« PoprzedniaDalej »
June 6, 1879. the cobalt, nickel, and zinc, whilst the undissolved por- | the vertical distribution of underground heat in any place. tion contains all the alumina and chrome with the residue The loss of heat which the earth incessantly undergoes, of the nickel, cobalt, and zinc. The analysis is completed from its surface being infinitely small, compared with the by known methods. If iron and manganese alone have quantity stored up within, a large part of the earth's inteto be separated from alumina and chrome the process is rior must still possess a very high temperature. The real complete and precise.
geothermic progression, as accessible to human observaNew Formation of Glycocoll by means of Nitro. tion, far from indicating a minimum thickness for the acetic Ether.-M. de Forcrand. - Nitro-acetic ether earth's crust, imposes, on the contrary, a very narrow yields glycoco!l on reduction with tin and hydrochloric limit on the maximum temperature of the earth’s interior. acid.
By the abstract application of this progression we should
be led to ascribe to the earth's centre a heat not exceeding No. 20, May 19, 1879.
100°. Actual facts observed, however, cannot be more
simply explained than by the reaction of an igncous or A New Derivative of Nicotin.-A. Cahours and A. fused' nucleus, of a crust of considerable thickness, and Etard. The new base, to which the authors assigned the having little conductibility for heat. The thickness of the name thio-tetra-pyridin, has a composition represented by earth's crust is very unequal, probably three times greater C4H8N S2.
in the polar regions than in the volcanic regions of the Transparence of the Media of the Eye for the Equator, and in one and the same latitude greater beneath Ultra-violet Rays.-J. L. Soret.— The author concludes the sea than on dry land. The greatest differences of that the absorption of the totality of the media of the eye thickness for one and the same latitude are met with in must render it impossible to perceive rays whose refrangi- countries where, with an elevated mean temperature at bility exceeds that of the extreme radiations of the solar the surface, the alternation of dry land and deep sea is spectrum, say the ray U.
most frequent. The volcanic character of the Eastern Preliminary Researches on the Action of Acids Archipelago agrees with this conclusion. According where
the terrestrial crust is thinnest a temperature of 3000° will upon Salts without the Intervention of a Solvent. M. Lorin.— The direction of the results indicates chemical be found at the depth of 21 geographical leagues, not action more or less distinct, and which, for the fatty acids,
more than 1.40th of the earth's radius. In the polar decreases from formic acid to each of its successive regions it is probably more than four times as thick. homologues.
Presence of Mercury in the Mineral Waters of St. Nectaire.-E. Willm.-The author's results have
Biedermann's Central-blatt. been mutually contradictory. Supposing mercury to be a
Heft 3, March, 1879. constant element of the water the quantity shown by his only affirmative experiment falls far short of that resulting Pilter.-The author proposes to obtain a cheap form of
Preparation of Artificial Animal Charcoal.-Th. from the analysis by Dr. Garrigon.
gelatin by treating leather waste mixed with from i to The Mode of Combination of Iron in Hæmato 5 per cent of caustic soda with steam at a pressure of globin.- L. Jolly.— The author concludes from his six atmospheres in closed iron vessels. The resulting analyses that iron occurs in the blood-globules merely as semifluid mass is placed in a centrisugal, which keeps phosphate.
back the gelatin whilst tannate of soda runs off. So much of this jelly as is equal to 33 kilos. of dry glue is mixed
with 50 kilos. bibasic phosphate of lime and 17 kios. Bullctin de la Société d'Encouragement pour l’Industrie phosphate of magnesia. The mass is submired 10 strong Nationale.
hydraulic pressure between layers of felt, diied at 110°, No. 64, April, 1879.
and ignited in the ordinary manner. Report presented by M. Ed. Collignon on the Occurrence and Life of Bacteria and their InfiuElectric Brake of M. A. Achard.—The moment that ence upon Yeast.- MM. Schnetzler, Bretefeld, Downes, an electric circuit is broken, whether by the separation of Blunt, and Gunning.-Light is hostile to the development a part of the train, by carriages getting off the line, or by of bacteria and microscopic fungi. The exclusion of fire, the wheels are automatically locked.
oxygen occasions the death of bacteria, but p:omotes Report by M. Sebert on the Electric Bells of M. putrefaction. Laville.—The arrangement of this apparatus cannot be made intelligible without the aid of the accompanying illustration.
Reimann's Färber Zeitung,
No. 16, 1879.
Tartar Emetic in Dyeing.–The author points out Revue Universelle des Mines, de la Metallurgie, &c., that tartar emetic, as used in cotton-dyeing, serves pot
Tome 4, No. 3, November and December, 1878. to fix the aniline colours themselves, but merely to fasten Explosions Caused by Dust.—This paper recounts the tannin, thus playing the part of an indirect mordant. the faas laid before the Société d'Encouragement by Several experiments have been instituted at the Färber Prof. Lawrence Smith in November, 1878, and the Akademie in order to ascertain whether this application discussion on the same subject at the Academy of Sciences of antimony can be pronounced injurious to public health.
It was found that water, in which cotton yams dyed with No. 1, January and February, 1879.
aniline colours on a mordant of tannin and tartar emetic
had been steeped, or especially boiled, gave distina inRelation between the Temperature of the Earth dications of antimony when tested in ordinary manners. and the Depth below the Surface.-P. Van Dijk.- The quantity of the metallic compound fixed on the fibre The author draws the following conclusions :-)he in- / seems, indeed, far too trifling to have any effect upon crease of the geothermic scale proves that the earth is i human health. Still, in view of the panic which has engaged in a continual process of cooling. This increase seized upon the public mind, and of the tendency of the corresponds to the law of the refrigeration of a spherical literary and political press to attribute all mysterious body, having a uniform elevated initial temperature. The attacks of sickness to the influence of poisonous dyes, &c., degree of cooling differs much for different parts of the Dr. Reimann-in our opinion very judiciously-advises earth's surface, according to their geographical and thermo- dyers to dispense with the use of antimony, which will logical position, and exercises an important influence on doubtless be found by no means necessary.
,} Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. June 6, 1879.
253 No. 17, 1879.
No. 16, April 17, 1879. This issue is mainly taken up with the specification of Reduđion of the Cost of the Electric Light.-M. F. V. Kallab's patent process for bleaching animal fibre Delaurier.--By preventing all access of atmospheric air with hydrosulphurous acid.
the duration of the carbon points is increased ten-fold, and the working cost is reduced by two-thirds.
Physiological A&ion of Benzol.-M. Bensch.-The Chemiker Zeitung.
author shows that benzol, which has been proposed as an No. 16, April 17, 1879.
anæsthetic, acts as a poison if inhaled as vapour or inInflammability of Petroleum.—The first part of a troduced into the circulation. paper on the possible sources of error in testing petro- Spectroscopic Optics.-M. Moigno, in translating leums, and the precautions needful for obtaining com- Prof. Piazzi Smyth's lecture on “End-on Illumination," parable results.
points out that he has been to some extent anticipated Poisonous Colours.—The Association for the Pro. by Dr. van Monckhoven (Les Mondes, 1877, p. 177). tection of Chemical Industry, in Germany, has petitioned the Reichstag that no colour shall be condemned as dan.
No. 1, May 1, 1879. gerous until it has been duly examined by a Commission
This issue contains no original chemical or physical of specially qualified chemists and physiologists. Dr. Volhardt succeeds to the chair of the late Prof.
No. 2, May 8, 1879. Gorup-Besanez, at the University of Erlangen.
Universal Support, or Ele&ro-diapason for Repre. Properties and Chemical Examination of Tea.-senting Vibratory Movements and showing them in Dr. J. M. Eder.—The author holds that one-half of all Projection.-A. Dubosc.—This memoir cannot be intea sold is sophisticated with spent tea-leaves. He places telligibly abstracted without the addition of the five no confidence in the determination of thein as a test of accompanying plates. the genuine character of tea, but proposes to ascertain total extractive matter as obtained with hot water; pro
No. 3, May 15, 1879. portion of tannin in the decoction; total ash; proportion
An international subscription is proposed to erect a of ash soluble in water,
mosument to Nicephore Niepce, at his native town, Starch in Filter-paper.—The Beyer Industrie-Blatt Chalon-sur-Saône. cautions chemists against errors which may be produced The new freezing machine of M. D. L. Holden, of by this impurity.
Philadelphia, is, in sum, that of M. Pictet, somewhat Gold in Petroleum.-According to the Bergmann varied in form. Mr. J. Turnbridge has extracted 34 dollars' worth of gold The electric bit is applied very successfully to vicious from a ton of the residues from petroleum-stills. The horses by the Omnibus Company of Paris. source of the petroleum was not ascertained. Salubrine-Enosote.- This name has been employed
MISCELLANEOUS. by M. Perrot, of Geneva, to a mixture of salicylic acid and tartar, which he recommends as a preservative for beer, wine, &c.
Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ire. A Curiosity of Patent Literature.-A specific for land.-A general meeting was held at 116, Victoria the teeth, patented in Belgium, consists of 950 parts | Street, London, S.W. (Prof. P. G. Bonney in the chair), water, 12 parts urea, 0'4 part uric acid, 7 parts of fixed on Tuesday, June 3rd. The election of fourteen corresalts, and 8.90 of urate, oxalurate, oxalate of lime, cystin, sponding members, eight ordinary members, and two &c.—a composition which agrees wonderfully well with associates was announced. The following papers were that of urine. A little persume has been added. (Is this read :-"On Abriachanite, a new Scottish Mineral,” by a new way out of the sewage difficulty ?)
Prof. M. F. Heddle and Dr. W. Aitken ; “On Haugh
tonite, a new Mica," by Prof. "M. F. Heddle; “On No. 18, May 1, 1879.
Bhreekite and Xantholite from Scotland," by Prof. M. F.
Heddle ; According to the Ropert. de Pharmacie magenta has
On Christophite from St. Agnes, Cornwall," by been successfully administered in the treatment of albu-1.H. Collins, F.G.S. ; " Minerals from Japan,” by John
Milne, LL.D.; “On some Gold Occurrences,” by the Rev. minuria, to the extent of half a gramme daily.
J. Clifton Ward, F.G.S. ;. “Additional Note on Penwithite,'
by J. H. Collins, F.G.S.; "Measurements of the Angles Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences.
of Basaltic Columns at the Giant's Causeway,” by Profs. No. 15, April 10, 1879.
Jellett and O'Reilly. Origin of Lactose.—There appears to exist in the mammary glands during lactation a lactogenous substance,
MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. which, however, differs widely from the other glycogens. M. Schützenberger is engaged with its chemical ex- MONDAY, gth.-Royal Geographical, 8.30.
TUESDAY, 10th.-Royal Institutior, 3. “ The Intellectual Movement amination.
of Germany from the Middle of the Last to the Quantitative Analysis of White Light.-Prof. Rood
Middle of the Present Century," Prof. Hillebrand.
Photographic, 8. divides the spectrum into twelve parts, and, multiplying
Anthropological, 8. the space occupied by each part by the relative luminous
WEDNESDAY, 11th.-Geological, 8. intensity, he obtains the following numbers :-Red, 54 ;
Microscopical, 8. orange-red, 140; pure orange, 80; orange-yellow, 114;
THURSDAY, 12th.- Royal Institution, 3..“ The Intellectual Movement
of Germany from the Middle of the Last to the yellow, 54; greenish yellow, 206; yellowish green, 121;
Middle of the Present Century," Prof. Hillebrand. green and greenish blue, 134; Prussian blue, 32; blue,
Royal Society Club, 6.30.
" The Thunderer Gun Explo. 40; violet, approaching to ultramarine, 20 ; pure violet, Friday, 13th.—Royal Institution, 9.
sion," Mr. F. J. Bramwell. 5. Hence the quantity of light in the so-called warm
SATURDAY, 141h.-Physical, 3. “On thc Suppression of the Induction colours is three times greater than that in the cold
Disturbance of the Telephone," Prof. H.
McLeod; " On the Sensitive State of Electric colours. This division of the spectrum does not seem to
Disi harges through Rarefied Media," W. rest upon any demonstrable basis, and the author has
Spottiswoode and J. F. Moulton ; "On a New not been guided by the spectral lines,
Measuring Polariscope," Prof W.G, Adams.
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NOTES ON THE
was ignorant of Perkin's prior publications, and, believing THE CHEMICAL NEW S. his material to be the same as that more full described by
Perkin in 1873, claimed priority.
Into this error he seems to have led several writers. VOL. XXXIX. No, 1020.
Thus, Graebe and Liebermann, in their report on Artificial Alizarin at the Vienna Exhibition, under the heading 180purpurin, refer first to Auerbacb's publication in the Moniteur Scientifique of August, 1872, and then to Perkin's third publication in the Journal of the Chemical Society of
1873, omitting all reference to, and evidently not knowing CHRONOLOGY OF THE ISOMERIC PURPURINS, of, his earlier publications in 1870 and June of 1872.
AND THE ACTUAL RELATIONS OF THE Rosenstiehl, in a recent article, has fallen into a like BODIES WHICH HAVE BEEN CALLED BY error, and credits Auerbach with first obtaining this body
in an impure state, and Perkin with having first extracted THE NAMES
it pure in 1873. ANTHRA-PURPURIN, ISO-PURPURIN, AND But admitting that Auerbach is right in assuming that FLAVO. PURPURIN.
what he extracted was only the anthrapurpurin of Perkin,
it is evident that he has no claim whatever to priority, but By HENRY MORTON, Ph.D., President of the Stevens Institute of Technology.
that the substance must be credited to Perkin, and should be called by his name of Anthrapurpurin.
As a matter of fact, however, the substance actually THERE is a piece of recent chemical history which has extracted by the method described by Auerbach in 1872 is already become much involved on account of the oversight not anthrapurpurin, but a mixture consisting largely of a of some writers, and as the threads happen to be in my substance which was new at that time, but was afterwards hands, I think I shall do a good office to future students isolated by Messre. Schunck and Remer. by laying these out straight at the present time.
My reasons for this opinion are the following:-In the In 1870 Mr. W. H. Perkin published in the Fournal of the latter part of 1874 I had occasion, together with my friend London Chemical Society a paper entitled " On Artificial Mr. Wm. E. Geyer, B.S., to repeat both Perkin's and Alizarin ” (vol. viii., p. 143), in which at the end, in a Auerbach's method of treatment upon considerable quan. footnote, the author says—“When purifying artificial tities of artificial alizarin. We first followed out Perkin's alizarin by converting it into an alumina lake, I found that method, and obtained a product corresponding in all upon digestion with carbonate of potash this lake gave a respects with his description of anthrapurpurin. We then red-coloured solution containing a colouring matter, dye worked on another quantity of artificial alizarin according ing mordants very similarly to alizarin, with this difference, to Auerbach's directions, and when we came to the last that the reds are more scarlet and the purples bluer or treatment, namely, solution in and crystallisation from more slaty. I have not obtained this body in a perfectly alcohol, we found that we evidently had to do with a mix. pure state as yet, but it appears to be crystalline."
ture of two bodies differing in a marked way as to their The investigation thus opened by Perkin was diligently solubilities. prosecuted by him, and at the meeting of the London Bearing in mind that we had found Perkin's anthraChemical Society, held June 6, 1872, he read a paper on purpurin but little soluble in alcohol, and that Auerbach this body, an abstract of which paper is published in the described his isopurpurin as quite soluble, we só carried CHEMICAL News (vol. xxv., p. 284), and a fuller report of on the alcohol treatment as to reserve the soluble part as which appears in the Journal of the London Chemical isopurpurin and reject the less soluble portion. Society, vol. xxv., p. 659, under the title “Note on a When we had carried this separation to a sufficient Secondary Colouring Matter Produced in the Preparation extent, we found that we had a body entirely distinct from of Alizarin from Anthracen.” In these publications he Perkin's anthrapurpurin, but sufficiently like the descripgives the formula of the new body as C14H8Os, and notes ) tion given by Auerbach of his isopurpurin to answer for it its relations and differences to and from the purpurin of when due allowance was made for the uncertainties of a madder, In the next volume of the Proceedings, or rather verbal description. When, however, the paper of Schunck Journal of the Chemical Society, viz., vol. xxvi., 1873, and Roemer appeared in 1875, we saw that the body we Perkin published on page 425, under the tiile “ On Anthra had extracted agreed still more closely with their favo. purpurin," a long article on the same substance, to which purpurin. were attached, as illustrations, pieces of cloth dyed with Having obtained it, however, by the process described the substance as well as others dyed with alizarin. This in 1872 by Auerbach, I still continued to call it by his article has been translated and quoted extensively in other name, and should do so still had he not very emphatically publications, but the other articles seem to have been repudiated all credit for and connection with it. overlooked or forgotten. Hence have arisen some of the The true relation of the substances which have borne errors which I now propose to correct.
the names given at the head of this article is, then, this :From the above references it will be seen that Perkin Anthrapurpurin is a single substance, first isolated by first separated out and recognised this new body in 1870, Perkin, partially in 1870, and thoroughly prior to June 6, and diligently following up the research, published its for- 1872. mula in the beginning of June, 1872, and a full and ex- Ísopurpurin is a mixture, in proportions varying according haustive memoir in 1873.
to the composition of the artificial alizarin from which it In the Moniteur Scientifique for August, 1872, or just is extracted, and the way in which the alcoholic treatment two years after the first publication by Perkin, and just is conducted, of anthra- and flavopurpurin with a trace of two months after his second, in which he gave the formula alizarin. This mixture was first separated and described of his new substance, appeared a communication an- by G. Auerbach in August, 1872. nouncing the discovery of a new product extracted from Flavopurpurin is a single substance or chemical indi. artificial alizarin by G. Auerbach, and named by him iso. vidual first isolated and described by Schunck and Romer purpurin.
in the Ber. der Deut. Chem. Gesell., 1876, p. 678. No mention whatever was made in this article of Perkin's The facts as to the composition of the material obtained prior publication, and it was of course generally in ferred by treating artificial alizarin by the method described by that Auerbach knew of them, but regarded his isopurpurin Auerbach are also established by the recent researches of as a new discovery of his own, and not a mere confirma- M. A. Rosenstiehl, presented to the Chemical Society of tion of Perkin's work. In the course of time it appeared, Paris, and published in the Bulletin of that body of May 5 however, that this was not the case, but that Auerbach 1 and 20, 1878, where, in vol. 29, p. 408, I find as follows:
256 Compounds of the Terpenes with Hydrochloric Acid. (CHEMICAL NEWS "On submitting isopurpurin obtained by the method de- / action of hydrochloric acid gas upon crystallised terpin scribed by M. Auerbach to proximate analysis, I was not hydrate and upon terpinol. (Fourn. Chem. Soc., June, slow in discovering the presence of 15 per cent of alizarin.” | 1878.) Here follows a long and minute description of how this If 'in place of turpentine oil one of tne terpenes of was removed by treatment with hot benzol.
higher boiling point is operated upon no mono-hydro. The material so purified was then dissolved in boiling chloride can be obtained. Thus, the terpene from orange alcohol, and allowed to deposit crystals on cooling. The oil boiling at 176° was dried and saturated with hydroauthor then continues :
chloric acid. The resulting solution was colourless, and "Comparative dyeing tests with the part crystallising after exposure to the air for a day or two was lound to out and with that remaining in the mother-liquor showed contain no chlorine at all. But when the same terpene that the alcohol eliminated a substance colouring mordants was mixed with ether, and treated with the gas, a solid live flavopurpurin, that is to say, of a red more orange mass of colourless crystals remained after evaporation of than that of oxanthraflavon."
the ether. It was a somewhat unexpected discovery that It should be mentioned that in this essay its author in these crystals consist of the same di-hyrlrochloride already dicates by the word oxanthraflavon the material isolated described, that is obtained under the same circumstances by Perkin's method, but which through oversight of the from turpentine. There is, however, some difference obearlier publications he credits to Auerbach, and nanies iso- servable in the behaviour of the terpene from the orange purpurin in consequence of this mistake.
and those froin the turpentine oils; for whilst the former yields a nearly theoretical amount of crystallised dihydrochloride, the latter produce a considerable quantity of liquid of deep colour. This colouration is characteristic
of the action of hydrochloric acid upon terpinol, C10H180, COMPOUNDS OF THE TERPENES WITH
or C10H17OH, as shown in a recent paper (Fournal of
the Chemical Society, June, 1879), and it appears to indi. HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
cate the formation of an intermediate product which is By WILLIAM A. TILDEN.
probably the same in both cases.
In order further to establish the identity of the di
hydrochlorides thus obtained from the two classes of terIn the course of researches which I have for some time penes, the dichloride prepared from the orange oil and been pursuing into the constitution of the terpenes I have from turpentine oil were decomposed by water. 50 grms. had occasion to prepare and examine the compounds which of each boiled with 500 c.c. of water were found to be decomthese hydrocarbons form with hydrochloric acid. The fol. posed at the same rate and in the same manner, yielding lowing is a brief account of the chief results arrived at in a mixture of hydrocarbon (terpinylene, C10H16, b.p. 176°), this direction, and as they possess some interest at the and terpinol (C10H180, b.p. 210°). The terpinol was re. present time, I think it desirable to place them on record. cognised in each case by its conversion into crystallised
When dry hydrochloric acid gas is passed into cooled terpin by the action of sulphuric acid and water. The turpentine oil (b.p.156°), whether from American or French terpenes from juniper oil (b. p. 156°), lemon (b.p: 176°), tui pentine, the well-known mono-hydrochloride, C10H17C1, bergamot (b.p. 176°), and caraway (6. p. 176°) yield this is obtained, melting at 125°, and boiling at about 210°. It di-hydrochloride, as also does the terpene (6. p. 174o to is accompanied by liquid products, which yield a large 176°) contained in the ol. pini sylvestris of pharmacy and quantity of the same hydrochloride on distillation. This
a terpene (b. p. about 176°), obtained from rosin spirit. liquid consists of a mixture of cymene, always present in The single exception is the “sylvestrene" discovered turpentine oil, with liquid compounds of the mono-hydro- by Atterberg in Swedish turpentine, and which I have chloride and di-hydrochloride. The fact that the two since recognised in Russian turpentine. The di-hydrochlorides when mixed together unite and liquefy was chloride which this terpene yields melts at 72° to 73°, and originally pointed out by Berthelot, and I can confirm this although decomposed by alkali it yields a hydrate which observation. The existence of a liquid modification of is apparently not common terpinol. If it should prove to the mono-hydrochloride is doubtful. The solid mono- be distinct from ordinary terpinol it is probable that it hydrochloride is also produced if the turpentine is diluted
may be convertible into a new terpin. I am about to make with benzol or carbon bisulphide before submitting it to experiments with the object of settling this question, which the action of the gas.
possesses some interest. The result is different when the turpentine is saturated The terpene di-hydrochloride described in this paper is with hydrochloric acid in the presence of some liquid decomposed by simple application of heat, and by prolonged which contains water, or is capable of yielding the elements boiling in a flask fitted with condensing tube is resolved of water. Thus, when the same turpentine oil is diluted into hydrochloric acid and a hydrocarbon, terpinylene, with alcohol, ether, or glacial acetic acid, it yields a deep C10H16, which boils at 176o. A portion of the hydropurplish coloured liquid, which, after exposure to the air carbon is at the same time converted into viscid polyfor some time, deposits crystals of the di-hydrochloride, merides. Terpinylene cannot, however, be made to reC10H18C1z. But it deserves to be noticed that when once combine with hydrochloric acid so as to reproduce the the terpene has been made to unite with one molecule of crystalline di-hydrochloride. hydrochloric acid no further action of the gas, either in Thus terpenes of the two classes, boiling respeđively the dry state or in presence of any of the solvents named, at 156° and 176°, and very diverse in their optical prois capable of causing it to combine with a second molecule perties, may all, by this process, be converted into one so as to produce the di-hydrochloride. There can be no and the same inactive hydrocarbon. doubt that these two chlorides are of entirely dissimilar I cannot conclude without expressing my thanks to constitution, as they behave quite differently under the Mr. G. H. Morris and Dr. G. Harrow for valuable assistinfluence of alkalies, the mono-hydrochloride being de ance in these experiments and in other parts of the same composed with difficulty by soda, yielding a crystalline research. camphene, whilst the di-hydrochloride produces chiefly terpinol, C10H17(OH). The di-hydrochloride referred to possesses the same properties, whether prepared from lævo. or dextro-gyratory turpentine oil. Its solution in The Paris Academy of Sciences.-At the sitting alcohol is optically inactive. The crystals melt at 48° in of the Academy on Monday last Professor G. G. Stokes, an atmosphere of hydrochloric acid, and by heat are M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Secretary of the Royal Society, readily decomposed into hydrochloric acid and a hydro. was ele&ted a corresponding member in the Physical carbon. This di-hydrochloride is also obtained by the Section in succession to the late M. Angström.