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manded him. In his time the sun went backward, and he lengthened the king's life. He saw by an excellent spirit what should come to pass at the last (rà šo xara), and, he comforted them that mourned in Zion. He showed what should come to pass forever, and secret things or ever they came." By these words the son of Sirach plainly characterizes the different parts of Isaiah's book. The mention of the opaous points to the title priņi (i. 1) and perhaps to chap. vi. also. Any way, the expression õpaois presupposes part first. The mention of the sun turning backwards and the prolongation of Hezekiah's life, shows that the historical section (xxxvi.-xxxix.) belonged to the book. The prominent mention of the prophetic distant vision, and of the comforting manifestly characterizes chapters xl.-Ixvi. It is plainly seen, therefore, that these chapters were regarded at that time already as belonging to the book of Isaiah, and as his work. In these words of the son of Sirach, we do not observe in the slightest degree the existence of a tradition that chapters xl.livi. were not Isaiah's, which, as is alleged, has left its trace in the talmudic arrangement that assigns an aster position to Isaiah,
85. LITERATURE. The literature relating to Isaiah is extraordinarily abundant. We will confine ourselves to the mention of the most considerable works, referring the reader to GESENIUS and ROSENMULLER, especially as regards the older literature up to the middle of the last century.
of patristic commentaries, the most important are that of THEODORET (in the edition of SirMOND, prepared by SCHULZE, 1777 Tom. II.), and that of JEROME (erd. VALLARSII, Tom. IV.). Besides these there are the únouvňuata of EUSEBIUS of Caesarea (ed. MONTFAUCON, Paris, 1706 2 Tomi fol.); a commentary which (probably wrongly) is ascribed to Basilius the great (Opp. BAEILI M., ed. GARNIER, Tom. I.); the commentary of CYRILL of Alexandria (Opp. ed. AUBERT, Tom. II.); the epunreía of CHRYSOSTOM on chapters i.-viii. (Tom. VI., ed MONTFAUCON); the Syrian commentary of EPHREM SYRUS (Opp. ed. ASSEMANI and PETR. BENED. Rom., 1740, Tom. II.). PROCOPIUS of Gaza, who lived in the 6th century in Constantinople, begins the list of the writers of Catenas among the Greeks (Procopii variorum in Es. proph. commentariorum epitome, gr. et lat. Joh. CURTERIO, interpete, Paris, 1580, Fol.).
There exist rabbinical commentaries of RASCHI, ABEN Esra, David KIMCHI, ABARBANEL.
As works of Catholic expositors are especially to be mentioned, the comments of the abbot JOACHIM, † 1202 (ed. Cologne, 1577). NIKOLAUS DE LYRA (in the Postillae perpetuae). THOMAS AQUINAS (Lyons, 1531). FRANZ VATABLE or VATABLÉ (in the editions of the VULGATE, published by RobT. STEPHENS, 1545, 1547, 1557). Franz FORERIUS, (Portuguese, Dominican, 1553). Comp. the literary account in REINKE's Messian, Weiss., 1859, I., p.
From the Reformation period are to be mentioned, the exposition of LUTHER (In Es. proph. scholia, er. D. M. LUTHERI, praelectimibus collecta, Viteb., 1534). CALVIN (Commentarii, Genev., 1562, and often). ZWINGLI (Complanationes, Turic., 1529 and often). OECOLAMPADIUS (Hypomaemata, Basil, 1525 and often). BRENZ (Comment. Francof. 1550). MUSCULUS (Comment. Basil, 1557 and often).
From the 17th and 18th centuries. The commentaries of the Jesuit Casp. SANCTIUS (SANCHEZ, Antw., 1621). CORN. A LAPIDE (Paris, 1621).
On the side of the Reformed [J. COCCEJUS : born 1603, died 1669. Prof. at Leyden. His Commentaries and other works were printed at Amsterdam, 1701. 10 vols. Fol.]. HUGO GROTIUS, Annotationes in V. T., Paris, 1644. Above all the admirable commentary of CAMPEGIUS VITRINGA, Prof. in Franeker, died 1722. This commentary is distinguished as much by astounding learning, penetration and sober sense as by elegance in style and practical warmth. It appeared first in Leuwarden, 1714 and 1720 in 2 vols. Fol. Often printed since (Basil, 1732) and pirated (Herborn, 1713, Tuebingen, 1732). BUSCHING has produced an abbreviated, German edition (Halle, 1749 and 1751), with a preface by MOSHEIM. Joh. RAMBACH, Prof. in Giessen, has also, in his exposition of the Proph. Isaiah (Züllichau, 1741), “ drawn out in quite a brief form the pith of the work of Camp. VITRINGA." Here belongs also Robt. Lowth, Bishop of London, “ Isaiah, a new translation," etc., London, 1778. [American reprint from the tenth Eng. Ed., Boston, 1831). This commentary appeared in German with additions and remarks by Jon. BENZ. KOPPE, Prof. in Goettingen, Leipzig, 1779. Against Lowth's critical experiment appeared “ Vindiciae textus hebr. Esajae adv. Lowtii criticam," by Dav. KOCHER, Prof. in Bern, 1786 (concerning the latter, see STUDER Zur Textkritik des Jesuja in d. Jahrbb. f. prot. Theol. von HASE u. a., 1877, IV., p. 706 sqq.).
[John Gill, a Baptist minister in London : “ An exposition of the Old and New Testament, London, 1743-63, 9 parts Fol.; designed for doctrinal and practical improvement, yet distinguished from other works of the class by its erudition in a single province, viz., talmudic and rabbinical literature"].
On the Lutheran side we may mention the expositions of SEB. SCHMIDT, Prof., in Strassburg (Hamburg, 1702), Joh. Dav. MICHAELIS, “ German translation of the Old Testament, with remarks for the unlearned, Part VIII., Isaiah, Goettingen, 1779.” MOLDENHAUER, pastor in Hamburg (1780). HEZEL, Prof., in Giessen and Dorpat (Lemgo, 1784, fifth part of HEZEL's Bibelwerk). HENZLER, Prof., in Kiel (Hamburg, (1788).
The transition to the 19th century is formed by E. F. K. ROSENMULLER, Scholia in V. T., the third part of which containing Isaiah, appeared in Leipzig, 1791–93, 1810-20, 1829-34. The critical tendency which began already in the 18th century with KOPPE, EICHHORN (Introduction to the Old Testament, I. ed., 1783; [to be found in English], Joh. Chr. DOEDERLEIN (Esaias, etc. Latino vertit notasque subjecit, Altorf, 1775 and often), G. EBERH. Gottl. PAULUS (Philologische Clavis ueber das A. T., 1793), G. L. BAUER (Scholia in V. T., vols. VIII. and IX., 1794, 1795), J. CHR. W. AUGUSTI (Exeget. Handb. d. A. T. v. HÖPFNER, 5 and 6 Stück, 1799), &c., was continued in the 19th Century by GESENIUS (D. Proph. Jes. neu uebersetzt, 1820. Philolog. kritischer W. hist. Comm., 1821), HITZIG (D. Proph. Jcs. uebers. U. ausg., 1833), MAURER (Comm. gramm. crit. in V. T., Vol. I., 1835), HENDEWERK (Des Proph. Jes. Weiss. chronolog. geordnet, uebersetzt u. erki., 1838 and 1843), EWALD (die Proph. d. A. B. I. Ausg., 1840), BECK (die cyro-jesajan. Weiss. oder die Kapp. XL.-LXVI., etc., 1844), ERNST MEIER (D. Proph. Jes. ekl., 1850-contains only chapters i.-xxiii.--and Die Proph. BB. d. A. T., uebers. U. erkl., 1863), KNOBEL (D. Proph. Jes. erkl. I. Ausg., 1843; 4, herausg. von DIESTEL, 1872). In some respects the practical commentary of UMBREIT (I Ausg., 1841, II. Aufl., 1846) belongs here.
From the positive standpoint Isaiah has been expounded by DRECHSLER (D. Proph. Jes. ueber setzt u. erkl. Kapp. i.-xii., 1845; II. Th. 1. Hälfte Kapp. xiii.-xxvii., 1849 ; 2. Haelfte, xxviii.xxxix., published from DRECHSLER's remains by DELITZSCH and Hahn, 1854; III. Theil, Kapp., xl.-lxvi., prepared by Hahn with a preface by DELITZSCH), then by DELITZSCH (Bibl. Kommentar ueber d. Proph. Jcs. II. Ausg., 1869) [published in English by CLARK of Edinburg]. The chapters xl.-lxvi., have been expounded alone, from the positive position by STIER (Jesajas nicht Pseudo = Jesajas, 1850), in the sense of the modern criticism by SEINECKE (Der Evangelist des A. T., 1870).
The Messianic prophecies have been expounded on the part of Protestants by HENGSTENBERG, in his Christology of the Old Testament (I. Ausg. 1829–35, I. Bd. 2 Haelste ; II., Ausg., 1854-56 ; II., Bd.). [Published in English by CLARK, of Edinburg]. On the part of the Roman Catholics, by LoR. REINKE, Prof., in Munster. The same author published separate treatises on chapters lii. 13-liii. 12, in 1836, chapter ii. 2-4 in 1838, chapters vii. 14-16 in 1843; but the other
passages in the book “Die messian Weiss. bei den grossen u. kleinen Propheten," Giessen, 1859–62, 5 vols. (vols. I. and II., contain Isaiah). Apart from the Romish lack of freedom, it is a very learned work, prepared with great thoroughness and care. Other commentaries by catholic theologians will be found enumerated by REINKE, l. c. I. p. 39 sq., 43 sq. As recently published I will add : ROHLING, D. Proph. Jes. uebers. U. erkl., 1872 (4. Abth. I. Bd. von “Die heil. Schriften des A. T., nach Katholischen Prinzipien uebers. v. erkl. von einem Verein befreundeter Fachgenossen). NETELER, Das Buch Jesajas uebers. u. erkl., 1876. By the same author has appeared already in 1870: Die Gleiderung des Buchs Jesajas als Grundlage seiner Erklaerung. [Dr. Hosse, Die Weiss. des Proph. Jes. Berlin, 1877).
[Works on Isaiah in English of ore recent date are: The Book of Isaiah, with a New Trans! tion and Notes, by the Rev. ALBERT BARNES, 3 vols., 8vo, Boston, 1840, and various reprints. Tic Earlier Prophecies of Isaiah, by J. A. ALEXANDER, D. D., New York, 1846 ; Later Prophecies, ibid., 1847; both reprinted in Glasgow under the editorship of John EADIE, D. D., 1848 and 1865; new and revised edition, New York, 1875. Isaiah Translated and Explained, an abridgement of the foregoing, New York, 1851, 12mo, 2 vols. This Commentary of Dr. J. A. ALEXANDER ranks all of English authorship to the present. The 8vo edition is valuable as a synop is of commentators and of exposition up to 1848. Dr. EBENEZER HENDERSON'S Translation and Commentary, London, 1840, 2nd edition, 1857. See also Dr. Noyse's New Translation of the Hebrew Prophets, with Notes, Vol I., 3d edition, Boston, 1867. Commentary on the Book of Isaiah, including a revised English Translation, by the Rev. T. R. BIRKs, London, 1871.]
Other works that have chosen for subjects selected and smaller portions of the Prophet are: L'EMPEREUR D. Is. Abrabanielis et Mos. Alschechi comm. in Esajae prophetiam tricesimam (cap. lii. 13—liii. 12), etc.; subjuncta refutatione, etc.; Ludg. Bat., 1631. Dav. MILLII: Miscellanea Sacra, containing among other things a Comm. philolog. crit. in Jesajae, cap. liv., Amstelod., 1754. SPONSEL: Abhandlungen ueber den Propheten Jesajas (kap. i.-xvii.), Nuremberg, 1779. I. DAN KRUIGER: De verisimillima oraculi Jes. lii. 13-liii. 12 interpretandi ratione (Leipzig Univ. Programme), 1809. C. Fr. Ludw. ARNDT: De loco Jes. capp. xxiv.-xxvii. vindicando et explicando, Hainburg, 1826. A. McCAUL [of Trinity College, London]: The doctrine and Exposition of the liii. of Isaiah (German translation, Frankfurt a. M., 1854, 6th ed.). LUD. DE GEER: De oraculo in Moabilas Jcs. IV., xvi. (Doctor-Dissert.), Utrecht, 1855. BOEHL: Vat. Jes. capp. xxiv.-xxvii., Leipzig, 1861. V. F. OEHLER: Der Knecht Jehovas im Deuterojesaja, 1865. S. J. JAKOBSSON: Immanuel, die Erscheinung des Messias in Knechtsgestalt, Berlin, 1868. BERNH. STADE: De Isaiae vaticiniis aethiopicis, Leipzig, 1873.
On Introduction and Criticism.-PIPER: Integritas Jesaiae a recentiorum conatibus vindicata, Greifsw., 1792. BECKHAUS: Ueber die Integretaet der proph. Schriften des A. B., Halle, 1798. MOELLER: De authentia orac. Jes. capp. xl.-lxvi., Havniae, 1825. KLEINERT: Ueber die Echtheit saemmtlicher in dem Buch Jes. enthaltenen Weissagungen, Berlin, 1829. CASPARI: Beitraege zur Einleitung in das B. Jesaja und zur Gesch. der jesajan. Zeit, Berlin, 1848. Ibid.: Jeremia, ein Zeuge f. d. Echth. ron Jes. xxxiv., etc. (in the Zeitschr. f. luth. Theol. . K., 1843).
Of practical treatises on Isaiah I mention only such as comprehend the entire book. Veit DIETRICH: Der ganze Proph. Jesaias ausgelegt, allen Christen nuetz-und troestlich zu lesen, Nuremberg, 1548. NIK. SELNECCER : Ausleg. des Proph. Jes., Leipzig, 1569. ABR. SCULTETI: Concionum in Jes, habitarum idea confecta opera BALTH. TILESII, Hanau, 1609 (the arrangement of the sermons carried even into details in the Latin). HEINR. BULLINGER: 190 homiliae in Esaiam, Tiguri, 1565 and 1576. RUD. GUALTHERUS: Archetypi homiliarum in Esaiam, Tiguri, 1590 (327 homilies). Des Evangelisten A. T. Jesaiae Sonn-u. Festagsevangelien, etc., gruendlich erklart von J. B. CARPZOV, Leipzig, 1719 (sermons on all Sundays and Feast-days of the Church year, having each a text from Isaiah corresponding to the Gospel text). Jno. GEO. LEIGH (Pastor in Kindelbruecken): Comment. analytico-exegetico-porismaticus oder, exegetisch-moralische Betrachtungen ueber d. Weiss. des Proph. Jes. 6 Tom. 4, Brunswick, completed 1734 (diffuse, yet full of spirit, a rich treasury of varied learning).
In regard to that theologia prophetica which endeavors to prove that all the loci of dogmatics are contained in the declarations of the prophets, and which is to be distinguished from the theologia prophetica that gives information of all that relates to the prophets and to prophecy (see BUDDEUS Isagoge in theol. universam, Lipsiæ 1727, p. 1738 b sqq.), comp. my remarks in the Introduction to Jeremiah.
Finally I would mention a peculiar poetical treatment of a selection from the prophecies of Isaiah that has appeared under the title: "Les visions d' Esaie et la nouvelle terre par Eliakim, Rotterdim et Leipzic 1854.” The author is a Catholic, but he regards Roman Catholicism as an apostacy from the évangile primitif, which he proves from the prophecies of Isaiah, by attempting to show that the doctrines of the Trinity, of the divinity of Christ, and of justification by faith, are contrary to this gospel. He teaches a sort of transmigration of souls and return to God through successive purification.
of recent date 1 mention : J. DIEDRICH, Der Proph. Jes. Kurz erklärt für aufmerks. Bibelleser, Leipsig 1859. By the same : Der Pr. Jes. zu Hausandachten kurz bearbeitet, Hanover 1874. RENNER, Der Pr. Jes. ausgelegt mit Berücksicht. der Würtemb. Summarien, Stuttg. 1865. VEBER, Der Pr. Jes. in Bibelstunden ausgelegt., 2 vol., Nördlingen 1875–76.
THE PROPHET ISAIAH.
I. THE THREEFOLD INTRODUCTION.
The extent and the grand contents of Isaiah's Jeremiah also has a double introduction; a prophecies justify the artistic, complex form of fact that escaped my notice when preparing my the introduction. It is not merely one gate ; commentary on that prophet. For Jer. ii. is also there are three gates that we must pass through in introduction, because that chapter, like an overorder to reach the majestic principal edifice of ture, represents in advance all the principal Isaiah's prophecy. That the entire first six chap- thoughts of Jeremiah's prophecy (even the warnters constitute the introduction of the whole book, ing against the expedition into Egypt, vers. 16, yet so that this introduction itself again appears 18, 36, 37). as threefold, (chap. i., chaps. i.-iv., chap. vi.) That chap. vi. also bears the character of an becomes plain both from the contents and from introduction cannot be doubted, and is acknowthe form of these chapters. That chap. i. is in- ledged by all expositors. It contains indeed the troduction requires no proof. Both the contents, call of Isaiah to the prophetic office. But why which comprehend in grand outlines the entire does not this history stand at the beginning, like past, present and future, and also the title, with the story of the call of Jeremiah and Ezekiel ? its formal reference, guarantee that. Chaps. ii.- This question, too, has given the commentators V., however, whose connection we shall show great trouble. Many have resorted to the followhereafter, have essentially the same contents and ing explanation (comp. CASPARI, p. 332): they the same title. The same contents; for these say chap. vi. contains the account of a second chapters comprehend in general the present and calling, after Isaiah has been once already called, fitare. CASPARI has completely demonstrated but had forfeited the office on account of his how in chap3. i., ii.-iv., v. threatening and pro- silence about the notorious arbitrary deed of Uzmise have still quite a general character in dis- ziah (2 Chron. xxvi. 16 sqq.). Others assume tinction from the later prophecies. Compare in that chap. vi. contains only the call to a special regard to chap. i., Beitr., p. 227 sqq., in regard mission, and to a higher degree of prophecy. to chap. ii.-iv., p. 283 sqq., in regard to chap. But these are only expedients to which exposiV., p. 325 sq., 334.-DRECHSLER, too, says (I. p. tors were driven because they were controlled by 225): “A certain character of generality attaches the assumption that only the first chapter can be to all these chapters (i.--v.). Comp. DELITZSCH, introduction. All these and other artful devices p. 114 sq.-HENGSTENBERG, Christol. I.
are unnecessary as soon as one knows that chap. HENDEWERK, I. p. 64.
vi. is introduction indeed, yet the third introAs regards the form: it is of the greatest sig- duction. nificance that chap. i. bears essentially the same But why does not this stand at the beginning? title at its head as chap i. And this title does We will hereafter in the exposition show that not recur again. This repetition of the title of Isaiah, unlike Moses, Jeremiah and Ezekiel, did chap. i at the head of chap. ii., has occasioned not decline the divine commission, but rather, to commentators great trouble. But they were ham the Lord's question : "Whom shall I send,"' vj. pered by the strange assumption that only
, chap. 8, at once boldly replied: Here am I, send i. could be introduction. As soon as we give up me." That Isaiah, therefore, not only accepts this assumption, we at once recognize the mean- the call, but offers himself, is something so extraing of the title of chap. ii. Thereby it is out ordinary that one may easily imagine why he wardly and right away shown to the reader, that would not put this narrative at the head of his all which this title concerns bears the same cha- book. He had rather prepare the reader for it: racter as chap. i., 4. e., that it is also Introduc- he would give beforehand proofs of his prophetic tion
qualification, in order thereby to explain and