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young, by keeping them as much as want of the necessaries of life, for a possible under the eye of those ap- longer time than he could consume in pointed to observe and instruct them. travelling to one of those manufacA certain part of each day should be tories; and the most forlorn wretch devoted to their education; they should would instantly have the power of benot be suffered to injure themselves coming an industrious member of that by overworking; and they should be society, to which he might have other indulged with opportunity and time wise proved a burden and a curse. for those healthy recreations which Many of the crimes and misfortunes are suitable to the age, and beneficial of the poor might be traced to those to the temper, of children. Sixpence intervals of idleness and discontent a-day will support a young person, and which the want of employment occasix hours' labour would procure it. sions—and which are the times when

The regulations of the society, and the minister of blasphemy and treason the rate of labour, being fixed by po- is able to make his most numerous prositive statute, the whole manufactory selytes. But all occasion for those should be let for a term of from three periods of misery and guilt would now to five years. Directors should be ap- cease. A poor man could, with a word, pointed to watch over the interests of procure the means of support, without the institution ; to observe that the sacrificing in the least his independregulations, in regard to the rate of ence; while he earned his bread, he labour, &c. were rigidly fulfilled; and would neither be a beggar nor a slave; to appoint teachers, and the proper he would have the power of introduce officer or officers to receive the renting his family into a well regulated soand manage the disbursements. The ciety, instead of being forced, as must lessee should be the sole proprietor of often occur at present, to carry it into the manufactory in every thing else, the receptacles of misery and debauchpaying and superintending his labour- ery; his children would be trained to ers, furnishing the materials, and re- habits which they never else could ceiving the profits of the manufactures. have acquired; they would see, in The directors should be the whole their parents, persons honestly earning justices of peace of the county, who the means of life, and not the sharers should annually appoint a special com- and abusers of an ill judged charity. mittee of their own number, or of But as these establishments could gentlemen in the district. The rent, not be completed at once, and, extenafter defraying the expenses, should sive as they may seem, would be inbe applied as a sinking fund.

sufficient to maintain the number of The sum required for the building poor who are at present inadequately and machinery could be raised by a employed, I propose that an effort public loan, a land-tax being imposed shall be made, worthy of a great state, to pay the interest. This land-tax to lighten in the mean time that mass would be payable by the tenant, with of misery, which, pressing on the body recourse on his landlord, if the latter of the people, excites a dark and broodpaid the poor's rates. Of all the taxes ing spirit of discontent, of which no. that could be devised, this would be human sagacity can foresee all the the most easy ; for while it would form evils. It is well known, that in order a very small per centage on the pound to begin and coniplete innumerable of rent, it would ultimately relieve the works of public utility, as roads, land of at least four-fifths of its pre- bridges, canals, harbours, nothing is sent burden.

wanting but those funds which it exThe raising of ten millions Sterling ceeds the power of individuals or sowould be of no injury in the present cieties to procure. There is hardly state of the money market. The ex- a county in Britain, in which some pending of this great sum would at of these great works would not be once give employment to many thou- undertaken, if the means of doing sand mechanics and labourers. In the so could be commanded. Let governcourse of twelve months many of those ment, then, be authorised to procure manufactories would be erected, and by loan, a sum to the extent of five or in the course of three years the whole six millions, * and empowered to take plan could be completed. What then would be the result ?-No person - Communicated to the Committee bewould need to be idle, or to suffer the fore Mr Vansittart's plan was made known, VOL. I.

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shares in every canal, or similar work, not nearer their end than when they which should be begun in the course were first invented.” of a short period to be specified, to an II. Mr Laing takes no notice of the amount not exceeding three-fourths of term Tory, but of Whig, he gives the the whole expense; and also, to ad- following as the origin :vance money to a similar extent, at the “Argyle and Lothian had begun rate of 3 per cent. for the builling of an insurrection in the Highlands,” and bridges, making of new roads, &c.-a so forth. “ The expedition was termproportional part of their revenue be- ed the Whigamorcs'inroad, from a ing set apart to pay the interest and word employed by these western pealiquidate the debt. The benefits that sants in driving horses; and the name, would result from a measure of this transferred in the succeeding reign to kind would be unspeakably great. If the opponents of the court, is still preproper enactments were made to hasten served and cherished by the Whigs, as the beginning of the works, I will ven- the genuine descendents of the coveture to assert, that in six months from nanting Scots.". the passing of the law, little short of III. Bailey, in his dictionary, gives one hundred thousand persons would the following: be employed in objects of public utility. “Whig (Sax.) whey, butter-milk,

or very small beer,"-again, The really helpless poor could not “A Wh1G-first applied to those perhaps be better maintained than by in Scotland who kept their meetings moderate pecuniary allowances in the in the fields, their common food being parishes in which they live. I shall sour-mill, t a nickname given to those not, however, extend my remarks, by who were against the court interest in entering on a subject which would the times of King Charles and James merit and require a more minute ana- II., and to such as were for it in suclysis than I could now bestow upon it. cecrling reigns."

To the plan I have ventured to sub With regard to Tory, he says, mit to your consideration, many ob- . " A word first used by the protestjections of great force may doubtless ants in Ireland, to signify those Irish be urged. But from these, it is not in common robbers and murderers, who the least probable that any measure stood outlawed for robbery and murwhich can be proposed or adopted will der ; now a nickname to such as call be free. Perhaps we shall do well in themselves high church men, or to seeking to change a system to which the partizans of the Chevalier de St the policy of the state has given all the George.” sanction of tiine, to limit our hopes to IV. Johnson, again, has Whit the obtaining of a great good by the (Sax.) 1. Whey.-2. The name of a enduring of considerable evil.

faction,"--and 'as to TORY, he sup* * * *

poses it to be derived from an Irish

word, signifying a savage." One who ORIGIN OF THE TERMS, WHIG AND

• For a further account of the 'terin TORY.

" Whigamore," see Burnet, as quoted in • I. « Tuis year (says Hunie; Hist.

Jolinson's Dictionary. 1. EDITOR. Eng. 1680) is remarkable for being t in different parts of Scotland the the epoch of the well-known epi

term Whig is still commonly applied to a

sort of sour liquid which is obtained from thets of Whig and Tory, by which,

milk or cream. The whig is taken from and sometimes without any material

cream after it has been collected six or eight difference, this island has been so long days for a kirning, and is drawn off by divided. The court party reproached spiggot from the bottom of the cask or can. their antagonists with their affinity to - It is also taken from sour-milk, when in the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, a coagulated state, or what the Scotch call who were known by the name of larport milk, being merely the thin watery - Whigs : The country party found a substance which is separated from the curd resemblance between the courtiers and on stirring it about. The whig, both of sout

m milk and cream, is extremely tart to the popish banditti in Ireland, to whom

taste. It is not, so far as we know, used in The appellation of Tory was affixed.

any way for food by the common people, And after this manner, these foolish Might not this term have been first applica terms of reproach came into public and to the covenanters, in derision of their alba general use; and even at present, seem tere manners and unpulatable opinivns ? LD.

in

adheres to the ancient constitution of western men, called Cameronians, took the state, and the apostolical hierarchy arms frequently for their religion. of the church of England opposed Whig was a word used in those parts to a Whig."

for a kind of liquor the western HighTorbhee is the Irish appellation for landmen used to drink, the composia person who seizes by force, and with. tion of which I do not remember, but out the intervention of law, what, so became common to these people who whether really so or not, he alleges to drank it. These men took up arms be his property.

about the year 1681, being the insur. V. Daniel Defoe, in No 75 of Vol. rection at Bothwell Bridge. The Duke VII., of his · Review of the British of Monmouth, then in favour here, Nation,' (1709) gives the following was sent against them by bing Charles, history of these terms:

and defeated them. At his return, in" The word Tory is Irish, and was stead of thanks for his good service, first made use of in Ireland, in the he found himself ill treated for using time of Elizabeth's wars there. It them mercifully. And Lauderdale signified a kind of robbers, who being told Charles, with an oath, that the listed in neither army, preyed in ge- Duke had been so civil to the Whigs, neral upon their country, without dis- because he was a Whiy himself in his tinction of English or Irish.

heart. This made it a court word, and ." In the Irish massacre in 1641, in a little while all the friends and folyou had them in great numbers, assist- lowers of the Duke began to be called ant in every thing that was bloody and Whigs ; and they, as the other party villanous, and particularly when hu- did by the word Tory, took it freely manity prevailed upon some of the enough to themselves.” STRILA. papists to preserve protestant relations; Edinburgh, May 1817. these were such as chose to butcher brothers and sisters, fathers and mo

• TALES AND ANECDOTES OF THE thers, and dearest friends and nearest relations, and these were called Tories.

PASTORAL LIFE. . “ In England, about the year 1680,

No III. & party of men appeared among us, As soon as the marriage ceremony who, though pretended protestants, was over, all the company shook hands yet applied themselves to the ruin and with the young couple, and wished destruction of their country. They them every kind of joy and felicity. : quickly got the name of Tories,—Their The rusticity of their benisons amused

real golfather, who gave them the me, and there were several of them name, was Titus Oates; and the occa- that I have never, to this day, been sion as follows: the author of this able to comprehend. As, for instance happened to be present.-There was a -one wished them “ thumpin luck meeting of some people in the city, and fat weans;"another,"a bien rannleupon the occasion of the discovery of bauks, and tight thack and rape o'er some attempt to stifle the evidence of their heads;" a third gave them “a the witnesses, (about the popish plot) routh aumrie and a close nieve ;” and and tampering with Bedlow and Ste- the lasses wished them “ as mony phen Dugdale.-Among the discourse, hiney moons as the family had fingers Mr Bedlow said, he had letters from an' taes.” I took notes of these at the Ireland, that there were some Tories time, and many more, and set them to be brought over hither, who were down precisely as they were spoken ; privately to murder Dr Oates and the all of them have doubtless meanings said Bedlow.

attached to them, but these are per" The Doctor, whose zeal was very haps the least mystical. hot, could never hear any man talk I expected, now, that we should go after this against the plot, or against quietly to our dinner, but instead of the witnesses, but he thought he was that, they again rushed rapidly away one of these Tories, and called almost towards the green, crying out, " Now every man who opposed him in dis- for the broose! now for the broose !"course Tory; till at last the word “The people are unquestionably mad,” Tory became popular, and they owned said I to one that stood beside me; it, just as they do now the name "high- " are they really going to run their

horses again among such ravines and " As to the word Whig, it is Scots. bogs as these? they must be dissuaded The use of it began there, when the from it.”. The man informed me th.

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the race was now to be on foot; that committee was instantly formed apart, there were always two races--the first where it was soon agreed, that all the on horseback for the bride's napkin, good runners there should, with one and the second on foot for the bride- accord, start against this stranger; for groom's spurs. I asked him how it that, “if naebody ran but Tam the came that they had thus altered the tailor, they wad be a shamed thegithorder of things in the appropriation of er, for Tam wad never come within a the prizes, for that the spurs would be stane-clod o him."-" Hout, aythe fittest for the riders, as the napkin that's something like yoursels, calwould for the runners. He admitted lants,” said old John; “try him-he's this, but could adduce no reason why but a saft feckless-like chiel; I think it was otherwise, save that " it was ye needna be sae feared for him.”the gude auld gate, and it would be a « It is a' ye ken,” said another; “ do pity to alter it.” He likewise inform- nae ye see that he's lingit like a grew ed me, that it was customary for some and he'll rin like ane ;-they say he to run on the bride's part, and some rins faster than a horse can gallop."on the bridegroom's; and that it was " I'll try him on my Cameronian looked on as a great honour to the whenever he likes,” said Aberlosk ; country, or connexions of either party, “ him that beats a Cameronian has to bear the broose away from the other. but another to beat.” Accordingly, on our way to the race- In half a minute after this, seven ground, the bridegroom was recruiting athletic youths were standing in a row hard for runners on his part, and, by stripped, and panting for the race; the time we reached the starting-place, and I could note, by the paleness of had gained the consent of five. One their faces, how anxious they were anow asked the best-man why he was bout the result--all save Aedie o' Abnot recruiting in behalf of the bride. erlosk, on whom the whisky had made “Never mind," said he; “ do ye strip some impression, and who seemed on: an’ mak ready-I'll find them on the ly intent on making fun. At the dis. bride's part that will do a' the turn." tance of 500 yards there was a man It was instantly rumoured around, placed, whom they denominated the that he had brought one all the way stoop, and who had his hat raised on from Liddesdale to carry the prize ao the end of his staff, lest another might way on the bride's part, and that he be mistaken for him. Around this was the best runner on all the Border stoop they were to run, and return to side. The runners, that were all so the starting-place, making in all a heat brisk of late, were now struck dumb; of only 1000 yards, which I was told and I marked them going one by one, is the customary length of a race all eyeing the stranger with a jealous cu- over that country. They took all hold riosity, and measuring him with their of one another's hands--the best-man eyes from head to foot.-No, not one adjusted the line in which they stood, of them would venture to take the and then gave the word as follows, field against him !" they war only with considerable pauses between : jokin' they never intendit to rin Once-Twice-Thrice,-and off they they war just jaunderin wi' the bride- flew like lightning, in the most beaugroom for fun.”_" Come, Aling aff tiful style I ever beheld. The ground your claes, Hobby, an' let them see was rough and unequal, but there was that ye're ready for them," said the no restraint or management practised; best-man. The stranger obeyed-he every one set out on full speed from was a tall, slender, and handsome the very first. The Borderer took the youth, with brown hair, prominent lead, and had soon distanced them a features, and a ruddy complexion.- considerable space--all save Aberlosk, « Come, lads," said the best-man, who kept close at his side, straining

Hobby canna stand wanting his and twisting his face in a most tre claes ; if nane of ye are ready to start mendous manner; at length he got with him in twa minutes, he shall rin rather before him, but it was an overthe course himsel, and then I think stretch-Aedie fell flat on his face, the folk o' this country are shamed for nor did he offer to rise, but lay still ever."-" No sae fast," said a little on the spot, puffing and swearing afunny-looking fellow, who instantly gainst the champion of Liddesdale. Lo began to strip off his stockings and Hobby cleared the stoop first by a shoes; ( no sae fast, lad; he may bout twenty yards; the rest turned won, but he sanna won untried." A in such a group that I could not dis

cern in what order, but they were all mours of applause, which he seemed obliged to turn it to the right, or what fully to appreciate the rest were over they called “ sun-ways-about," on Hobby in a moment; and if it had pain of losing the race. The general- not been for the wayward freaks of ity of the weddingers" were now Aberlosk, this redoubted champion quite silent, and looked very blank would fairly have won the mell. when they saw this stranger still keep- The lad that Aedie overthrew, in ing so far a-head. Aberlosk tried to the midst of his career, was very angry make them all fall one by one, by with him on account of the outrage creeping in before them as they passed; but Aedie cared for no man's anger. and at length laid hold of the hindmost “The man's mad,” said he; “wad ye by the foot, and brought him down. attempt to strive wi' the champion of

By this time two of the Borderer's Liddesdale?-Hout, hout! hand your acquaintances had run down the green tongue; ye're muckle better as ye are. to meet him, and encourage him on. I sall tak the half o' the mell wi' ye." “ Weel done, Hobby!” they were On our return to the house, I was shouting : “ Weel done, Hobby !- anxious to learn something of Aedie, Liddesdale for ever Let them lick who secmed to be a very singular charat that !- Let the benty-necks crack acter. Upon applying to a farmer of now !-Weel done, Hobby!”-I really his acquaintance, I was told a number felt as much interested about the issue of curious and extravagant stories of at this time, as it was possible for any him, one or two of which I shall inof the adverse parties to be. The en- scrt here, as I profess to be giving anthusiasm seemed contagious ; for ecdotes of the country life. though I knew not one side from the He once quarrelled with another other, yet was I running among the farmer on the highway, who, getting rest, and shouting as they did. A sort into a furious rage, rode at Aedie to of half-animated murmur now began knock him down. Aedie, who was on to spread, and gained ground every foot, fled with all his might to the top moment. A little gruff Cossack- of a large dunghill for shelter, where, looking peasant came running near getting hold of a graip (a three-pronged with a peculiar wildness in his looks, fork used in agriculture), he atand accosted one of the men that were tacked his adversary with such an cheering Hobby. “ Dinna be just sae overflow of dung, that his horse took loud an' ye like, Willie Beattie; din fright, and in spite of all he could na mak nae mair din than just what's do, run clear off with him, and needfu'. Will o' Bellendine! haud left Aedie master of the field. The till him, sir, or it's day wi' us! Hie, farmer, in high wrath, sent him a Will, if ever ye ran i' your life By challenge to fight with pistols, in a Jehu, sir, ye're winning every third place called Selšith Hope, early in the step !He has him dead! he has him morning. This is an extremely wild, dead !" The murmur, which had in- steep, and narrow glen. Aedie attendcreased like the rushing of many wa- ed, but kept high up on the hill; and ters, now terminated in a frantic shout. when his enemy reached the narrowest Hobby had strained too hard at first, part of the Hope, began the attack by in order to turn the stoop before Aber- rolling great stones at him down from losk, who never intended turning it at the mountain. Nothing could be more all the other youth was indeed fast appalling than this—the farmer and gaining on him, and I saw his lips his borse were both alike terrified, growing pale, and his knees plaiting and, as Aedie expressed it, “ he set as if unable to bear his weight-his them baith back the gate they cam, as breath was quite exhausted, and though their heads had been a-lowe." within twenty yards of the stoop, Will Another time, in that same Hope began to shoulder by him. So anxious of Selkith, he met a stranger, whom was Hobby now to keep his ground, he mistook for another man called that his body pressed onward faster Jamie Sword ; and because the man than his feet could keep up with it, denied that he was Jannie Sword, Aeand his face, in consequence, came die fastened a quarrel on him, insistdeliberately against the earth, he ing on him either being Jamie Sword, could not be said to fall, for he just or giving some proofs to the contrary. run on till he could get no farther for It was very impudent in him, he said, something that stopped him. Will o' to give any man the lie, when he could Bellendine won the broose amid cla produce no evidence of his being

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