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golden bell and a pomegranate, upon the hem fine linen, and thou shalt make the girdle of of the robe round about.
needlework. 35 ?And it shall be upon Aaron to minister : 40 | And for Aaron's sons thou shalt make and his sound shall be heard when he goeth in coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles, unto the holy place before the LORD, and when and bonnets shalt thou make for them, for he cometh out, that he die not.
glory and for beauty. 36 | And thou shalt make a plate of 41 And thou shalt put them upon Aaron pure gold, and grave upon it, like the en- thy brother, and his sons with him; and shalt gravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE anoint them, and consecrate them, and sancLORD.
tify them, that they may minister unto me in 37 And thou shalt put it on a blue lace, the priest's office. that it may be upon the mitre; upon the fore | 42 And thou shalt make them linen breeches front of the mitre it shall be.
to cover 'their nakedness; from the loins even 38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead, unto the thighs they shall ''reach : that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy 43 And they shall be upon Aaron, and things, which the children of Israel shall hal- upon his sons, when they come in unto the low in all their holy gifts ; and it shall be tabernacle of the congregation, or when they always upon his forehead, that they may become near unto the altar to minister in the accepted before the LORD.
holy place; that they bear not iniquity, and 39 | And thou shalt embroider the coat of die : it shall be a statute for ever unto him fine linen, and thou shalt make the mitre of I and his seed after him.
8 Heb. fill their hand.
9 Heb. Nesh of their nakedness.
un 43 Andighs they shall from then breeches
10 Heb, be.
Verse 2. · Holy garments.'-Under the views which have tured and pictured monuments of Egypt; and if the views been indicated in the notes to ch. xxv. we may expect to we have already set forth be correct, we may reasonably derive from the antiquities of Egypt no small illustration calculate on obtaining from this source some more distinct of the details given in this chapter. These details are some notions of the priestly costumes of the Hebrews than can what obscure to us, as the particulars relate to matters remote through any other means be secured. Indeed, the degree from our actual knowledge, but clear to those to whom the of success with which this object may be realised, might law was given, as they had, or were to have, the same par not unfairly be made a test of the general soundness of ticulars exemplified before their eyes in circumstances of the principle, that the Hebrew ritual embodied a guarded dress and usage. The dresses and ceremonies of the Egyp transfer of modified and expurgated Egyptian ceremonies tian priesthood are represented most profusely in the sculp- l to the worship of the true God. Before proceeding to the
8. EGYPTIAN ETHOD. details, we may point out a few general considerations. | writers speak much concerning the priestly ropes, but with The priests ministered at the altar and in the holy place particular reference to the temple, where doubtless the with covered heads and naked feet, like the priests of usages in this matter were the same as in the tabernacle. Egypt; but these indeed have ever been, throughout the We learn from them that a priest could not officiate withEast, circumstances of respect. Their services were, in out his robes, evidently to preclude him from wearing any most respects, the same as those of the Egyptian priests, other, with superstitious or idolatrous symbols ; neither as, indeed, necessarily resulted from the fact, that the Lord could he wear these beyond the sacred precincts. When the required from them most of the observances which they had priests arrived to take their turns of duty, they put off their learned to regard as acts of becoming worship, but always usual dress, washed themselves in water, and put on the took care to draw the line distinctly between the good and holy garments. While they were in the temple, attending the evil, the use and the abuse. They were hence also re upon their service, they could not sleep in their sacred quired to be as scrupulously clean as the Egyptian priests; habit, but in their own wearing clothes: these they put off they were to bathe themselves with water daily, before in the morning, when they went to their service, and, after they commenced their ministrations; before their original bathing, resumed their official dress. consecration they were also ordered to shave their persons The more detailed comparison to which we now proceed completely; but it does not appear that they were required will be useful not only from the analogies it may suggest, to keep themselves thus constantly shaven, like the priests but by enabling us to detect such differences as suggest a of Egypt. Indeed, we know that they wore boards, which reason for the minute directions concerning dresses which the latter never did: but although they were forbidden to are given namely, to exclude matters that were objectionshave their heads, they were not allowed to appear with able, as being idolatrously symbolical, or as tending to long hair at the time of their ministrations; and the high | idolatry or superstition, by preventing everything from priest, whose presence was always necessary, was not al being used which was not described. The Hebrews were lowed to let his hair grow at all, but had it cut close, once at this time acquainted with no other forms of ritual worevery week. Compare Lev. xxi. 5, and Ezek. xliv, 20. ship, no other priestly institutions and attire, than those of We are inclined to suspect that the reason why, although Egypt, which were so calculated to strike, and did strike, their hair was kept short, it was not shaven, was that they their imaginations deeply; and there can be no doubt that, might not be induced to wear wigs, etc., like the Egyptians, if left to themselves in the establishment of their ritual, which might with other circumstances have suggested or they would have followed the Egyptian model, their tentended to the use of such symbolical hooded masks, repre dency to which continued for a long time to be very strong. senting the heads of beasts, birds, etc., as were on some oc We shall now be able partly to see with what wisdom this casions worn in their ministrations by the priests of Egypt. tendency was met, and limited, and guided, by their new The retention of the beard would also be an obstacle to this. ritual being adapted, so far as it might with usefulness or In ordinary life, when not engaged in their sacred duties, safety, to the notions they had imbibed. We may easily the priests were dresscd like other Israelites of good con believe that if this had not been done if they had been dition; but, like the priests of Egypt, they had a peculiar confined to a system more simple and austere, when all the dress, appropriated to their sacred ministrations. This world had fallen into pompous ceremonials--the probadress was kept in the wardrobe of the tabernacle, and was bilities of their being drawn aside into idolatry would have put on by the priests before they commenced their actual been increased beyond calculation. In more ways than one duties, and afterwards restored to the wardrobe. Exod. did God deal with the Israelites as a parent deals with his xxviii. 4-13; Ezek. xliii. 14; xliv. 19. The Jewish children.
The dresses of the Egyptian priests were various, accord that behind reached from the shoulders, downward, to ing to the god they served and the office they exercised : | below the buttocks (others, nearly to the feet), while in Israel there were but two dresses, that of the priests and the front part descended quite or nearly to the loios. that of the high-priest. We shall see whether, among the If this description might be relied on, the dress would, dresses of the former, we cannot illustrate or explain the in its general purpose and proportion of descent before latter. The description of the priestly dress which is given and behind, answer to, and probably be intended to in this chapter is rather defective, probably from most of supersede, the leopard-skin, which, as shown in Cut the articles being then so well known as to need no parti- | 9, was sometimes worn by the highest order of Egypcular description. It is, however, partly assisted by the |tian priests when engaged in the most important funcnotices in Ezekiel, who manifestly describes such raiment | tions of their service. But while we are thus prepared as the priests of the first temple actually wore. Josephus to meet the alternative, which, on rabbinical authority, may assist in some points of difficulty, but he is to be re- insists on this form of the ephod, we are ourselves more sorted to with caution. He was a priest himself, and could disposed to complete, from Josephus, the brief indications well describe what was worn in his time, and was then l of the text, and then, we apprehend the result will offer understood to have been prescribed by Moses; but it is something very like that curt and very splendid outer robe possible that some of the particulars may have been of which, as shown in Cut 10, was worn by priests of the later introduction.
highest rank, when discharging their most sacred functions. In the first place, it is to be observed that all the priestly garments were to be of linen. No wool was to form or enter into the texture of the garments in which they ministered. Cleanliness was assigned as the reason for this (Exod. xxviii. 39, 40, 43, xxxix. 27-29; compare Ezek. xliv. 17). This was exactly the Egyptian practice. The priests of that country were of all people the most studious of personal cleanliness. They wore linen robes; and although their outer garment, when dressed in their ordinary attire, was, as among the other people, a kind of woollen mantle, they were obliged to throw it off before they entered a temple (Herodotus, ii. 37, 81; see also Plutarch, De Is. et Osir. 4). Neither might any person be buried in woollen, nor, in fact, are any mummies found enveloped in other than linen or cotton. The dress of the Hebrew priests consisted of four articles.
6. “The ephod.'—This was a very rich and splendid piece of dress, and is also one of those which is the most particularly described, although more with reference to its materials than to its form. It was a kind of brocade, made of byssus and gold thread interwoven, and adorned (in figures of some kind, probably) with scarlet, purple, and blue. The accounts given of it by different writers, even among the Jews, vary greatly. Josephus, who of course knew what was worn in his time, calls it a short coat, and gives it sleeves, which no other authority assigns to it. Jerome compares it to the short Roman cloak called caracalla, but without the hood. Under this view, it might seem to answer very closely to the common Egyptian garment represented in the annexed engraving, in which even the shoulder pieces, and other appendages of the Hebrew ephod are not inadequately represented. The more general account, however, supposes that it was, at least originally,
10. EPHOD AND CENSES. without sleeves, and consisted of two pieces, of which It was worn even by the sovereign when engaged, as high
priest, in offering sacrifice or incense to the gods. It has
sented is properly a rich skirt or apron, varying in length OO
but generally reaching from below the paps to the knees. In this form it must have had some support, in the shape of straps or braces, to prevent it from slipping down. Now this support it actually received, either in straps passing over the shoulders (as in Figs. 4, 6 of Cut 7; see also Cut 10), when the priest wore no collar; or, when a collar was worn by straps connecting the collar with the ephod, which thus obtained the requisite support. Here, then, we have the shoulder-pieces, which have occasioned so much difficulty, and which, in the dress of the Jewish high-priest, bore, immediately on the shoulders, two onyx stones, set in gold, ou which were engraved the names of the twelve tribes, six on each stone, in the order of their birth (v. 9, 10). In its immediate use, this ornament, perhaps, served as a button to connect the strap behind
with the strap before (for there seems to have been no 956 9. EPHOD AND GIRDLE,
collar), or else to cover the point where this junction was
there made by other means. The prohibition of idolatrous and superstitious images and figures must greatly have modified the appearance of this article of ceremonial dress; for, in the Egyptian specimens, we see it highly charged with all kinds of idolatrous figures and symbols, and even with scenes of human immolation.
8. The curious girdle of the ephod.”—This being described by Moses as "a girdle of fine linen, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and needlework,' we are probably to understand that it was embroidered in these various colours with the needle. The supplementary descriptions of Josephus and of Maimonides differ considerably; but as the former was the older writer, and ought, as a priest, to know best, we prefer his statement. According to him it was a hand's breadth in width, woven in such a manner as to exhibit the appearance of a serpent's scales, and was ornamented with various flowers, embroidered with the colours mentioned. It was worn a little below the breast, encircled the body twice, and was tied in a knot before. The extremities of the girdle hung down nearly to the ancle; and the priest. when engaged in some of his sacred services flung the ends over his left shoulder, that he might not be impeded by them (Antiq. iii. 7). For this article of priestly attire we perceive that we have not provided all the illustration it is capable of receiving from the antiquities of
11. BREASTPLATE. Egypt. There is, however, sufficient to shew that some classes of the Egyptian priesthood wore girdles of the form
Then the answer was determined by the stone which the and in the fashion described. For examples, hanging down | high-priest drew forth, the blank stone intimating that no in the manner described, we may refer to the cuts marked answer was to be given. This seems better than the dreams 3 and 9: the latter of these is also a specimen of one of the rabbins, who teach that the answer was conveyed by richly embroidered ; and if any stress is to be laid on the
the supernatural irradiation or development of such of the imbricated appearance of the girdle which Josephus men letters graven on the breastplate (contained in the names tions, that may be seen very strikingly in Cut 14. The of the twelve tribes) as were needed to spell out the answer. figure of a priestly scribe, given Gen. xli. 8, offers a clear According to this, it follows that the Urim and Thummim and interesting example of both tunic and girdle. In was no other than the breastplate itself; and, although the other examples the girdle has greater length.
subject is one of considerable difficulty, we are rather dis. The curious girdle of the ephod' was of the same sub posed to concur in that opinion. But the notion as to the stance as the ephod itself, doubtless corresponded to that manner in which the response was given by this breastplate rich and narrow girdle which passes round the ephod, appears to us the most awkward and improbable contrivat the loins, in the Egyptian examples which we offer. ance that can be imagined. It seems more likely, and
15-19. • The breastplate.'—This splendid ornament con much more seemly, that the breastplate merely qualified sisted of a piece of the rich brocade of the ephod. It was the high-priest to seek and to receive an answer when he a span square when doubled, which it was, to strengthen it presented himself, wearing it, before the inner veil of the to bear the precious stones which were set in it. These tabernacle, and that then the answer was conveyed to him stones were twelve, of as many different kinds, each bear in an audible voice, from the mercy-seat, beyond the veil. ing the name of one of the tribes of Israel. They were This agrees also with the frequent notice of the response arranged in four rows, of three in each row. This magni. as being from the mouth of the Lord.' Anything anaficent piece of jewelled work was worn upon the breast, logous to the Urim and Thummim, whichever interpretaover the ephod. It had at each corner a gold ring, from tion be taken, few readers would expect to derive from the the two uppermost of which went two golden chains of | ancient usages of Egypt. But it happens that the illustrawreathed work, to connect it with the shoulder-pieces of tion which the old writers on the subject were in the habit the ephod, while, from the rings below, similar chains of most frequently adducing is found among them. On joined it to the girdle of the ephod. In this we see an account of the difference of purpose, we are, upon the whole, adaptation and correction of an Egyptian custom, under inclined to lay less stress upon this instance than upon some which the higher Egyptian priests wore a large and splendid others which we have ourselves first produced, from newlyornament upon the breast. It was generally an idolatrous opened sources; but it is, however, too remarkable to be oversymbol-often a winged scarabacus--the emblem of the looked. When a case was brought for trial,' says Sir J.G. sun, as in the annexed example (Cut 11), in which we even Wilkinson, it was customary for the arch-judge to put a see the connecting ring and chain, although only, in this golden chain around his neck, to which was suspended a instance, to fasten it to the girdle. For an account of the small figure of Truth, ornamented with precious stones. precious stones composing the breastplate, see the notes in This was, in fact, a representation of the goddess who was ch. xxxix.
worshipped under the double character of truth and justice, 30. · Urim and Thummim' bons d'?x, light and
and whose name, Thmei (the Egyptian or Coptic name of
justice or truth; hence the Déuis of the Greeks), appears to truth, or justice, Sept. Shawors kai åžndera—by means of have been the origin of the Hebrew thummim, a word, which the high-priest obtained responses from God, was
according to the Septuagint translation, implying truth, certainly either connected or identical with the breastplate,
and bearing a further analogy in its plural termination. and, on account of it, that ornament itself was sometimes And what makes it more remarkable is, that the chief priest called the breastplate of judgment. Some writers, whose of the Jews, who, before the election of a king, was also the authority is now much followed, think that the Urim and
judge of the nation, was alone entitled to wear this honorary Thummim was merely a sacred lot, afforded by three pre badge; and the thummim of the Hebrews, like the Egyptian cious stones contained in a purse or bag, formed by the figure, was studded with precious stones.' This is certainly lining, or interior of the breastplate. According to this a remarkable set of coincidences; but it ought to be stated, conjecture, on one of the stones was engraven >, yes; on that although the Jewish high-priest was a judge, he did the other *, no; the third being destitute of any inscrip not wear his breastplate in his judicial capacity, in which tion; and that the question was to be proposed in such a capacity alone the arch-judge of the Egyptians wore his form that an affirmative or negative answer might suffice. badge of truth and justice. The Scripture affords no inVOL. I.
stance in which the Lord was consulted by Urim and Thummim later than the time of David.
31. The robe of the ephod,' or mantle, was worn over the inner tunic or shirt. Except in colour and ornaments, it seems to have differed little from a robe of the same name worn by the more wealthy of the laity. This of the high-priest was of sky blue. At the top, surrounding the neck, it had a strong binding of woven-work, that it might not be rent, and the bottom had a kind of border or fringe, composed of tassels made of blue, purple, and scarlet, in the form of a pomegranate, interspersed with small bells of gold, which gave a tinkling sound when the wearer moved. The further descriptions of Josephus and other Jewish writers would intimate that it was without sleeves, having a hole or slit on each side to put the arms through (Antiq. iii, 7). Josephus adds, that it reached to the feet, contrary to the usual pictures, which, for the sake of shew
POMEGRANATE. ing the under tunic (which appears to us to have been a plain skirt), make it come but little below the knees. The 34. “A golden bell and a pomegranate.'-On the skirt, at description agrees very well with the general character of the bottom of the robe of the ephod, figures of pomethe Egyptian outer robes represented in our cuts. It is granates were wrought with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, true they have all sleeves ; but if we are to insist, from These pomegranates, according to Jarchi, were hollow, Josephus, that the mantle had no sleeves, then we may and about the size and form of a hen's egg. If, however, mention that there are instances at Thebes of priests wear they resembled hens' eggs, they could not be like pomeing over the shirt a loose robe which is sleeveless, and granates, which have a very different shape. Our version which exposes the sleeves of the inner tunic. To us the is doubtless right in saying that the bells were hung descriptions suggest the notion of an abba, an outer article between the pomegranates, or that there was a bell and a of dress common among the Arabs of Syria and Arabia pomegranate alternately; although some of the rabbins (but not among those of Egypt and Barbary, who use the have a conceit that the bells were enclosed within the the large folding burnous), and which has also been pomegranates. The number of bells and pomegranates is adopted to a considerable extent by the townspeople. This not mentioned in Scripture; and those who undertake to is frequently represented in our illustrations from modern inform us differ much among themselves. Seventy-two is Oriental sources. Josephus also describes it as all of one the number most commonly mentioned; but Clement of piece, like our Saviour's robe (John xix. 23), which is Alexandria says there were as many as days in the year. another characteristic of the abba. We will not, therefore, The object of these bells is not very clear: the reason given contend that this was an Egyptian article of priestly dress. in v. 35, That his sound may be heard .... that he die The Hebrews may have worn something of the sort before not'-would seem to intimate that the sound of the bells and after in ordinary life. But if they had something was to be considered to harbinger his approach to the answering to the abba, so had the Egyptians; and it hap Sacred Presence; which, without such announcement, pens that the robe which best exhibits this correspondence would be regarded as an unceremonious and disrespectful (Cut 12) agrees better with the description than does the intrusion. The sound also intimated that he was clothed
in his proper robes, to minister without which was death (v. 43): and it might likewise serve to admonish the people of the sacred offices in which their priest was engaged.
36-38. The mitre.'—This article must have been understood from the terms which were einployed to denote it, as the Law gives no account of its form or appearance, but merely mentions that it was to be of linen. We must, therefore, resort to the account given by Josephus, who first describes the mitre of the common priest, and then adds what was peculiar to that of the high-priest. "Upon his head he [the ordinary priest] wears a cap not brought to a conical form, nor including the entire head, but still including more than the half of it. It is called a mitre, but its make is such that it resembles a crown. It is made of thick swathes; but the contexture is of linen, and it is folded round many times, and sewed together, besides which a piece of fine linen covers the whole cap from the upper part, and reaches down to the forehead, and conceals the seams of the swathes, which would otherwise appear unseemly. This adheres closely to the head, that it may
not fall off during the sacred service.' A little further on, 12. EGYPTIAN Tunic.
he adds: “The high-priest's tiara, or mitre, was like that
of the other priests, only it had another of purple, or violet abba now in use; it has, for instance, a deep fringe, which
colour, above, and a crown of gold of three rows about that, the abba wants.
and terminating above in a golden cup, about the size of the 33. ' Pomegranate.—1197 rimmon. The Punica gra joint of the little finger.' To the untravelled reader, that natum, or pomegranate-tree, bears a leaf and a flower which may suggest the idea of a turban, to which biblical writers resemble the myrtle. It was formerly ranked among the are in the habit of referring for a comparison ; but to one myrtaceous family. The flowers differ in different varieties, who knows that there is no sewing, no seam in a turban, so that four several kinds may be observed in the same nor any envelope as described, it will not suggest that comlocalities, growing generally near wells and cultivated en- parison ; but may be rather supposed to denote the conclosures. The fruit is larger than the golden pippin, and struction of a stiff cap, formed by bands of linen wound filled with seeds, imbedded in a pulp, which is the part over and sewed on one another, and the whole made to preeaten. The leaves, flowers, and fruit are remarkable for sent a smooth and even appearance. their beauty; hence the last were selected as objects of In this point of view it may appear to have been similar skilful imitation.
| in general purpose and make to the head-cap, divested of