Obrazy na stronie

leget the length of earth of one of the be all of a ble for them both

uple five chemselves

the under board.

edge of the curtain that is in the coupling of nacle on the north side there shall be twenty the second ; that the loops may take hold one boards : of another.

21 And their forty sockets of silver ; two 6 And thou shalt make fifty taches of gold, sockets under one board, and two sockets and couple the curtains together with the under another board. taches : and it shall be one tabernacle.

22 And for the sides of the tabernacle 7. And thou shalt make curtains of goats' | westward thou shalt make six boards. hair to be a covering upon the tabernacle: 1 23 And two boards shalt thou make for the eleven curtains shalt thou make.

corners of the tabernacle in the two sides. 8 The length of one curtain shall be thirty 24 And they shall be 'coupled together cubits, and the breadth of one curtain four beneath, and they shall be coupled together cubits; and the eleven curtains shall be all of above the head of it unto one ring : thus shall one measure.

it be for them both; they shall be for the two 9 And thou shalt couple five curtains by corners. themselves, and six curtains by themselves, 25 And they shall be eight boards, and and shalt double the sixth curtain in the fore- their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two front of the tabernacle.

sockets under one board, and two sockets 10 And thou shalt make fifty loops on the under another board. edge of the one curtain that is outmost in the 26 And thou shalt make bars of shittim coupling, and fifty loops in the edge of the wood ; five for the boards of the one side of curtain which coupleth the second.

the tabernacle, 11 And thou shalt make fifty taches of I 27 And five bars for the boards of the other brass, and put the taches into the loops, and side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the couple the 'tent together, that it may be boards of the side of the tabernacle, for the one.

two sides westward. 12 And the remnant that remaineth of the 28 And the middle bar in the midst of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that re boards shall reach from end to end. maineth, shall hang over the backside of the | 29 And thou shalt overlay the boards with tabernacle.

gold, and make their rings of gold for places - 13 And a cubit on the one side, and a cubit for the bars : and thou shalt overlay the bars on the other side 'of that which remaineth in | with gold. the length of the curtains of the tent, it shall 30 And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle hang over the sides of the tabernacle on this Raccording to the fashion thereof which was side and on that side, to cover it.

shewed thee in the mount. 14 | And thou shalt make a covering for 31 | And thou shalt make a vail of blue, the tent of rams' skins dyed red, and a co and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen vering above of badgers' skins.

of cunning work : with cherubims shall it be 15° And thou shalt make boards for the made: tabernacle of shittim wood standing up.

32 And thou shalt hang it upon four pil16 Ten cubits shall be the length of a lars of shittim wood overlaid with gold : their ļ board, and a cubit and a half shall be the hooks shall be of gold, upon the four sockets breadth of one board.

of silver. 17 Two tenons shall there be in one board, 33 And thou shalt hang up the vail under set in order one against another: thus shalt the taches, that thou mayest bring in thither thou make for all the boards of the taber within the vail the ark of the testimony: nacle.

and the vail shall divide unto you between 18 And thou shalt make the boards for the the holy place and the most holy. tabernacle, twenty boards on the south side 34 And thou shalt put the mercy seat southward.

upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy 19 And thou shalt make forty sockets of place. silver under the twenty boards; two sockets * 35 And thou shalt set the table without under one board for his two tenons, and two the vail, and the candlestick over against the sockets under another board for his two table on the side of the tabernacle toward the tenons.

south: and thou shalt put the table on the 20 And for the second side of the taber- | north side.

2 Or, corcring.

3 lleb, trcinned.

& Heb, in the remainder, or, surplusage.

4 Heb. hands. 6 Chap, 25, 9. 40. ^ Acts 7. 44. Heb. 8. 5.

36 4 And thou shalt inake an hanging for 1 - 37 And thou shalt make for the hanging five the door of the tent, of blue, and purple, and | pillars of shittim wood, and overlay them with scarlet, and fine twined linen, wrought with gold, and their hooks shall be of gold : and needlework.

thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them.

Verse 14. Make a covering for the tent of rams' skins, of the tabernacle. None but the priests might go even dyed red.'- When the Hebrews quitted Egypt, they appear into the outer chamber, or holy place; and into the inner to have been well acquainted with the arts of dyeing and chamber the high-priest alone was allowed to enter, and tanning. The description of the tent covering, as given that only once in the year, on the great day of atonement. in the text, seems a description sufficiently exact of what To this, however, there was a necessary exception, when we commonly call red Turkey leather. The art of the tabernacle was to be taken down or set up. The outer tanning being now so generally known, we are apt to chamber was only entered in the morning to offer incense forget how difficult the processes must have been before on the altar which stood there, and to extinguish the this art was brought to its present state.

lamps, and again in the evening to light them. On the 30. ^ Thou shalt rear up the tabernacle.'—This fabric, Sabbath, also, the old shew-bread was taken away and having moveable walls of board, was of a more substantial replaced with new. These were all the services for which character than a tent; but it is right to regard it as a the attendance of the priests was necessary within the tent, its general appearance and arrangement being the tabernacle, all the sacrifices being made in the open space same, and its more substantial fabric being probably on in front of the tabernacle, where stood the brazen altar account of the weight of its several envelopes which for burnt offerings. It will be useful to remember, that required stronger supports than were usually necessary. | the most holy place contained only the ark with its conA connected description of it here, will afford the best | tents; that the outer apartment contained the altar of incommentary on the particulars given in this book.

cense, the table of shew-bread, and the great golden canThe tabernacle was of an oblong square figure, fifty-five dlestick; while the open area in front of the tabernacle feet in length, by eighteen feet in breadth and height. Its contained the brazen laver for the ablutions of the priests, length extended from east to west, the entrance being at and the brazen altar for burnt offerings. the east end. The two sides and the west end consisted of This description will give an idea of the general ara framework of boards, of which there were twenty to rangement and substantial structure of the tabernacle; and each side and eight at the west end. The manner in we may proceed to notice the various curtains which were which these boards were joined to each other so as to thrown over the tent, and formed its outer coverings. The form a wall which might be easily taken down and set up first or inner covering was of fine linen, splendidly emagain, may be illustrated in some degree by a reference to broidered with figures of cherubims and fancy work in the window-shutters of an extensive shop; but the boards scarlet, purple, and light blue. It is described in the of the tabernacle did not slide in grooves, but each was same terms as the vail of the Holy of Holies,' and was furnished at the bottom with two tenons, which were doubtless of the same texture and appearance with the received into sockets in the bases of solid silver; and to vail which, according to Josephus, was embroidered with give the whole greater security, the boards were furnished all sorts of flowers, and interwoven with various ornaeach with five rings or staples of gold, by means of which mental figures, excepting the forms of auimals. Over this they were successively run up to their proper places on inner covering was another, made of goats' hair, which horizontal poles or bars, which served as the ribs of the was spun by the women of the camp. Cloth made of fabric, binding its parts together. The boards as well as the goats' hair forms the customary covering for the tents of bars were of shittim wood, overlaid with thin plates of gold. the Bedouin Arabs to this day, and it still continues to be The east end, being the entrance, had no boards, but was spun and woven at home by the women. Over this furnished with five pillars of shittim wood overlaid with covering there was another of rams' skins dyed red, and gold, and each standing on a socket of brass. Four similar over that the fourth and outermost covering of tahash pillars within the tabernacle, towards the west or further skins (see the note on ch. xxv. 5.). These curtains, after end, supported a rich hanging, which divided the interior covering, or rather forming, the roof, hung down by the into two apartments, of which the outer was called “the sides and west end of the tabernacle, those that were outholy place, and the innermost and smallest was the most side being calculated to protect the more costly ones holy place,' or the · Holy of Holies,' in which the presence within, while the whole combined to render the tabernacle of the Lord was more immediately manifested. The sepa impervious to the rain, and safe from the injuries of the rating hanging was called, by eminence, the vail;' and weather. This magnificent tent stood in an oblong court hence the expression within' or 'without the vail' is or inclosure, particularly described in ch. xxvii. 9-19. sometimes used to distinguish the most holy from the holy See the note there. place. The people were never admitted into the interior


1 of the same: and thou shalt overlay it with 1 The altar of burnt offering, with the vessels thereof.

| brass. 9 The court of the tabernacle inclosed with hangings 3 And thou shalt make his pans to receive and pillars. 18 The measure of the court. 20 The his ashes, and his shovels, and his basons, and oil for the lamp.

his fleshhooks, and his firepans: all the vessels And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood, thereof thou shalt make of brass. five cubits long, and five cubits broad; the 4 And thou shalt make for it a grate of altar shall be foursquare: and the height network of brass; and upon the net shalt thou thereof shall be three cubits.

make four brasen rings in the four corners 2 And thou shalt make the horns of it upon thereof. the four corners thereof: his horns shall be ! 5 And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar beneath, that the net may be even shall be fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and to the midst of the altar.

their sockets three. 6 And thou shalt make staves for the altar, 15 And on the other side shall be hangings staves of shittim wood, and overlay them with fifteen cubits: their pillars three, and their brass.

sockets three. 7 And the staves shall be put into the rings, 16 And for the gate of the court shall be and the staves shall be upon the two sides of an hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and the altar, to bear it.

purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, 8 Hollow with boards shalt thou make it: wrought with needlework : and their pillars as 'it was shewed thee in the mount, so shall | shall be four, and their sockets four. they make it.

17 All the pillars round about the court 9 | And thou shalt make the court of the shall be filleted with silver; their hooks shall tabernacle : for the south side southward | be of silver, and their sockets of brass. there shall be hangings for the court of fine | 18 | The length of the court shall be an twined linen of an hundred cubits long for one hundred cubits, and the breadth 'fifty every side :

where, and the height five cubits of fine twined 10 And the twenty pillars thereof and their linen, and their sockets of brass. twenty sockets shall be of brass; the hooks of 19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. the service thereof, and all the pins thereof,

11 And likewise for the north side in length and all the pins of the court, shall be of brass. there shall be hangings of an hundred cubits 20 1 And thou shalt command the children long, and his twenty pillars and their twenty of Israel, that they bring thee pure oil olive sockets of brass ; the hooks of the pillars and beaten for the light, to cause the lamp 'to their fillets of silver.

burn always. 12 And for the breadth of the court on 21 In the tabernacle of the congregation the west side shall be hangings of fifty cubits: without the vail, which is before the testimony, their pillars ten, and their sockets ten.

Aaron and his sons shall order it from evening 13 And the breadth of the court on the to morning before the LORD: it shall be a east side eastward shall be fifty cubits.

statute for ever unto their generations on the 14 The hangings of one side of the gate behalf of the children of Israel.

i Heb. he shewed. Heb. fifty by fifty. 3 Heb. to ascend up.

Verse 1. 'Altar of shittim wood:—This altar was a sort | where, and such as those of which Elijah offered sacri. of square chest of shittim wood overlaid with brass. It fice at Mount Carmel and Samuel at Bethlehem, and was five cubits long by five broad, and three in height, which were not in constant use, without excluding from the (about two yards and a half square by a yard and a half chief place of worship such particular variations as its high), and had a ' horn,' or projection, at each corner. It peculiar circumstances, and the frequent sacrifices which was hollow within, and in the middle of its surface was a were offered there, rendered necessary. For information sunk grating of brass to support the fire; this was furnished respecting pagan altars, see the note on Ezek. vi. 13. with four rings, that it might be taken out and carried sepa 2. Horns.'-—The horns of the altar' have given oc rately from the body of the altar. The ashes from the fire casion to no common amount of discussion, respecting both sunk through the grating, and were received in a pan that their form and their design. They were certainly prowas placed under it. The altar had four rings or staples jections of some kind or other at the four corners, but at the sides, into which poles of shittim wood covered with their precise shape, or even the direction in which they brass were inserted when the altar was to be moved from

altar was to be moved from projected, cannot be distinctly collected from the sacred place to place. This is the account which seems to agree text. Many very good authorities think that they were best with the text, although some of the details have been really horn-shaped, like those of the ara pacis of the differently understood by various expositors. It is thought Romans; and this opinion is supported by the valuable that both this altar and the larger one made by Solomon, testimony of Josephus, as to the altar used in his time. by which it was superseded, had the lower part of the The other opinions that deserve the most attention are, hollow filled up either with earth or stones, in compliance that the horns were square risings from each corner of the with the injunction in ch. xx. 24, 25. Josephus says, altar; or that they were square to half their height, and that the altar used in his time at the temple was of unhewn then sloped pyramidically---not equally on all sides, but stone, and that no iron tool had been employed in its con only from the inside to the outer or external angle, ending struction. None of the altars which the Scripture assigns in a sharp tip or point. The account of the Rabbins, as to either the tabernacle or temple were of this construction, given by Lightfoot, admits of being thus understood; and but that erected at Mount Ebal by Joshua was so (Josh. the editor of Calmet, by whom it is supported (Frag. viii. 31), as were, apparently, others, which were set up cxxviii.), gives two engravings, from Egyptian pictures, in different parts of the land of promise. It seems to us preserved by being buried in the ruins of Herculaneum, that the command in ch. xx, about altars applies as a in which altars with such .horns' are represented. Moses general instruction respecting those which the Israelites | merely mentions horns' in such a way as to lead us to might have occasion to erect in the provinces or else- | suppose that such appendages were already well known to the Israelites; and if they were merely conveniences in | Fire-pans.'—ninn, machthoth; which the Sept. volving no religious idea or principle, it is not impossible renders by do trupelov aŭtou, . its fire receptacle :' copied that they were much the same as in Egyptian altars. by the Vulgate, ignium receptacula. Bishop Patrick's We are much in the dark as to the use of these pro explanation is probably correct. He supposes it to have jections in the Hebrew altar of burnt offering. It is

been a larger sort of vessel, wherein the sacred fire which inferred from Psal. cxviii. 27: • Bind the sacrifice with

came down from heaven (Lev. ix. 27) was kept burning cords unto the horns of the altar,' that these appendages while they cleaned the altar and' the grate from the coals were designed for the purpose of fastening the victim to and ashes, and while the altar was carried from one place the altar before it was slain. That the horns' were to another, as it often was in the wilderness. The root applied to this use is certainly possible; but that this was

nnn chathah has the import of keeping alive or glowing, their primary intention seems to be rendered doubtful by

which sanctions this interpretation. the fact that the incense-altar, at which no bloody sacri

9-19. The horned Egyptian

The court of the tabernacle:--This court or fices were offered, also had horns.

open inclosure, in which the tabernacle stood, was of an altars appear also to be altars of incense. It is possible

oblong figure of a hundred cubits (about fifty yards) in that their presence had some connection with the use

length by half that breadth, and the height of the inof horns as symbols of sovereignty, glory, power, or

closing fence or curtain was five cubits, or nearly three strength.

yards, being half the height of the tabernacle. The in3. · His pans to receive his ashes.'— The Hebrew ninyo closure was formed by a plain hanging of fine twined siroth signifies either pots or pans, but which is here linen yaru, which seems to have been worked in an open doubtless to be taken in the latter sense, as appears from or net-work texture, so that the people without might the specified use to which they were applied. The original freely see the interior. The door-curtain was, however, of term, rendered to receive his ashes,' signifies rather, a different texture from the general hanging, being a however, to remove, or carry away, the ashes that fell great curtain of fine twined linen' embroidered with from the grate to the earth within the compass of the blue, purple, and scarlet. It is described in precisely the altar; the pans were employed as dust-pans for taking up same terms as the door.curtain of the tabernacle itself, these ashes, and carrying them to a clean place, as we which was not, as commonly stated, of the same fabrie learn from Lev. iv. 12.

with the inner covering of the tabernacle and of the veil

before the holy of holies; for in the description of the two - Shovels.'—D'y' yaim, the radical of which word

door curtains there is no mention of the figures of chenyo yaäh, has a sense so near that of collecting together

rubim and the fancy-work cunning work”) which deco- * by scraping that many of the older interpreters thought rated the inner covering and veil. The door-curtain of that a broom or besom was intended. But as they were the court was furnished with cords, by which it might be made of brass, that rendering is obviously untenable, and drawn up or aside when the priests had occasion to enter. we are authorized in understanding the word of fire The curtains of this inclosure were hung upon sixty pillars shovels, by which the ashes were scraped together in a of brass, standing on bases of the same metal, but with heap, and then thrown into the pans.

capitals and fillets of silver. (Compare the description in - Basons.'-nippa mizrakoth, literally sprinkling this chapter with that in ch. xxxviii.) The hooks also, vessels. The word comes from po zarak, to scatter

to which the curtains were attached, were of silverThe

entrance of the court was at the east end, opposite that or sprinkle, and properly denotes the vessels or bowls into

to the tabernacle; and between them stood the altar of which the blood of the sacrifices was received that it

burnt offering, but nearer to the door of the tabernacle might thence be sprinkled upon the people, towards the

than to that of the court. It is uncertain whether the horns of the altar, etc.

brazen laver was interposed between the altar and the - Flesh-hooks.'-nissa mizlagoth ; which word de door of the tabernacle or not. Ch. xxx, 18, certainly notes something for drawing out, and hence forks or conveys that impression ; but the Rabbins, who appear to hooked instruments for picking up and replacing any

have felt that nothing could properly interpose between portion of the sacrifice which may have fallen out of the the altar and tabernacle, say that the laver was indeed fire or from off the altar. By its being rendered tridents

nearer to the tabernacle than was the altar, but still that in some of the ancient versions, it must have been re

it did not stand in the same line with the altar, but stood garded, probably with truth, as a three-pronged instrument

a little on one side to the south. As to the position of

the tabernacle in the court, nothing is said in the Scripin the form of a curved fork. The Hebrew root 221 gene

tures on the subject, but it seems less probable that it stood rally denotes curvature or crookedness of form; and that in the centre than that it was placed towards the further the instrument was three-pronged we learn from 1 Sam. or western extremity, so as to allow greater space for the ii. 13, 14, where also some further information respecting services which were to be performed exclusively in front its use may be found.

of the tabernacle.


2 And thou shalt make holy garments for 1 Aaron and his sons are set apart for the priest's Aaron thy brother for glory and for beauty. .

office. 2 Holy garments are appointed. 6 The 3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are ephod. 15 The breastplate with twelve precious

wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit 1 stones. 30 The Urim and Thummim. 31 The robe of the ephod, with pomegranates and bells. 36

of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garThe plate of the mitre. 39 The embroidered coat. ments to consecrate him, that he may minister 40 The garments for Aaron's sons.

unto me in the priest's office.. And take thou unto thee Aaron thy brother, 4 And these are the garments which they and his sons with him, from among the children shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and of Israel, that he may minister unto me in the a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, girdle : and they shall make holy garments Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.

| for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that


he may minister unto me in the priest's of the children of Israel, twelve, according to office.

their names, like the engravings of a signet ; 5 And they shall take gold, and blue, and every one with his name shall they be accordpurple, and scarlet, and fine linen.

ing to the twelve tribes. 6. And they shall make the ephod of 22 And thou shalt make upon the breastgold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and plate chains at the ends of wreathen work of fine twined linen, with cunning work.

pure gold. 7 It shall have the two shoulderpieces 23 And thou shalt make upon the breastthereof joined at the two edges thereof; and plate two-rings of gold, and shalt put the two so it shall be joined together.

rings on the two ends of the breastplate. 8 And the 'curious girdle of the ephod, 24 And thou shalt put the two wreathen which is upon it, shall be of the same, ac | chains of gold in the two rings which are on cording to the work thereof; even of gold, the ends of the breastplate. of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine 1 25 And the other two ends of the two twined linen.

| wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two 9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, | ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of and grave on them the names of the children | the ephod before it. of Israel :

26° And thou shalt make two rings of 10 Six of their names on one stone, and gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two the other six names of the rest on the other ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, stone, according to their birth.

which is in the side of the ephod inward. 11 ?With the work of an engraver in stone, 27 And two other rings of gold thou shalt like the engravings of a signet, shalt thou en | make, and shalt put them on the two sides of grave the two stones with the names of the the ephod underneath, toward the forepart children of Israel : thou shalt make them to l thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, be set in ouches of gold.

| above the curious girdle of the ephod. 12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon 28 And they shall bind the breastplate by the shoulders of the ephod for stones of me the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod morial unto the children of Israel : and Aaron with a lace of blue, that it may be above the shall bear their names before the LORD upon curious girdle of the ephod, and that the his two shoulders for a memorial.

breastplate be not loosed from the ephod. 13 And thou shalt make ouches of gold; 29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the

14 And two chains of pure gold at the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgends; of wreathen work shalt thou make ment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto them, and fasten the wreathen chains to the the holy place, for a memorial before the ouches.

LORD continually. 15 1 And thou shalt make the breastplate 30 | And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the of judgment the Urim and the Thummim ; work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.

| shall bear the judgment of the children of 16 Foursquare it shall be being doubled ; Israel upon his heart before the LORD cona span shall be the length thereof, and a span | tinually. shall be the breadth thereof.

31 | And thou shalt make the role of the 17 And thou shalt 'set in it settings of ephod all of blue. stones, even four rows of stones : the first row 32 And there shall be an hole in the top of shall be a “sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle : it, in the midst thereof: it shall have a bindthis shall be the first row.

ing of woven work round about the hole of it, 18 And the second row shall be an emerald, as it were the hole of an habergeon, that it be a sapphire, and a diamond.

not rent. 19 And the third row a ligure, an agate, 33 And beneath upon the Rhem of it thou and an amethyst.

shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of 20 And the fourth row a beryl, and an purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem onyx, and a jasper : they shall be set in gold thereof; and bells of gold between them in their 'inclosings.

round about: 21 And the stones shall be with the names / 34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a 1 Or, embroidered. Wisd. 18. 24. 3 Heb. fill in it fillings of stone. Or, roby. 5 Heb. fillings... Or, skirts.


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