out, that no Admin- || from Central America. Will he have the kind- || Yes, sir, your late Secretary of State and Presiistration ever carried it out, that it had been aban ness to inform the Senate how, when, and where | dent, Everett and Fillmore, have communicated doned whenever a question arose which gave an this has been effected? Where is the evidence to to Congress the fact that the British Minister was opportunity for carrying it into effect. When he sustain this declaration ? I called for information proposing new negotiations, new arrangements, chose to put Mr. Polk into the position of making on this point in my speech the other day. The || by which Great Britain shall hereafter give up declarations and violating them, making protests Senator replied to all other parts of that speech in that which the Senator makes it a matter of pride and abandoning them, making threats and never detail and at great length. Of course, want of that he had secured by his treaty. That is a litexecuting them, I very naturally supposed, ac time was the reason for his omission to respond | tle curious. I do not understand this congratulacording to the notion of a western man, that he to these pertinent inquiries.
tion of having accomplished a great and wonderwas attacking him. (Laughter.]
Mr. CLAYTON. No, sir; I replied to it, but || ful object, by the expelling of the British lion Mr. CLAYTON. I endeavored to show that the Senator was out of his seat.
from ihe place where Mr. Polk allowed him to Mr. Polk had made his recommendation to the Mr. DOUGLAS. I was in my seat the most of come and abide, and still a new negotiation or a Congress of the United States that he was per the time the Senator was speaking on that part of new arrangement is deemed necessary to secure fectly justifiable in not considering that as the estab the subject. Now, sir, in regard to this Bay Island that which the Senator from Delaware boasts of lished doctrine of the country, because the Con- | colony, I may be permitted to say, although it having accomplished long since ! gress of the United States had never adopted it. is by the way of digression from the line of ar England professes to be desirous of surrendering On that principle I endeavored to reconcile the gument which I was inarking out for myself, that her protectorate. Then, why does she not do it? course of Mr. Polk with itself. The gentleman it presents a clear case not only in derogation of the The British Minister proposes to open negotiahas undertaken to represent me as assailing Mr. Monroe doctrine, but in direct violation and con tions by which England shall withdraw her auPolk, when if he had paid attention to what I tempt of the Clayton and Bulwer treaty. I will do thority from Central America, and the late Secresaid-unfortunately he was out during the greater the Senator the justice to say, that the Bay Island tary of State (Mr. Everett) entertains the propoportion of the time I was discussing the subject- colony has not been erected in pursuance of the sition favorably, while the Senator from Delaware he would have seen that I was endeavoring to treaty, but in derogation of its provisions. The congratulates the country upon his having effected prove that the course of that President of the Uni- | question arises, Are we going to submit tamely to the desired end in his treaty three years ago. ted States, in this particular, was not liable to the the establishment of this new colony? If we ac. If Messrs. Everett and Fillmore were correct exception which is taken to it; that he was not quiesce in it we submit to a double wrong-a con in entertaining Mr. Crampton's proposition for a bound by the declaration of the Monroe doctrine travention of our avowed policy in regard to Euro new arrangement, certainly the Senator from Delunless Congress adopted it, because he was not pean colonization on this continent; and secondly, aware is at fault in saying that his treaty expelled the Government.
a palpable and open violation of the terms and the British from Central America. My opinion, Mr. DOUGLAS. Of course I accept the ex stipulations of the Clayton and Bulwer treaty. If as to whether it did expel them or not, is a matter planation of the Senator with a great deal of pleas we tamely submit to this twofold wrong, the less of not much conseqnence. I have always thought ure, and I am gratified to know that I misappre we say henceforth in regard to European coloniza- the language of the treaty was so equivocal, that hended him; but it really did appear to me that Ition on the American continent, the better for our no man could say with certainty, whether it did was justified in putting that construction upon own credit,
abolish the protectorate or not. One clause seemed what he said, inasmuch as he went on to show Here is a case where we must act if we ever to abolish it; another seemed to recognize its exthat when he came into the State Department, he intend to act. I do not wish to make an issue | istence, and to restrain its exercise; and you could found Great Britain with her protectorate over the with England about the Balize;-she has been in make as good an argument on one side as the Mosquito coast, and spreading over more than | possession there longer than our nation has existed other. But I gave notice at the time the treaty half of Central America; that during Mr. Polk's as an independent Republic. I do not wish to was ratified, that I would take the American side, administration, and while he was negotiating the make an issue with her in regard to Jamaica, be and stand by the Senator from Delaware in claimtreaty of peace with Mexico, Great Britain seized cause she cannot surrender it upon our demand | ing that England was bound to quit; but our late the town of San Juan, at the mouth of the proposed without dishonor, and she is bound to fight if Secretary of State and the President, (Everett and canal, and that Mr. Polk and Mr. Buchanan re driven to an extremity on that point. I do not Fillmore,) think otherwise; and now it becomes a mained silent, without even a protest against this want to make an issue with her in reference to any question whether new negotiations to accomplish unjustifiable aggression; and when he denounced colony she has upon the continent or adjacent to that very desirable object are necessary or not. that seizure as an act originating in hostility to this it, where she may be said to have had a long and Mr. President, I return to the point which I country, to cut off communication with our Pacific || peaceful possession. Sir, if I was going to make was discussing when the Senator interrupted me, possessions; and when he said that it would have the issue on any one of these points, I would and led me off in this digression, to wit: That the been wiser to have closed the door and shut out pursue a more manly course by declaring war at simple question presented in this matter, when the British lion, than to allow him to enter unre once instead of resorting to such an expedient. I stripped of all extraneous circumstances, was this: sisted, and then attempt to expel him; and when would make the issue solely and distinctly on the Should we have accepted when tendered, an exhe boasted of having expelled the British lion after | Bay Island colony, for the reason that there she clusive right of way forever from one ocean to Mr. Polk and Mr. Buchanan had permitted him is clearly in the wrong, the act having been done the other? The Senator from Delaware thought to enter the house in contempt of their declaration in violation of her plighted faith. It was done in not, and the administration of General Taylor of the Monroe doctrine, I really thought that he contempt of our avowed policy. She cannot jus- sustained him in his view of the question. I was attempting to censure Mr. Polk for letting the tify it before the civilized world, and therefore, thought we ought to have embraced the offer lion come in; but it seems I was mistaken. He dare not fight upon such an issue. England will which tendered us the exclusive control forever did not mean that, and not meaning it, upon my fight us when her honor compels her to do it, and over this great interoceanic canal. word I do not know what he did mean by it. she will fight us for no other cause. We can re The Senator attempts to sustain his position by [Laughter.)
quire Great Britain to discontinue the Bay Island | quoting the authority of General Jackson and Mr. When I heard all this, and much more of the colony, and I call upon the friends of the Clayton | Polk. Sir, he is unfortunate in his quotation. I same lenor, it occurred to me that it amounted to Bulwer treaty, whose provisions are outraged by | do not think that, fairly considered, he has any a pretty good arraignment of Mr. Polk and his that act, to join in the demand that that colony be such authority. I am aware that in 1835 that Administration; and that his object was to glorify i discontinued. Upon that point we are in the right: Senator offered a resolution in this body, which himself and General Taylor, at the expense of England is in the wrong; and she cannot, she dare was adopted, recommending a negotiation to open Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Polk, by accusing the not fight upon it. And, sir, when England backs the Isthmus to all nations, and that General Jacklatter of having tamely submitted to British aggres out of one colony upon our remonstrance, it will son sent out a Colonel Biddle to collect and report sions of great enormity, which the former promptly be a long time before she will establish another information on the subject; but when the resolurebuked by expelling the British from Central upon this continent without consulting us. And, tion was adopted, the question was then presented America. "Let me ask him the question_did the sir, when England shall have refrained from in- under circumstances very different from those Clayton and Bulwer treaty expel the British from terfering in the affairs of the American continent which existed when the Senator suppressed the Central America ? Has England abandoned her without consulting the wishes of this Government, Hise treaty. At that time the Central American
32D CONG.....30 Sess.
Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
States had granted to the Netherlands the privilege ] ence of that power he has proved the right of the an American question with which England had no of making a canal. Others had already secured | Government to do the same thing for the benefit || right to interfere. It was an American question the privilege, and in that point of view it was of American citizens, omitting England and British about which Europe had no right to be consulted. reasonable to suppose that the most we could do subjects.
Are we under any more obligation to consult Euwas to get an equal privilege with European na Sir, as I before said, I have no special fondness ropean Powers about an American question than tions. That was not the case presented when the for this special pleading about the peculiar provis- il the allied Powers were, in their Congress, to conexclusive privilege was offered to us, and the offer ions of a treaty, when the real point was the ex- || sult us, when establishing the equilibrium of Eudeclined by the Senator from Delaware, without tent of the privilege which we should accept. rope by the agency of the Holy Alliance? Amerconsulting the Senate.
Now, sir, I was in favor of an exclusive privilege, lica was not consulted then. Our name does not But there is no evidence that General Jackson and I will tell you why. I desired to see a canal | appear in all the proceedings. It was a European entertained even the opinions attributed to him. made; and when made, I desired to see it under question, about which it was presumed America Colonel Biddle, who was appointed by General the control of a Power enabled to protect it. I had nothing to say. This question of a canal in Jackson to explore the routes and collect and re desired to see it open to the commerce of the | Nicaragua, when negotiations were pending to port information, availed himself of his official po whole world, under a sound and sage protection. give it to us, was so much an American question sition to obtain from New Granada an exclusive How was that to be done, except by an exclusive that the English Government was not entitled to privilege to himself and his associates on private privilege to ourselves ? Then, let us open it to the be consulted. England not consent! She will account. When the existence of this private con commerce of the world on such terms and condi- | consent to allow you to do that just so long as you tract came to the knowledge of the Secretary of tions as we should deem wise, just, and politic. consent to allow her to hold Canada, the BermuState, Mr. Forsyth, he reprimanded our charge at Could we not open it to the commerce of the das, Jamaica, and her other American possesNew Granada, for having given any countenance world as well by our volition as England could in sions. I hope the time has arrived when we will to it. And why? Not because it' contained an conjunction with us? Would it not be as credit not be told any more that Europe will not consent exclusive privilege to the United States, for it did able to us as a nation to have acquired it our to this, and England will not consent to that. I not give us any privilege. Mr. Biddle had been selves, and then opened it freely, as to have gone heard that argument till I got tired of it when we sent out there to get information to be laid before into a partnership by which we should have no I were discussing the resolutions for the annexation the Administration. He had no power to nego. control in prescribing the terms upon which it of Texas. I heard it again on the Oregon question, tiate-no authority to open diplomatic relations. should be opened? And besides, if the grant had || and I heard it on the California question. It has He had no power to take any one step in procur been made to us, and we had accepted it, and then been said on every occasion whenever we have had ing the privilege. He made use of his official thrown it open to the commerce of all nations on || an issue about foreign relations, that England position, and, in the opinion of the Administration, our own terms and conditions, we held in our hands | would not consent; yet she has acquiesced in whatabused it, by securing a private grant to himself, || a right which would have been ample security for ever we have had the courage and the justice to do. without the authority, protection, or sanction of every nation under heaven to keep the peace with | And why? Because we kept ourselves in the right. the Government of his own country.
the United States. The moment England abused England was so situated with her possessions on Mr. Forsyth was indignant because his agent the privilege by seizing any more islands, by es- this continent, that she dare not fight in an unjust bad disobeyed his authority, and turned the public tablishing any more colonies, by invading any cause. We would have been in the right to have employment into a private speculation. That is more rights, or by violating any more treaties, we accepted the privilege of making this canal, and not the question presented here. That contract would use our privilege, shut up the canal, and England would never have dared to provoke a did not give the Ưnited States the privilege at all. exclude her commerce from the Pacific. We controversy with us. I think the time has come It gave it to Colonel Biddle and his associates. would hold a power in our hands which might be when America should perform her duty according But I find nothing in that transaction, and in all exercised at any moment to preserve peace and to our own judgment, and our own sense of justice, the public documents relating to it, to show that prevent injustice. Peace and progress being our without regard to what European Powers might General Jackson would have refused the exclusive aim, we should still have continued to be the only say with respect to it. I think this nation is privilege to his own country if it had been ten Government on earth whose public policy from | about of age. I think we have a right to judge dered to him.
the beginning has been justly and honestly to en- || for ourselves. Let us always do right, and put How is it, then, with Mr. Polk? According to force the laws of nations with fidelity towards all the consequences behind us. my recollection of the facts, New Granada had the nations on earth. Sir, when you surrendered | But, sir, I do not wish to detain the Senate upon granted the privilege of making a canal to a French- || that exclusive right, you surrendered a great ele- ! this point, or to prolong the discussion. I have a man by the name of Du Quesne-I will not be ment of power which in our hands would have been word or two to say in reply to the remarks of the certain of his name and it was desirable to get || wielded in the cause of justice for the benefit of Senator from Delaware upon so much of my permission to carry the mails across there. The mankind.
speech as related to the pledge in the Clayton and grant had gone into the possession of a citizen of I was not for such a restrictive policy as would Bulwer treaty, never to annex any portion of that a foreign Power, and the most that our Govern exclude British vessels from going through the country. I objected to that clause in the treaty, ment could ask, was to be put upon an equal foot canal, or the vessels of any other nation which upon the ground that I was unwilling to enter ing with that other Power. It did noi present should respect our rights. I would let them all into a treaty stipulation with any European Powers the question of the privilege being tendered to us, pass freely, as long as they did not abuse the in respect to this continent, that we would not and we refusing to accept it.
privilege; close it against them when they did. I do, in the future, whatever our duty, interest, But I shall take no time in going into a vindi insist that the American people occupy a position honor, and safety, might require in the course of cation of those Administrations. In the remarks on this continent which rendered it natural and events. The Senator infers that I desire to annex that I made the other day, I chose to vindicate my proper that we should exercise that power. I had Central America because I was unwilling to give own course without reference to past Administra no fear of a war with England. I have none now. | a pledge that we never would do it. He reminded tions or present party associations; and I will War should be avoided as long as possible. But, me that there was a clause in the treaty with Mexpursue the same line of debate now. One word sir, you need have no apprehension of a war with ico containing the stipulation, that in certain conupon the point, niade by the Senator, that the her, for the reason that if we keep in the right, tingencies we would never annex any portion of Hise treaty was unconstitutional. Was it not she dare not fight us, and she will not, especially Mexico. Sir, it was unnecessary that he should constitutional to accept the exclusive privilege to for anything relating to American affairs. She remind me of that provision. He has not forthe United States? If it was not, and his consti knows she has given a bond to keep the peace, gotten how hard I struggled to get that clause out tutional objection is valid, it goes a little too with a mortgage on all her real estate in America of the treaty where it was retained in opposition to far. If you have no right to accept an exclusive as collateral security, and she knows she forfeits my vote. Had the Senator given me his aid then privilege to us under the Constitution, what right her title to the whole, without hope of redemption, to defeat that provision in the Mexican treaty, I had you to take a partnership privilege in com if she commits a breach of the bond. She will would be better satisfied now with his excuse for pany with Great Britain? If you have no right not fight unless compelled. We could have for having inserted a still stronger pledge in his treaty. to take the privilege for the benefit of American tified that canal at each end, and in time of war But having advocated that pledge then, he should citizens alone, what_right have you to take one could have closed it against our enemies, and not attempt to avoid the responsibility of his own for the benefit of Englishmen and Americans opened it at our own pleasure. We had the power act by citing that as a precedent. I was unwilling jointly? If you have no right to make a treaty of doing it; for the Hise treaty contained provis- | to bind ourselves by treaty for all time to come by which you will protect an American company Lions for the construction of fortifications at each never to annex any more territory. I am content in making that canal, what right had you to make terminus and at such points along the line of the for the present with the territory we have. I do a treaty by which you pledged yourselves to pro canal as we thought proper. We had the privi- | not wish to annex any portion of Mexico now. tect a British company in making that canal? I lege of fortifying it, and we had the right to close I did not wish to annex any part of Central Amerchoose to put the Senator upon the defensive, and it against any Power which should abuse the ica then, nor do I at this time. let him demonstrate his right to do this thing jointly privilege which we conferred.
But I cannot close my eyes to the history of with England, and then I will draw from his argu Then, sir, what was the objection to the accept-|| this country for the last half century. Fifty ment my right to do it for the benefit of America ance of that exclusive privilege? I do not see it, || years ago the question was being debated in this alone. I choose to put him in the position of sir. I know what were the private arguments urged Senate whether it was wise or not to acquire any demonstrating the existence of the constitutional in times which have gone by, and which I trust territory or the west bank of the Mississippi power. He, in his treaty, exercised the power. I never will return; and that is, that England and river, and it was then contended that we could have not. And he, having exercised the power, other European Powers never would consent that never, with safety, extend beyond that river. having pledged the faith of the nation to do an act, the United States should have an exclusive right. It was at that time seriously considered whether I have a right to call upon him to show the au to the canal. Well, sir, I do not know that they | the Alleghany mountains should not be the barthority, under the Constitution of the United would have consented; butof one thing I am certain, | rier beyond which we should never pass. At a States, to make a guarantee jointly with England I would never have asked their consent. When | subsequent date, after we had acquired Louisiana for the benefit of English subjects as well as Nicaragua desired to confer the privilege, and and Florida, more liberal views began to prevail, American citizens; and when he proves the exist. U when we were willing to accept it, it was purely ll and it was thought that perbaps we might venture 320 CONG.....3D SESS.
Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
to establish one tier of States west of the Missis- | its line; whether they will not build up towns at | post at Gibraltar, except to keep it " in terrorem" sippis but in order to prevent the sad calamity of each terminus; whether they will not spread over over the commerce of the Mediterranean? Why an undue expansion of our territory, the policy that country, and convert it into an American her enormous expense to maintain a garrison at was adopted of establishing an Indian Territory, State; whether American principles and American the Cape of Good Hope, except to command the with titles in perpetuity, all along the western bor-linstitutions will not be firmly planted there? And
great passage on the way to the Indies? Why is der of those States, so that no more new States |I ask you how many years you think will pass she at the expense to keep her position on that could possibly be created in that direction. That away before you will find the same necessity to! little barren island Bermuda, and the miserable barrier could not arrest the onward progress of our extend your laws over your own kindred that you Bahamas, and all the other islands along our coast, people. They burst through it, and passed the found in the case of Texas? How long will it be except as sentinels upon our actions? Does EngRocky Mountains, and were only arrested by the before that day arrives! It may not occur in the land hold Bermuda because of any profit it is to waters of the Pacific. Who, then, is prepared to l Senator's day, nor mine. But so certain as this her? Has she any other motive for relaining it exsay that in the progress of events, having met || Republic exists, so certain as we remain a united cept jealousy which stimulates hostility to us? Is with the barrier of the ocean in our western course, people, so certain as the laws of progress which it not the case with all of her possessions along our we may not be compelled to turn to the north and have raised us from a mere handful to a mighty || coast? Why, then, talk about the friendly bearing to the south for an outlet? How long is it since nation, shall continue to govern our action, just of England towards us when she is extending the gentleman from Delaware himself thought that so certain are these events to be worked out, and that policy every day? New treaties of frienda time would never arrive when we would want you will be compelled to extend your protection ship, seizure of islands, and erection of new coloCalifornia ? I am aware that he was of that opin- l in that direction.
nies in violation of her treaties, seem to be the ion at the time we ratified the treaty, and an- | Sir, I am not desirous of hastening the day. I order of the day. In view of this state of things, nexed it.
am not impatient of the time when it shall be I am in favor of meeting England as we meet a Mr. CLAYTON. How?
realized. I do not wish to give any additional im rival; meet her boldly, treat her jastly and fairly, Mr. DOUGLAS. By his voting for Mr. Crit. pulse to our progress. We are going fast enough. but make no humiliating concession even for the tenden's resolutions declaring that we did not But I wish our public policy, our laws, our insti sake of peace. She has as much reason to make want any portion of Mexican territory. You will tutions, should keep up with the advance in sci concessions to us as we have to make them to her. find your vote in this volume which I hold in my lence, in the mechanic arts, in agriculture, and in || I would not willingly disturb the peace of the hand. I am aware that he belonged to that everything that tends to make us a great and pow- || world; but, sir, the Bay Island colony must be school of politicians who thought we had territory erful nation. Let us look the future in the face, | discontinued. It violates the treaty. enough. I have not forgotten that a respectable and let us prepare to meet that which cannot be | Now, Mr. President, it is not my purpose to portion of this body, but a few years ago thought avoided. Hence I was unwilling to adopt that say another word upon our foreign relations. - I it would be preposterous to bring a country so far clause in the treaty guraranteeing that neither || have only occupied so much time as was necessary distant as California, and so little known, into the party would ever annex, colonize, or occupy any to put myself right in respect to the speech made Union. But it has been done, and now since portion of Central America. I was opposed to it by the Senator from Delaware. He advocates California has become a member of the Confeder- / for another reason. It was not reciprocal. Great one line of policy in regard to our foreign relaacy, with her immense commerce and inexhaust- || Britain had possession of the Island of Jamaica. || tions, and I have deemed it my duty to advocate ible resources, we are told that the time will never Jamaica was the nearest armed and fortified point | another. It has been my object to put the two come when the territory lying half way between to the terminus of the canal. Jamaica at present systems by the side of each other that the public our Atlantic and Pacific possessions will be de- commands the entrance of that canal; and all that might judge between us.
ole. Central America is too far off, because it || Great Britain desired was, inasmuch as she had is half way to California, and on the main, direct il possession of the only place commanding the Mr. MASON obtained the floor, and on his moroute, on the very route upon which you pay canal, lo procure a stipulation that no other Powertion the further consideration of the subject was your Senators and Representatives in Congress would ever erect a fortification nearer its terminus. postponed until to-morrow. their mileage in coming to the capital of the na- That stipulation is equivalent to an agreement
RECESS. tion. The usual route of travel, the public high that England may fortify, but that we never shall.
On motion by Mr. RUSK, it was way, the half-way house from one portion of the Sir, when you look at the whole history of that country to the other, is so far distant that the man
Ordered, That when the Senate adjourns it be to meet on question, you will see that England, with her far- ll Mo
Monday next. who thinks the time will ever come when we will seeing, sagacious policy, has attempted to circumwant it is deemed a madman. scribe and restrict and restrain the free action of
EXECUTIVE SESSION. Mr. CLAYTON. Does the Senator apply this Government. When was it that Great Bri
On motion by Mr. MASON, the Senate proceedthose sentiments to me? I did not think so." tain seized the possession of the terminus of this led to the consideration of Executive business; and
Mr. DOUGLAS. I simply say that such an canal? Just six days after the signing of the treaty | after some time spent therein, the doors were reopinion was indicated by the vote of the gentle which secured to us California! The moment | opened, and man on the resolution of Mr. Crittenden.
that England saw that by the pending negotiations The Senate adjourned. Mr. CLAYTON. The Senator is entirely mis- | with Mexico, California was to be acquired, she taken on that point.
collected her feets, and made preparations for the Mr. DOUGLAS. In order to save time I waive seizure of the port of San Juan, in order that she
MONDAY, March 14, 1853. the point as to the Senator's vote, although it is might be gate-keeper on the public highway to Prayer by the Chaplain, Rev. C. M. BUTLER. recorded in the volume before me, and he can read our own possessions on the Pacific. Within six it at his leisure. But I am not mistaken in saying days from the time we signed the treaty, England
The PRESIDENT laid before the Senate a comthat the Senator on yesterday did ridicule the idea seized by force and violence the very point nown
munication from the Post Office Department, in
answer to a resolution of the Senate of February that we were ever to want any portion of Central controversy. Is not this fact conclusive as to her America. He was utterly amazed, and in his motives? Is it not clear that her object was to
| 17, calling for copies of contracts entered into for
the transportation of the mails from New York, amazement inquired where were these boundaries obstruct our passage to our new possessions ? ever to cease? He wanted to know how far we
| via New Orleans and Vera Cruz, to San FranHence I do not sympathize with that feeling which
cisco; which was referred to the Committee on the were going, and if we were going to spread over the Senator expressed yesterday, that it was a
|| Post Office and Post Roads, and ordered to be the entire continent. I do not think we will do it pity to have a difference with a nation so FRIEND
printed. in our day, but I am not prepared to prescribe | LY TO US As ENGLAND. Sir, I do not see the evi- || limits to the area over which Democratic prin- | dence of her friendship. It is not in the nature of
AMERICAN CITIZENS IN CUBA. ciples may safely spread. I know not what our I things that she can be our friend. It is impossible || Mr. JAMES submitted some documentary evidestiny may be. I try to keep up with the spirit she can love us. I do not blame her for not loving Il dence in relation to the imprisonment of James H.
us. Sir, we have wounded her vanity and hum- || West, an American citizen, in the Island of Cuba; try, see what we have done, whither we are going, bled her pride. She can never forgive us. But || which was referred to the Committee on Foreign and with what velocity we are moving, in order for us, she would be the first Power on the face of Relations, and ordered to be printed. to be prepared for those events which it is not in the earth. But for us, she would have the pros
OFFICERS OF THE SENATE. the power of man to thwart.
pect of maintaining that proud position which she |Mr. ADAMS submitted the following resoluYou may make as many treaties as you please | held for so long a period. We are in her way.
I tion for consideration: to fetter the limits of this giant Republic, and she She is jealous of us, and jealousy forbids the idea
Resolved, That the Senate will, at this session, elect a will burst them all from her, and her course will of friendship. England does not love us; she
Secretary and Sergeant-at arms. be onward to a limit which I will not venture to ! cannot love us, and we do not love her either. preseribe. Why the necessity of pledging your We have some things in the past to remember
CAPTAIN MARCY'S REPORT. faith that you will never annex any more of Mex- ll that are not agreeable. She has more in the pres
The following resolution, submitted by Mr. ico? Do you not know that you will be compelled ent to humiliate her that she cannot forgive. CHASE on Thursday last, was agreed to: to do it; that you cannot help it; that your treaty I do not wish to administer to the feeling of || Resolved, That two thousand additional copies of the rewill not prevent it, and that the only effect it will jealousy and rivalry that exists between us and || port of Captain R. B. Marcy of his exploration of the waters
of the Red river, ordered to be printed by the resolution of have will be to enable European Powers to accuse 'England. I wish to soften and smooth it down
the Senate of the 4th of February Jast, be printed for the us of bad faith when the act is done, and associate l as much as possible; but why close our eyes to
use of the Senate; two hundred copies of which to be fur American faith and Punic faith as synonymous the fact that friendship is impossible while jeal. nished to Captain Marcy; and that two hundred copies of terms? What is the use of your guarantee that ousy exists? Hence England seizes every island the report of Captain Sitgreaves, ordered to be printed for
the use of the Senate, be furnished to Captain Sitgreaves. you will never erect any fortifications in Central | in the sea and rock upon our coast where she America; never annex, occupy, or colonize any | can plant a gun to intimidate us or to annoy our
CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY. of that count
commerce. Her policy has been to seize every The Senate resumed the consideration of the you can avoid doing it? If you make the canal, military and naval station the world over. Why l resolutions submitted by Mr. Clayton on MonI ask you if American citizens will not settle along Il does she pay such enormous sums to keep her ll day, the 7th instant.
Inow that I
Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
, 32D Cong....30 Sess.
Mr. MASON said: Mr. President, it is my de tions. I did not participate in the debate. I did then the representative of England in this counsire to make a few remarks in reply to some of the not do it for two reasons: first, because I had not try, as a preliminary to the exchange of ratificaviews expressed by the Senator from Delaware, sufficient information to enable me to form a judg || tions, sent to the Secretary of State this note, (Mr. Clayton,) in reference to the subject of de ment satisfactory to myself; and secondly, because which is called a “declaration” on the part of bate before the Senate at the last session, connected the whole subject matter being before the Com Great Britain. with the affairs of Central America and the treaty | mittee on Foreign Relations, of which I was a The British Minister says: between the United States and Great Britain in member, I thought the matter ought to be inquired
“In proceeding to exchange the ratifications of the con1850.
vention, signed at Washington on the 19th of April, 1850, The treaty of 19th April, 1850, negotiated at pressed upon it. The committee made its report between her Britannic Majesty and the l'nited States of
near the close of the late session. That report Washington and ratified by the Senate of the
America, relative to the establishment of a communication
by a ship canal between the Atlantic and the Pacific United States, came back from England in the was directed to three points. The first was as to
oceans, the undersigned, her Britannie Majesty's Plenipomonth of June following, having received there the alleged colony of the “ Bay Islands;" and the tentiary, has received her Majesty's instructions to declare the ratification of the British Government, and on report informed the Senate, from the best inform
that her Majesty does not understand the engagements of
that convention to apply to her Majesty's settlements at the 4th of July it was formally published under ation within reach of the committee, that these
Honduras or to its dependencies. Her Majesty's ratificathe proclamation of the President, thus becoming Bay Islands, five in number, formed part of the tion ofthe said convention is exchanged under the explicit the supreme law of the land. We are all aware dominion of the Republic of Honduras, and that declaration above mentioned.” that when the treaty came before the Senate, there the Republic of Honduras, being undoubtedly a It is dated the 29th of June, 1850. The language was some objection made to it, because it seemed part of Central America, any attempt to colonize of the declaration is clear and explicit. No man to involve a departure from the well-established those islands would be in contravention of the can misunderstand it. It is made a condition prepolicy of this Government to avoid all foreign alli treaty. The second point to which the report of || cedent to the exchange of the ratification of the ance, or any alliance that might commit or entangle ll the committee was directed was upon the ques- | treaty. The exchange was to be made on the part us in the management of our external relations. || tions connected with the British settlements at the of the British Government, with the understanding There was found in that treaty a mutual engage Balize; and the report informed the Senate, as the “ that the engagements of that convention should ment between the two Governments-England |
I judgment of the committee, that Great Britain not apply to her Majesty's settlements at Honduand the United States—stipulating for the mutual | held no dominion at the Balize whatsoever; that
ras or its dependencies.” What are the engage protection and security, and to that extent a mu | her possessions there were mere settlements, in ments of the convention? Why the engagements iual intervention in the affairs of foreign Powers the character of “ useful domain,” as was fully
were, that Great Britain would not“ occupy, forconnected with a projected canal through the Re- ll established by the treaties between Great Britain || tifv. colonize, or assume or exercise any dominpublic of Nicaragua. I say that this provision of and Spain; that no political character whatever ion," in any part of Central America. Now, says ihe treaty caused some difference of opinion in the was attached to the settlements, nor was there any | the British note, it is our express understanding Senate when it came before us, as to the propriety government there except for police regulation. | that the engagements of that treaty do not apply of departing even to that extent from the existing Upon the question whether those British settle- ll to her Majesty's settlement at Honduras. Sir, if and well-established policy of the Government. ments at the Balize were or were not in Central | her Majesty's settlements at Honduras are within But these objections were waived, and ultimately
America, the committee informed the Senate that | Central America the treaty did apply to them the treaty conciliated a large vote, because there they had been unable to obtain jnformation suf
|| and the object of this note was, in such case, to was further in it, what I believe was considered | ficiently precise to determine with certainty their
withdraw them from its operation. The British at the time a final extinction of all claims and all exact geographic position. But, upon the proofs Government may have been in doubt as to the true pretensions to claim on the part of the British before them, the committee entertained a strong position of these settlements; and seeing, if they Government within the country termed by the opinion that they were located within the territory
should be found in Guatemala, they would come treaty « Central America.” I think I am right in of Guatemala, and in such case, that they also
under the renunciations of the treaty, their Minsaying that those provisions in the treaty concili would constitute a part of Central America, and
ister was instructed to exhibit this protest. How ated objection, and the result was that it was rati come strictly within the renunciations of the treaty
was it met ? Did the Secretary of State commit fied by a large vote.
of 1850. The third point taken was in reference to his Government to the English declaration, that Things remained in that condition, it being the the construction that should be placed upon the cor
the engagements of the treaty did not extend to general impression of the country that whatever respondence between the British Minister and the these settlements? He did not. He contends now, views or purposes Great Britain might have had Secretary of State at the time of the exchange of
and I think contends correctly, that his note went upon the extended coast of Central America, they the ratifications of the treaty. The result of the
no further than to admit that the treaty was in no were all renounced and quieted forever by the deliberation of the committee, as shown in their manner to affect the British title to those possestreaty of 1850. Nor did we know to the contrary report, was, that the correspondence did nothing sions, wherever they might be situated. until during the last session of Congress, when in more than to express, as the opinion of the Exec If the Secretary of State then thought, as the formation came, not in an official form, but in a utive Department of the Government, that the
Senator from Delaware now thinks, that those setmanner which made a pretty strong impression treaty of '1850 left unaffected the existing rights tlements are not in Central America, why, in his upon the country, that somehow, in contravention of the British at the Balize whatever they might answer, did he not, in two lines, say that clearly of the provisions of this treaty, Great Britain pro be.
the engagements of the treaty did not apply to jected the establishment, if it had not already eg. The honorable Senator from Delaware, in his them, because they were not in Central America ? tablished, a colony within the limits of Central remarks the other day, as I understood him, ac But, Mr. President, did he give that answer? He America upon certain islands called the Bay quiesced in all the conclusions to which the com did not. His letter, if I may be allowed to exIslands. On the 30th of December the Senate mittee came in their report except one, and that press it, with entire respect to the Senator from Deladopted a resolution calling upon the President to was in the opinion expressed by the committee aware, is not very explicit; but taking it altogether, communicate to the Senate, if not incompatible that the British settlements at the Balize were in
we can assign to it but one meaning, and that with the public interest, any information in the Central America; and the honorable Senator was
meaning is: “I dissent from your proposition, possession of the Executive in relation to this pro pleased to express himself rather in a manner of
and am not prepared to say that the British setjected colony. The President replied to that res anticipated triumph. He said:
tlements are not in Central America.” The terms olution in due time, and informed us substantially I join issue with the committee upon that point; and
of his note are: that he had no information on the subject, and that am prepared to show to the honorable Senator (the chairman
“The language of the first article of the Convention, conof Foreign Relations) by abundant authority, that these we had no diplomatic agent or government funcBritish settlements at the Balize are not in Central Amer
cluded on the 19th day of April last, between the United tionary of any kind in that quarter from whom ica, but that they are in Mexico, in the Province of Yuca
States and Great Britain, describing the country not to be information could be derived. But with the mes tan.”
occupied, &c., by either of the parties, was, as you know, sage the President communicated a correspondence I confess I was somewhat surprised at the very
twice approved by your Government; and it was neither
understood by them, nor by either of us, (the negotiators,) which had taken place between the British Minis || decided tone of the Senator in joining this issue. to include the British settlement in Honduras, (commonly ter at Washington and the Secretary of State at The committee had not assumed it. The com called British Honduras, as distinct from the State of Honthe time the ratifications of the treaty of 1850 were mittee presented to the Senate the best opinion
duras,) nor the small islands in the neighborhood of that
settlement, which may be known as its dependencies. To exchanged. And so far as I am informed, it was || they could form upon the state of the information
this settlement, and these islands, the treaty we negotiated then, for the first time, made known that any before them, and they presented the question in was not intended by either of us to apply." thing had been appended to that treaty, or in any the alternative, and in the alternative strictly. If
If he had stopped there, it would import premanner connected with it, under the shadow of these settlements are in Central America, then of
cisely what the honorable Senator now says is the which the Government of Great Britain might as course any extension of British dominion there will
geographical fact. It would have imported that sume the right to continue its intervention or its be in violation of the treaty. If not, then the treaty
the engagement of the treaty did not apply to those dominion within the limits of Central America. does not apply. The committee expressed as
settlements, because they were not within the preA communication of such transaction produced its opinion, that which I now entertain, but with
scribed limits. But it does not stop there. In the a strong sensation in this body. It was made the guarded reference to the state of its information,
very next line the Secretary adds: occasion of an extended debate, and amongst ihat these settlements are in the Republic of Gua "The title to them, it is now and has been my intentio others who participated in it were the honorable temala, and therefore in Central America. I was throughout the whole negotiation, to leave, as the treaty Senator from Michigan, (Mr. Cass,] whose ab surprised at the very decided tone of the honorable leaves it, without denying, affirming, or in any way med sence and the cause of that absence we all regret; Senator from Delaware in joining issue with the dling with the same, just as it stood previously.” the honorable Senator from Mlinois, (Mr. Doug committee. I was surprised at it, because it was So that when the British Minister called upon "Las, and the honorable Senator from Louisiana, utterly inconsistent with the letter which he wrote the Secretary of State to admit that none of the [Mr. Souls.] There were others, I believe, who | in reply to the protest of the British Minister- || engagements of the treaty applied to the British took part in the debate, with a view to illustrate the utterly inconsistent. Let us advert to it.
settlements at Honduras, the Secretary of State character of the correspondence, and its bearing I have said that the treaty of 1850 came back said, in substance, “I will make no such admisupon the stipulations of the treaty. The subject || from London with the ratification of the British sion, but I will admit that none of the engagements was referred to the Committee on Foreign Rela- || Government. Sir Henry L. Bulwer, who was l of that treaty are intended to affect the title of
32 CONG.....30 SESS.
Special Session-Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
contrived to mix several exact notions derived from the
Great Britain to those settlements, let them lie is not the true term and may be calculated to mis- speaking here of the province of Merida or Yucawhere they may, whether in Central America or lead. The honorable Senator from Michigan, in tan, and of the British settlements, that he meant
I say, then, that the honorable Secretary | debating this subject, at the first impression, when to say they formed a part of Yucatan, yet it is by of State was guarded, and properly guarded, in the message of the President came in, assumed at no means conclusive. refraining from making the admission asked for once, “Why, who can doubt that they are in Cen The honorable Senator then refers to a Spanish in the British " declaration.” What the British | tral America ?—are they not geographically in that writer, Alcedo, on whom he seems to place great Minister wanted, was an admission that the treaty | portion of America which lies between the two reliance. I have looked also into this work-a did not apply to these settlements, whether in continents? Who can fail to see where North large geographical dictionary, a compilation-but Central America or no. The Secretary of State America terminates, and where South America | I think the honorable Senator himself will not refused to admit the protest to that extent, but begins, and that the intermediate strip of country ascribe much authority to Mr. Alcedo when he confined it to the single question of the title; and is of course Central America ?" Geographically i finds that Alcedo has been discredited by Humhe substantially declared, “I will not agree that the Senator from Michigan was right, but politi- boldt, who is certainly far more worthy of reliance. the engagements do not apply to the British set cally he may have been wrong, because the ques. I find that Humboldt complains that the English tlement åt Honduras, but I will agree that they | tion at last is, What is meant by “Central Amer- | geographer Pinkerton had pirated and misused his do not apply to your title. ica?"
materials. In speaking of that piracy, he refers But, wir, the honorable Secretary of State went The terms “ Central America" are, so far as I to Alcedo, and says: further in that note, and fully and clearly devel can learn, not known to the country they are in “Mr. Pinkerton, in the second edition of his Modern oped that he did not mean to commit himself as to tended to designate, and confusion and difficul- | Geography, has endeavored to give a minute description
He the geographical position of the settlements.
of the Spanish possessions in North America; and he has ties not unfrequently arise from the misuse of goes on to inform the British Minister that the words. The five separate republics classed under Viajero Universal with the most vague data furnished by difficulty arises out of the question as to what are that designation, comprised under the Spanish the dictionary of M. Alcedo. This author, who believes the limits of Central America. Now, sir, what rule, the captain-generalcy of Guatemala, and
himself to possess a singular knowledge of the true territo
rial divisions of New Spain, considers the Provinces of difficulty had there arisen out of the question as were at that time, the provinces of Guatemala, Sonora, Sinaloa, and La Pimeria, as parts of New Biscay. to the limits of Central America but from the fact Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa He divides what he calls the dominions (domaine) of Mexthat the limits of Central America must be ascer. Rica. These provinces in the year 1821 threw
ico into the districts of Nueva Galicia, Panuco, Zacatulo,
&c., &c. According to this principle we should say that tained before he could assent to the extent to off their allegiance to Spain, and in 1824 they
the three great divisions of Europe are Spain, Languedoc, which the British protest went? His language is: | formed a confederacy, modeled very much after Catalonia, and the territories of Cadiz and Bordeaux."
“ The difficulty that now arises seems to spring from the the example of the United States, under the name Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, by Baron use, in our convention, of the term "Central Ainerica,' which of the “ Confederation of the Centre of America." Huinboldt, vol. 1, p. 263–4-5. we adopted because Viscount Palmerston had assented to Still, I take for granted we may safely assume That is the way he introdnces Alcedo to the it and used it as the proper term, we naturally supposing that, on this account, it would be satisfactory to your Gov.
what the treaty calls “ Central America” to mean consideration of all historians and geographers. ernment; but if your Government now intend to delay the those republics which united under the title of the I say, then, that Alcedo is discredited by Humexchange of ratifications until we shall have fixed the “ Centre of America," and to affirm of the latter boldi, and not discredited only, but discredited in precise limits of Central America, we must defer further whatever is predicated of the former.
a manner to show, in the opinion of Humboldt, action until we have further information on both sides, to which at present we have no means of resort, and which it
I do not know how far the archives of the old that there is no great degree of merit to be ascribed is certain we could not obtain before the term fixed for Spanish dominions upon the southern continent to any of those writers who have attempted to exchanging the ratifications would expire."
will be found, when examined, clearly to ascertain trace, from early records, the boundaries between And he adds:
and fix the boundaries or divisions between the the Spanish provinces. “But on some future occasion a conventional article, provinces. I am not informed on that subject. I I would suggest, then, to the Senator from Delaclearly stating what are the limits of Central America,
have had some occasion to make inquiry in refer- | ware, that for the future conduct of this question, might become advisable.”
ence to our disputed boundaries with Mexico, and as it may involve the interests of this country, it Now, sir, why that language? Why inform
have found that the boundaries between the prov- would be safer for him to repose on his note, conthe British minister that if you make a difficuliy, inces were generally of an unsettled and indeter- nected with the treaty of 1850, where he guardabout Central America it will defeat the treaty ? | minate character. How far the same may be edly refuses any admission, than to recur to the Why inform the British minister if “ you insist affirmed of the boundary between Mexico and the speech which he made a few days ago, when he upon a committal now as to the limits of Central captain-generalcy of Guatemala, I am uninformed, presented an argument to establish it as a fact, a America we must wait until we get further in- | but so far as I can get information, I am strongly geographical fact, that the British settlements at formation on both sides?” Why inform the Bri- || disposed to believe, when these boundaries are as Balize were to be found in Mexico, and not in tish minister " that at some future day a conven certained that the British settlements on Honduras Central America. tional article clearly stating what are the limits of bay, as they are prescribed by the treaties with One authority cited by the honorable Senator Central America might become advisable:" Why Spain, will be found to lie altogether within the was Arrowsmith, who published a map of Gualenot at once have agreed to the terms of the British limits of the captain-generalcy of Guatemala, and
mala in 1826. The honorable Senator was kind note, without reference to any necessity for determnot of New Spain or Mexico.
enough to give me access to it. That map purining by further inquiry the boundaries of Cen The first authority to which the honorable Sen- | ports to have been reduced from the survey in the tral America, if the fact was clear, as he now as ator referred in his attempt to establish the posi- archives of Guatemala-a declaration on the part sumes, that the British settlements were not within tion that they were not in Central America, was of Arrowsmith which, in the judgment of the honthose boundaries? Sir, I appeal from the Senator
Humboldt, upon whom he relied, and justly re orable Senator, entitles it to high credit. Now, from Delaware to the Secretary of State; I arraign lied, as one of the most authentic writers upon the Mr. President, all geographers are conversant with the Senator from Delaware before the Secretary subject of the Spanish possessions in America. I the maps of Arrowsmith. He is, perhaps, now of State. I say the Secretary of State refused to have referred to Humboldt; and although it may one of the largest map-makers in the world, and make the admission which the Senator from Del
be that he meant to describe these British settle to whom, I believe great credit is generally given aware now attempts to establish. Why, sir, the
ments as within the province of Yucatan, yet it is for accuracy. But Arrowsmith has this remarkSenator spoke with a tone of triumph, almost by no means a clear question. On page 170, the able fact connected with his maps: He does not scouting the idea that there could be any differ page to which the Senator referred, Humboldt, | date them; not one in twenty, so far as my observaence of opinion, and claimed in his speech to show speaking of the intendency of Merida, or the pen.
tion goes, will you find dated. But it is a little conclusively that the settlements were not in Cen: insula of Yucatan, after describing the face of remarkable that this map of 1826 is dated, and tral America. I say, then, with all the respect the country, climate, &c., says:
claims to have been compiled from surveys to be which I bear to that gentleman both as a gentle
“The ruins of European edifices discoverable in the Isl
found in the archives of Guatemala. man and a Senator, that I appeal from the Sena and Cosumel, in the midst of a grove of palm trees, indi The honorable Senator informed us, in introdutor from Delaware to the Secretary of State on this
cate that this island, which is now uninhabited, was, at cing the map, that it was one entitled to peculiar question of boundary.
the commencement of the conquest, peopled by Spanish The report of the Committee on Foreign Relacolonists. Since the settleinent of the English between
confidence, because the British Government was Omo and Rio Hondo, the government, to diminish the con
anxious to ascertain where those settlements were, tions, with which upon this point the Senator from traband trade, concentrated the Spanish and Indian popu and therefore it sent a deputation to Guatemala Delaware has declared he joins issue, does not as
lation in the part of the peninsula west from the mountains to examine the archives. . He informed us that
of Yucatan. Colonists are not permitted to settle on the sume as a fact upon which the action of this Gov.
the anxiety of the British Government to know western coast* on the banks of the Rio Bacalar and Rio ernment is to be based, that the British settlements Hondo."— Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain,
where the British settlements were arose from this: are in Central America. The report of the com by Baron Humboldt, vol. 2, page 160.
that since the dominion of Spain had ended, ? mittee has guardedly avoided, as the Senator when Secretary of State avoided, any committal on this
Now, Humboldt is giving us here information
Great Britain was at a loss to know who was her as to the effect that had been operated upon the
landlord in regard to these settlements whether point; but the committee in the report, from the Indians and the other population of Yucatan by
she was to treat with Mexico or Guatemala upon information before it, expressed as its opinion, when the question comes to be accurately ascermeans of these British setilements; that is to say,
the subject of those possessions; and therefore it because of the contraband trade which sprung up
became a matter of interest to England to send an tained, it will be found that the settlements are in Guatemala; and if they are in Guatemala, they in the British settlements, the Government of Yu
agent to Guatemala to learn it, and the result was, then come under the provisions of the treaty, any catan had withdrawn its population, but he does
said he, this map of Arrowsmith of 1826. I declarations subsequent to the treaty to the connot say, as a matter of geographic history, that
believe I have stated the honorable Senator's posibecause the British settlements were between the
tion correctly. He further informed us, that by trary notwithstanding. It is in that point of view, Rio Omoa and the Rio Hondo, they were to be
means of that investigation Great Britain found and in that alone, that the question is one of in- i found in the province of Yucatan, neither does he
that her settlements at Honduras bay were in the terest to us. This term Central America, which the honorable Senator says was put into the treaty
tell us that the Rio Hondo was a river of Yuca Province of Yucatan, and she proceeded to treat, because it was used by Viscount Palmerston, and tan. I say, therefore, although it may be when
and did treat, with Mexico accordingly in refer
ence to them. It is a little unfortunate for the approved by the British Government, as it seems
*Evidently eastern coast.-Trans.
Senator's theory that there is a seeming conflict