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the first under John Adams, in consequence cannot claim that in our present circumstances, and broke the colossal power of Louis XIV, of our dissensions with the French republic a when the Army has just triumphantly emerged Marlborough was created a Prince of the Holy provisional army was authorized, and the grade from the most terrible contest which can ever Roman Empire with the principality Middleof lieutenant general was for the first time in assail the integrity of our flag without a gen- sheim attached, and upon his grand entrance our history created for its commander and eral to command, and when we are now engaged into London was received with an ovation conferred upon General Washington. It was in reducing it to the peace establishment, that which reminded a classical spectator of those accepted by him upon the express stipula- either the symmetry of grade or the practice resplendent triumphs which swept over the tion that he should not be called into service and example of other nations constitute an Appian Way in the palmiest days of the misuntil the exigency for which the office was adequate argument for the passage of this bill. tress of the world. The extensive manor of made, an invasion of the United States by I must admit that the chief claim which it Woodstock, once a royal palace-the scene of France, should actually occur. During the presents for your approval is as a recognition the loves of Henry II and the Fair Rosamond recess which followed the adjournment it was and reward of the extraordinary services of the --was instantly conveyed to him in fee, and understood that General Washington was not Republic's most successful and most illustrious the royal comptroller was directed by the entirely pleased with his new rank, because defender; and I am therefore constrained in grateful Queen to rear for him the stately pile in his opinion it was inferior to that which placing the bill upon its merits to refreshen of Blenheim, which remains until to-day a he had held in the revolutionary war as Gen: your remembrance of the obligations of the splendid monument of the genius of the archieral and Commander-in-Chief. In deference country to him in many desponding hours of tect and the gratitude of a nation. For his to these scruples, when the same Congress its recent extremity and peril. I trust the subsequent victories an annuity of £5,000 a held its third session, it authorized the Pres- House will do me the justice to believe that year charged upon the post office was settled ident to appoint and commission an officer while I should have never volunteered to re- upon him, and his dukedom, which was originwho should be styled “General of the armies hearse to it his exploits I am still less dis- | ally limited to his heirs male, was extended to of the United States." I have not been able posed to shrink from such a rehearsal when his heirs female, "in order," as it was finely to discover that the appointment under this imposed upon me as a duty, and when it is expressed, “ that England' might never be power was
ever made, and a presumption essential to a full and just appreciation of a without a title which might recall the rememis raised that it was not by a return from the measure I am instructed to report. I should brance of so much glory.". It has been estiWar Department in 1800, where General Wash- greatly have preferred that this duty should mated that the sum total of these grants ington is still registered as Lieutenant General, have been committed to some gentleman more exceeded five hundred thousand pounds. with the mournful affix "dead," a mere formal capable of "gilding refined gold” or of cele- Some of us can remember the Peninsular entry, but vividly suggesting, in connection brating that merit which is universally acknowl- || campaign ; how with every packet we learned with a name so illustrious, that,
edged than myself. If General Grant's claims that the guns of the Tover were heralding some "The paths of glory load but to the grave." upon his country were either doubted or im- new triumphs of the English arms in Spain; I had rested on this conviction until this pugned I should rejoice to appear in bis defense; how London was all ablaze with bonfires; how morning, when happening to take up the An- but unless I greatly mistake the temper of this the Prince Regent at the opening of every nals of Congress for 1801, I found in the House upon the question of his exalted de- Parliament announces some crowning victory resolves passed by Congress on the death of serts, no discordant opinions or conflicting of Wellington, and that he will raise him an. Washington, which occurred on the 10th of sentiments are to be harmonized here.
other step in the peerage, and solicits from his December, subsequent to the last act to which Perhaps, however, before entering into a faithful Commons another hundred thousand I have alluded, he is hailed by the resolutions review of his claims upon the nation, it may | pounds to sustain the style and dignity of the as “General of the armies of the United be proper and pertinent to briefly advert to increased rank. Some of us remember that on States, ,” the precise language of the statute the rewards which other times and other na- the night when the news from Waterloo first creating the grade of general. Whether this tions have bestowed upon transcendent mili- reached Parliament £100,000 were instantly title was ever conferred upon him or not, it is tary service and ability. Far, far back, at the voted, and that the gratitude of the nation
very dawn of history, indeed upon the very descended upon the Iron Duke in munificent sion of a war with France had subsided or his first page of man's tempestuous annals, writ grants and golden showers. Places, palaces, own death had intervened, he would doubtless in faded hieroglyphs on crumbling columns, | offices, and sinecures are fairly thrown at his have been General of the armies of the United we read that long anterior to these most an- feet. The aggregate of sums given to him, States.
cient records, war had absorbed nearly all the exclusive of salaries, exceeds £900,000, to say The theory of the organization of the higher attention and activities of the race, and that nothing of a snug little annuity of £2,000. grades of our Army evidently demands a gen- the victorious warrior, from the necessities of Our institutions it is said are popular, and eral to complete and round off symmetrically a constantly threatened and embroiled society, that these regal benefactions are hostile to the ascending scale of rank and authority. The became of course the king and founder of dy | their genius and spirit, and yet the American appropriate command of a brigadier general nasties. Sesostris, Ramases, Pharaoh, and the people have not in the past been insensible to is a brigade, of a major general a division, of great military chieftains who gave to Babylon the claims of great military service to solid a lieutenant general an Army corps, while to and Assyria their imperial ascendency, are the and substantial rewards, and have constantly complete the system an officer of higher rank names of the Grants, the Shermans, and the solicited expressions of gratitude in harmony and of more comprehensive power and ability Sheridans of that early day, promoted for mar- with the simplicity and frugality of our sysis required, who, unchallenged, may direct and tial service to an absolute sovereignty, trans- tem. They rewarded General Washington for supervise and impart unity and concert of plan missible by descent, over great empires. The his military services in the Revolution by twice and purpose to the operations of all the armies war which fortwo lustrums raged round mighty electing him to the Presidency, They rewarded in the field.
Ilium was, you will remember, a war of kings General Jackson for his military services in And this theory is confirmed, without an who had acquired their scepters by previous the war of 1812 by twice electing him to the exception, by the practice of the master nations prowess in the field. And to descend to later Presidency. It was his services in the same of Europe, who, in the severe school of gigan- classic times, the names of Miltiades, Themis- war which contributed vastly to the elevation tic and protracted war, have learned military tocles, Aristides, Epaminondas, will instantly of General Harrison to the same office, and wisdom. It may be safely said that there is occur to all as those of successful generals who but for his Mexican victories General Taylor not a prominent nation in the world whose were rewarded for military service by the chief never would have been President of the Uniarmy organization does not culminate either civil position in their respective States; while ted States. The heroism of General Scott in in a general or a marshal. Prussia, with a the honors bestowed by Rome and Carthage two wars directed the attention of a great peace establishment in 1863 of 210, men, on Cæsar and Hannibalillustrate the unbounded || party to him as their candidate for the Presi. had, in the same year, 63 major generals, 61 gratitude of those great martial nations to their dency, and all parties united in conferring upon lieutenant generals, 34 generals, and two field defenders and deliverers.
him the rank of lieutenant general as the marshals. Austria, with a peace establish- Charlemagne won the iron crown with his only reward they could bestow upon his life. ment in 1863 of 263,825 men, had 303 major sword. In the
old régime of France the Lux- long devotion to the defense and renown of generals, 209 lieutenant generals, 42 generals, embourgs, the Turennes, and the Condés, who our flag. and three field marshals. England, with a reared and upheld the throne of the Bourbons, Now, I could safely challenge each one of total active regular force in 1863 of 192,583 were invested with palaces, subsidies, and this long line of heroes to come forth and premen, had in 1864 186 major generals, 109 grants surpassing in splendor and magnificence sent a claim upon national gratitude which canlieutenant generals, 68 generals, and five field the tales of enchantment or the dream of ava. not be met and overmatched by the claims upon marshals, the last grade being conferred only rice. Even under the Empire dukedoms and us of that modest and reticent soldier who on royal personages, or general officers most royal titles and pomp were lavished by that scattered the armies and destroyed the military distinguished for services in the field. France, large and warm imperial hand upon the suc- power of a rebellion whose triumph would have with an army in 1862 of 467,357 men, had in cessful general who pierced the enemy's cen- buried the great republic of the world beyond 1861 292 generals of brigade, 175 generals of ter or bore the eagles triumphantly to the the hope of resurrection. Tried by the critedivision, and 11 marshals of France.
bristling crest of wavering battle, and gifts and rion of success, who of them can present a But, Mr. Speaker, while this bill creating the estates were wrung from the nations they over- brighter, fairer, more unsullied record ? Tried grade of general commends itself to your favor- ran to maintain with more than oriental mag. by the interests at stake, upon which of their able consideration by the symmetry and com- nificence the dignity of the rank. England | swords did interests so momentous hang? Tried pleteness it will impart to the graduated scale has always been prodigal of largesses to those by the valor of the adversary, who of them ever of rank in our Army, and while, too, it is vin- who have vindicated her martial renown and encountered a foe so worthy of his steel? If dicated by the example of those nations most extended her dominion. For the single victory in the sad and disheartening summer of 1863 distinguished for military ability and success, I of Blenheim, which dissolved the last coalition it had been asked you, what rank will you con.
upon the general who silences the batteries twenty-first regiment of that State, he had ceivable plan had been tried and failed, was at Vicksburg, that the Mississippi, through the || quelled the guerrillas in north Missouri; that either an inspiration of strategical genius or bisected rebellion, might course unobstructed he had risen rapidly to the grade of brigadier | the result of the most laborious strategical from the prairies to the Gulf; if it had been | general; that he had destroyed a rebel maga- study. Labor, and perseverance? Why, the reasked us at the close of the last session, what zine at Paducah; that he had wiped out Jeff. connoissances of the different bayous, creeks, will you do for him who breaks the lines at Thompson at Fredricton; that he had severely | passes, and rivers which he made in that amRichmond and receives the sword of Lee, what chastised a superior force of the enemy at phibious region, the dredging which he exesoul in this House could have placed-any limit Belmont; that he was a general who seemed cuted, the canals which he dug to open a safe or qualification upon its obligations ? to understand what war meant and what it did
water passage below the city, are without parFind a single martial enterprise in the whole not mean; that in his judgment it did not allel in resistance to natural obstacles, unless history of mankind more serious in the obsta- mean lying, in camp and garrison, drilling || the parallel is found in the memorable expedicles to be overcome, more luminous as an ex- and organizing for ever and ever, but seeking tion of Xerxes into the Peloponnesus, which ample of heroism and endurance, more fatal to the enemy, moving on his works, pushing and channeled Mount Athos and bridged the Helan enemy, more magnificent in its results, than | pounding until he gave way; and that when lespont. Forethought? Why, every step of a the single enterprise of opening the Mississippi | he did that you were not to wait for weeks and seemingly desperate adventure was prearranged river; search the tide of time for a nation which months for horses, shoes, transportation, but in his mind, and every contingency which could was ever delivered from such depths and exalted that you were to push on with such resources as be anticipated provided for in advance. Presto such a pinnacle of exultation by one single you had; hang on his flanks like grim death, ence of mind? Contingencies that could not blow, as by that struck at Richmond in April and if one expedient failed, try another and be foreseen were upon the spur of the occasion last, which at the same time broke the head another until was utterly routed and dis- as fully met as if they had originally been emand paralyzed the extremities of the rebellion. solved. In short, we were told that he was a braced within his plans. Courage? Did he
War has been defined to be contention by | positive man, of pluck and purpose and self- not push his transports through an iron hail force for the purpose of crippling or overwhelm- reliance, who did not believe, as some did, , compared with which the full blast of Gibraling an enemy; and in glancing at the history of that Robert E. Lee was endowed by the su- tar or Cherbourg would be comparatively harmour war it seems to me that we had made but
pernal powers with supernatural resources and less? Persistence? Did he not again drive little progress even in crippling our enemy until strategy and ubiquity, or who did not fear, the same transports, riddled by their first ordeal, the inflexible will and martial energies of Gen- as some did, that he, with the entire army || through the fortifications which spouted de eral Grant entered as an animating and direct- of Northern Virginia, could suddenly throw a struction from the bluffs of Grand Gulf; and ing soul into the armies of the Republie. Prior sommersault over intervening mountains and did he not, after twenty consecutive days of to his conspicuous appearance upon the grand forests into our lines, but that, by butting and fighting and five pitched battles, huddle the arena we had met with many reverses and a hammering away with mere human caution and army of the Southwest into its lines and hola few successes, but the reverses were most de- skill and perseverance, the mightiest Paladin it there until it dropped into his arms as prey? pressing to the national spirit and the successes of treason could be outflanked or whipped. Let me here pause in this rapid sketch of had hardly penetrated the hide of the defiant Much criticism was expended at the time General Grant's military career and permit monster which was confronting us. War had upon the battle of Shiloh; and that part of it him to recite the results of his operations at surged and resurged with alternate triumph and which applies to the gaps and disconnections Chattanooga in the congratulatory order which defeat over the devoted plains of Missouri. We in our disjointed line of battle may be just. he issued to his troops. I ask the Clerk to had gained a lodgment on the coast of South It was a vast mêlée between separate regi- read the order. Carolina; we held the sand spits of Hatteras, || ments, brigades, and divisions, each fighting The Clerk read as follows: and we had dearly purchased a strategical po- on its own book and for its own position, with
HEADQUARTERS sition on Roanoke Island. But in neither of but little concert of action and with but slight
MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, these affairs had we succeeded in actually de. mutual support.
IN THE FIELD,
CHATTANOOGA, TENNESSEE, December 10, 1863. bilitating the enemy, and from neither of these So far as the criticism applies to the violation
The general commanding takes this opportunity of points had we been able to penetrate the enemy's of true principles of war by fighting that battle returning his sincere thanks and congratulations to country much beyond the range of our cannon. with his back to the Tennessee river, General
the brave armies of the Cumberland, the Ohio, tho
Tennessee, and their comrades from the Potomac, for The first decided success which let in a glimpse | Grant has broken his austere silence and con
the recent splendid and decisive successes achieved of sunlight and lifted the cloud of despondency descended in characteristic strain to speak for over the enemy. In a short time you have recovered and exhilarated the national heart were the himself. After the battle of Pittsburg Landing
from him the control of the Tennessee river from brilliant operations upon the Tennessee and
Bridgeport to Knoxville. You dislodged him from General Buell began criticising in a friendly
his great stronghold upon Lookout Mountain, droro the Cumberland. When, following hard upon way the impolicy of his having fought the battle him from Chattanooga valley, wrested from his dethe capture of Fort Henry, the country learned with the Tennessee behind his men.
termined grasp the possession of Missionary Ridge, that Fort Donelson, strongly fortified by nature
repelled with heavy loss to him his repeated assaults if beaten, could you have retreated, General ?''
upon Knoxville, forcing him to raise the siege there, and art, had surrendered with its garrison of six- asked Buell. "I did not mean to be beaten," driving him at all points, utterly routed and discomteen thousand prisoners, and that large sections was Grant's sententious reply. “But suppose
fited, beyond the limits of the State. By your noble of Kentucky and Tennessee were redeemed you had been defeated in spite of your exer
heroism and determined courage you have most
effectually defeated the plans of the enemy for refrom rebel thralldom, we asked, with all the tions ?” “Well, there were all the transports gaining possession of the States of Kentucky and vehemence of kindling gratitude, to whom are to carry the remains of the army across the
Tennessee. river.' we indebted for a vigor of operations and an
"But, General," urged Buell, “your
You have secured positions from which no rebel
lious power can drive or dislodge you. For all this earnestness of purpose which prove that mil- whole transports could not contain even ten the general commanding thanks you collectively and itary enterprise and heroism are not obsolete, thousand men, and it would have been impos- || individually. The loyal people of the United States and that there is still some hope for our droop- sible for them to make more than one trip in
thank and bless you. Their hopes and prayers for
your success against this unholy rebellion are with ing flag, and we were told that he who could the face of the enemy.
“Well, if I had been you daily. Their faith in you will not be in vain. say to a rebel general,“No other terms than beaten,” said General Grant, quietly lighting a
Their hopes will not be blasted. Their prayers to
be answered. You will go to other an unconditional and immediate surrender can cigar as he spoke,"transportation for ten thou- fields of strifo; and with the invincible bravery and be accepted; I propose to move immediately sand men would have been abundant, for that unflinching loyalty to justice and right which havo upon your works, was one of those worthy would have been more than would have been
characterized you in tho past, you will prove that no beneficiaries whom the nation had educated at
enemy can withstand you, and that no defenses, how
over formidable, can check your onward march. its great military school; that he had won his And yet in one important respect it contrib- By order of
U.S. GRANT, spurs in the earliest battles of the Mexican war; uted more to the eventual success of our arms
Major General. that he had participated in that series of hard- | than any action in the war. It was the experi- Mr. DEMING. When General Grant first fought engagements which carried triumphantly mentum crucis which first tested the respective | entered upon the general direction of affairs the flag of the Republic from the shores of the stamina and manliness of the two belligerents. || four new and controlling characteristics forth Gulf to the lake-encircled citadel of the ancient It was the first hurling together of the two peo- with reformed, invigorated, and systematized Aztecs; that he had won his full grade of first ple upon a large scale in a hand-to-hand fight, our military administration-coöperation of lieutenant in those bloody hours when Molino and when the enemy retreated from that bro- purpose in our separated armies, energy in del Rey succumbed to the impetuosity of our ken and gory field, he retreated with his arro- attack, rapidity in pursuit, and wisdom in the soldiery, and his brevet of captain on that day, || gance tamed and his dream of invincibility | selection of the commanders of armies, corps, ever memorable in our annals, when the steep | dispelled forever. No southern soldier from and divisions; the fit man for the fit place. I and frowning heights of Chapultepec were car- that terrible day presumed to despise again the cannot, in this brief résumé of his services which ried, and the trembling city below implored the courage, the persistence, or the marksmanship || I am attempting, but barely allude to the man. mercy of our artillery.
of the adversary, for there was weeping and ner in which he combined the scattered and We were told that when th war was over, lamentation in every southern home.
independent operations of our various armies disgusted with the ennui which haunts a sol- I have already adverted to the vast impor- in the field, concentrated upon a single point dier on the peace establishment, he had re- tance to the national cause of the capture of the entire military strength of the nation, and signed his commission as captain, but that | Vicksburg. In those protracted operations, a destroyed that damaging expedient by which when the rebellion struck the first tocsin he war by itself, which culminated in the over- the enemy in command of the interior lines of rushed to the defense of the flag under which throw of that almost impregnable stronghold, communication was enabled to reënforce any he was trained and nurtured, and offered his it is difficult to discover what element or qual- of his armies which were vigorously assailed. services to Governor Yates, of Illinois; that ity of a consummate commander General Grant The campaign upon which the Lieutenant Genhe had organized the Illinois quota under the failed to exhibit. Strategy? Why the con- eral first enteredis admitted by the highest milifirst call for troops; that, as colonel of the Il ception of the new enterprise, after every con- tary critics to have been grand and perfect in
its conception, contemplating the simultaneous story so well told; I do not rise to enforce by that a man or his family could prize, awaited movement and the joint action of four armies any additional argument the passage of the bill the victorious Wellington when he returned --the army of the Potomac, the army of the whose success has been already so thoroughly from the Continent! What, in the face of such Cumberland, the army of Western Virginia, secured. That success was certain when the honors as these, can we present to those who and the army of the sames-cach with a dif- crowning reason for the presentation of the bill have rescued this great nation of freemen from ferent objective point, but all contributing to was stated by the gentleman who has just taken the peril with which their Government was the great purpose of the campaign, the destruc
his seat. I seek to do nothing more than to threatened? tion of the chief army of the rebellion.
express my own sense of the transcendent ser: It is not, as has properly been aid, the If the plan partially failed, and what was vices for which this House thus seeks to reward | genius of our institutions to heap upon men designed to have been finished in the field was that distinguished general, and add a word, | undue material rewards, even for such disat length completed by a protracted siege, it if possibly I may, with the indulgence of the tinguished services as these; but, certainly
, was not due to any want of genius or merit in | House to the estimate of those services. this nation does not lack a grateful heart, even the plan or of skill and vigor in executing that Such honors as this bill proposes to create, if its gratitude does not take the same form part of it under the immediate supervision of or if not to create, to revive anew for a higher with that of other nations. We will give to The commanding general. No man can con- and still greater occasion than that on which | General Grant, cheerfully, and with the hearttemplate, without adıniration and wonder, that they were created, become the man on whose iest acclamations of the nation he has served, hund-to-hand fight in the blind thickets of | head they are to cluster. And whether you everything that it is in our power to give. He the bloody Wilderness, that persistent and consider his private worth, his patriotism, his shall walk from one end of the land to the inflexible advance against overwhelming nat- || distinguished services in the field, or the atti- other, so long as he shall walk the earth at all, ural obstacles, against a determined enemy tude in which he stands to this great nation || honored and endeared to all as the savior of intrenched in front, acquainted with every path to-day, and will stand through all time to come, the nation, as the man who rescued from dan. and with every point of attack and resista those honors cannot be greater than his desert. ger and destruction the priceless principle of ance, in possession, too, of interior lines over He has carried this nation through the great | self-goverument. which he could rapidly hurry his troops, and rebellion which menaced its existence. He has Ay, sir, unless gratitude shall fail, in coming throw them impetuously in any direction. No reëstablished the integrity of the Union and generations nothing shall remind us of his name
can contemplate without astonishment the supremacy of the Constitution, which were that does not remind us of his services; and and sympathy the burden of labor, anxiety, threatened and endangered by this rebellion. when he shall die, and mingle bis dust with the and solicitude which he cheerfully bore during He has established through all time to come dust of our common earth, he shall descend to the immense labors of that protracted siege, | the right of the people to govern themselves, an honored grave covered with benedictions, and at its final success our thanks to Grant | the destruction of which right was involved in covered with the glorious recollections of the ser. unconsciously mingled with our thanks to God. the overthrow of the only Government in which vices he has rendered, covered with everything For this crowning work alone, so impor- it is now embodied.
that a grateful people can accumulate around tant in its immediate results, and charged with But, sir, even more than this, he has ren- his memory so as to perpetuate it to successive ultimate consequences so momentous to lib- dered the highest service any man can render || generations. This is his reward, if there can erty, civilization, and the human race, let grati- || his country; he has led the nation through || be any reward of national gratitude. This tude unbounded. unmeasured, infioite, be freely || these transcendent trials by which alone any would suit, certainly, the quiet, the self-depretendered, and let substantial honor and reward nation ever reaches the first rank among the ciating modesty of his noble and heroic charbe bestowed in some slight degree commensu- military Powers of the earth; for until a new acter. And nothing more than this will be rate with the obligations of an emancipated and nation passes successfully through the great needed to satisfy him with what he has done, rescued nation.
crisis of a civil war she cannot claim a place for he never sought anything but the conscious. I think I may safely invoke the favor of the among the foremost nations of the world. His. ness that he was doing his duty, with all his Representatives of the people to the humble tory shows that without such a trial no such energy and all his power. testimonial proffered by this bill. Let us not conquest has ever been achieved. No nation Let this bill, then, sir, pass, as I am sure it in this day of our deliverance paralyze future has ever yet won for herself that foremost rank will pass, by the unanimous and hearty vote of heroism and reaffirm before the civilized world to which all ambitious Powers aspire, except the House. And if there be anything else worthy the ingratitude of republics by refusing this through the discipline of civil strife and blood. of the nation's gratitude and of his acceptance sinall tribute to the foremost soldier of this | shed.
let it be freely offered as the fitting testimonial generation; to him who, entering the war as When we plunged into this great contest of the service he has rendered the country and captain, won in its battles every successive it was without experience, without knowledge | the honor he has heaped on the American grade, and emerged from it with a rank unsur- of the means and resources that we could name through all time to come. passed in our service; to him who at Fort Don- command to carry it through, without knowl- Mr. STEVENS. Mr. Speaker, as I offered elson first lightened the despondency of a edge of our own temper and courage to face an amendment to this bill, I must say a word trembling nation; to him who at Shiloh first the crisis, without compactness, or solidity, or upon it. It would be in very bad taste, sir, demoralized the spirit of the haughtiest of foes; any of the elements of strength so essential to for me to attempt to light my taper in the midst to him who at Vicksburg first released the loyal
General Grant, it is not too much to of these blazing luminaries which surround us. Father of Waters from forced complicity with say, has shown us that we possessed them all. I shall not try it. My amendment proposes treason; to him who at Chattanooga first opened | He has organized, disciplined, and welded to reduce the expense of this movement by the gates of Georgia that Sherman might sweep them all, and carried the nation successfully | preventing, in case General Grant shall be profrom Atlanta to the sea and from the Savannah | through its great struggle. That, sir, is a service moted, the appointment of a lieutenant gento the Cape Fear; to him who received the for which he will be remembered, not in this eral until the death of General Scott, and then swords of Buckner, Pemberton, and Lee, and land alone, but in all lands where military that but one shall be appointed. the capitulation of three great armies of the prowess stands foremost, as it does in every Now, Mr. Speaker, if thatamendment shall be rebellion; to him who successfully conducted civilized nation of the world.
adopted-and possibly without it I shall support two of the most memorable sieges in history; For that we cannot give him too much of this bill as a cheap and honorable method of to him, finally, who dissolved the confederacy | recognition or of honor. Nor will this nation expressing the nation's gratitude to one of her at Richmond, and struck every rebel rag from ever forget that it owes to him, in all human most illustrious defenders—the expense will the Rappobannock to the Rio Grande. probability, the perpetuity of the great system be but slightly increased. I do not know that
Time, it is said, devours the proudest human || of government which this nation was ordained I much regard expense when we are seeking to memorial. The impress we have made as a to establish among the nations of the earth honorand reward the Army of the United States. nation may be obliterated; our grandest achieve- || and make perpetual and paramount over them I hope onomical gentlemen will not be ments, even those which we now fondly deem || all. And no words willsound his fitting eulogy; || alarmed, but I believe that we ought largely to eternal, those which embellish the walls of that no words less gifted than those used by the increase the pensions of our soldiers and their historic Rotunda, may all drop from the memory distinguished gentleman from Connecticut [Mr. | widows, and to increase their pay; and at the of man; our civilization, liberty, arts, agricul. DEMINGþcan properly and sufficiently describe proper time it will give me pleasure to vote for ture, though sculptured in the pediments of the long career of his services, the long cata- such increase. But as has been well stated, this Capitol, may all be ingulfed in Lethe's logue of victories he has won, and the honors how trifling is this present expense as compared dark waters; this massive structure, with its he has heaped upon his native land.
with what has been bestowed by other nations solid foundations, expanded wings, towering I rejoice, sir, that this bill has been brought upon their great commanders. I shall not columns, and bubbling dome may all be buried forward to do him honor. Would it were in attempt to recite what has been so eloquently with our Constitution, Government, laws, and our power to magnify, to increase, to augment and classically stated by the gentleman froni polity, in a common grave, yet we shall not to any extent the honors we would heap upon Connecticut, (Mr. DEMING.] all perish. You may rest assured that three his name; for it is only by such recognitions We all know that upon her victorious conAmerican names will survive oblivion, and from those they serve that the great men of suls Rome bestowed the spoils of provinces. soar together inmortal: the name of him who any age ever meet their fitting reward.
England has given her one, two, and three milfounded, the name of him who disenthralled, I have listened, as I am sure we all have, lion pounds sterling to her successful comwith the naine of him who saved the Republic. | with delight to the graphic recital by my hon manders—to Marlborough, to Nelson, to Wel
Mr. RAYMOND. Mr. Speaker, I obey a orable friend from Connecticut [Mr. Deming] || lington; and yet not one of them ever achieved perilous but resistless impulse when I attempt of the rewards heaped by foreign nations upon results half as important to the nation or to the to add a single word to the eulogy upon Gen- those who served them. What honors crowned world as have been achieved by our great comeral Grant to which we have just listened with the career of Marlborough! What rewards in mander, through his calm, firm, determined, so much dciight. I do not rise to rehearse the Il palaces, and dotations, and in everything else II and able conduct..
I believe that the moral and physical cour: the war have no honor but their broken and alluding to it-that period in 1861, when the age, the patience and skill, the operations in dissevered limbs to carry to their graves. Legislature of Kentucky was in session and every way which we have witnessed, indicate I know this bill is but a small matter in the when the whole southern border of that State General Grant as one of the fittest men to way of expenditure. It takes but about some was threatened by an armed force seeking to command a great army and lead it to great twenty thousand dollars from the Treasury of overthrow and destroy the government of the results. I agree with the gentleman from New the United States and confers it upon the leader State as well as the Government of the United York [Mr. RAYMOND] in being willing not only of our armies; it is but a small affair. But the States. At that time our people were divided. to promote him to this office, but as I under- idea which weighs upon my mind is that this | And, sir, when General Polk took possession stood him, and I hope I do not misunderstand is contrary to the genius of our institutions- of Columbus, General Grant, without authority him, to a higher office whenever the happy aping, if I may use the term, those old Govern- from the Government, but acting on the conmoment shall arrive. [Laughter and applause.] ments of Europe whose whole theory is anti- victions of his own judgment and with charac
I hope I shall be excused if I have been led, republican, and whose example God forbid that | teristicenergy and promptitude, took possession in the light of this honor, so grand, to violate my countrymen with my sanction should ever of Paducah, thus saving Kentucky from the what I announced to be my purpose when I follow.
destructive power and control of the rebellion. arose. I hope the amendment I have offered I am willing to reward our heroes. They I remember when, on the 4th of July, the and this bill will be adopted.
have their reward in the gratitude which fills news was telegraphed to us that General Grant Mr. DEMING. If no other gentleman de- the heart of the nation. When the hero of had captured Vicksburg, and when the people, sires to speak I will call the previous question. this war travels, as the gentleman said, from looking to this and all else that he had done,
Mr. MCKEE. I hope the gentleman will one end of our country to the other, he is wel- | rejoiced we had such a man as General Grant. withdraw that call for a few moments.
comed everywhere with the plaudits of a grate | Yes, sir, the nation owes it to him, and no men Mr. DEMING. Certainly ; I will do so. ful people. They regard him as a man de- would be more proud of it than the soldiers
Mr. McKEE. Mr. Speaker, I am very loath || serving great honor, and they give it to him. who served under him. to say anything on this question. But enter- But I see no reason why we should establish This is a republican Government. General taining the opinions I do in regard to it, I feel this rank. It is not needed for the Army. || Grant, by his influence at the head of a great inclined since this discussion has come up to It is not needed for the honor of the nation. and good army,
has secured to us an independmake a few remarks.
The brave soldiers who followed their leaders ent republican Government. The nation owes I regret very much that I am compelled to through the war will not consider themselves him the honor and should give it to him. Where differ with the gentleman who has charge of flattered if this rank should be conferred. They | is the man in Europe or on this continent who this bill, (Mr. Deming,) and with those who do not ask that this new rank shall be created. has done so much for republican liberty as Gen. have advocated its passage. I would not de- The hero for whom this honor is proposed, eral Grant? Where is the man who has done tract from in the least, nay, I would go further, though he would doubtless feel flattered by it, so much for freedom as General Grant? Where if possible, and add to the honor and esteem is, I am quite sure, too modest a man to desire is the man who has lifted our flag higher and which the people of our country entertain for this at the hands of his country.
brought it back unsullied than General Grant? this champion of our Army. There is no man I am sorry, sir, that I have felt compelled to Where is the man with so much endurance and in this country who holds him in higher regard say thus much. What I desire--and I may as so much devotion? Where is the man beside than I do. But I must here enter my protest well make the declaration here-is that this General Grant who fought through wilderand raise my voice against what I conceive to Government shall extend its fostering care and nesses, through swamps, and snatched victory be this following too much the precedents protection to those brave men who periled even from the valley of death? which have been set, not by Governments con- their all for their country, avho have no honors It does me good to yield my tribute to this stituted like our own, but by Governments to wear, and for whom we as a great Govern- great general. If I had never seen him and only whose forms our forefathers threw off when ment should provide by pouring out our treas- known him through the reports of his own sol. they established our own.
ure liberally to them. `I, for one, shall be diers who weep with delight when they talk of For one, I do not desire at this day that my ready to vote any amount within reason, either him, I would be glad to vote for this bill to-day. country should turn back and imitate ancient
by way of bounties or pensions, to those brave I regret, sir, that a sentiment in this House Greece or Rome in conferring these great men who have fought for our nation during the to-day should come from my own State which honors upon her heroes. I would not that my great struggle through which we have passed. is unwilling to give him that high credit which own country should imitate despotic France in But, sir, I do desire that my country, through he deserves. her adoration for her successful chieftains. I her national Legislature, shall set to the world Mr. McKEE. I do not want the impression would not that my country should imitate the no example which would imply that a repub- to go out, which might be inferred from the example of monarchical England in conferring lican Government wishes to worship men as remark just made, that I am indisposed to give vast emoluments upon those who have led her heroes.
General Grant the credit which he deserves. armies to battle.
Mr. FINCK. Mr. Speaker. I had hoped Mr. ROGERS. Mr. Speaker, I presume this I regard this bill as antagonistic to the spirit that there would be no discordant voice in this bill, introduced by the gentleman from Illinois, of our institutions, as anti-republican, as con- House upon the passage of this bill. I had | [Mr. WASHBURNE,) has no partisan purpose, but trary to the genius which our forefathers in- trusted that at least in reference to this testi- is merely the expression of the Representatives stilled into our Government when they founded monial of our regard to so distinguished a char- of the people of the United States of the fidelit. I have seen enough in my short experience acter as Lieutenant General Grant there would | ity which the people attach to a great general of life of what I may fitly denominate the aris- be but one voice here among the people's of the country. I have always made it a prin. tocratic element of our Army, I have seen Representatives.
ciple of my life that those who have shown that spirit in the men who held positions in I do not rise for the purpose of detaining | heroism and bravery, without regard to party, our Army at the beginning of the rebellion the House, or saying anything in regard to the are and ought to be entitled to the respect and through which we have just passed. I have history of General Grant; for this has been high consideration of the people they have seen it in the great struggle which our people done fully and ably by those who have preceded || defended and sustained. have waged against those who endeavored by I desire, however, to state that I shall I think I can say with certainty that upon force to destroy the institutions of our land. vote for the passage of this bill, because I this side of the House, which I partly represent,
And the country will bear witness to the believe it due as a testimonial of the nation's no one will disagree with the sentiments which truth of my statement when I say that it is not gratitude to General Grant. I honor him, sir, || have been urged here by those who have advoto that element which the nation has fostered not only for his brilliant services in the field, cated the passage of this bill. But, sir, I feel and nourished that we to-day are indebted for but because of his magnanimity in the hour of that no stigma ought to be attached to any the fact that we have crushed out the inost triumph, and his genuine modesty. He has man in this House because he may disagree mighty rebellion the world has ever seen. It conducted himself throughout this war inde- with the sentiments of others or what they is to the people that we owe it; to those who pendent of party considerations or party in- believe the proper action of Congress should be have not been educated in arms; to those who trigues, devoting hinself to the vindication of in regard to soldiers of the Army. I am not here have not received the fostering care of the the true honor of the country in maintaining to find fault with the honorable gentleman from Republic, who have not been supported and the Constitution and preserving the Union. I Kentucky [Mr. McKee) because he cannot be feasted upon the public Treasury, but who in trust, sir, that when the vote shall be taken on able to agree with the views of a majority of their might, at the call of their country, by their the passage of the bill, it will be unanimous. this House in the votes they may cast on this patriotism and valor succeeded in crushing out Mr. SMITH. Mr. Speaker, it was not my question. I feel there is no more solemn duty this great rebellion against the institutions of purpose when this bill came before the House resting on any member of Congress, regardless our fathers. To them we owe it, and we owe to-day to say one word on the subject; but of what objections may be made to him politto the leaders who led them a debt of grati- representing, as I do in part, the State of Ken- || ically, than to stand here and express what he tude which the nation is not slow to acknowl
tucky, a portion of the country which during || sincerely believes, whether his views meet with edge, and which the people are ready and the war felt so much the necessity of national the approbation of a majority of the whole willing and anxious to pay. But we owe them defense and aid, I feel it due to the occasion people of this country or not. nothing by way of emoluments; we owe them
imnothing by way of rewards.
perfectly though it may be, the gratitude of the || by no consideration of party and with no object If we desire to reward the men who have loyal people of that State to that great, that to advance in rank and eminence the Lieuten. saved our country, let us begin with the maimed good, and that renowned man, Lieutenant ant General of this country above those who and wounded and suffering, who have periled General U. S. Grant.
have participated with him in the many battles their all in its defense, and who at the end of I remember, sir-and I may be excused for II and victories which during the last four and a
part I am moved
half years have taken place in our midst. Il appeared nothing of the partisan ; that his pub- with other gentlemen upon this floor who think do not want to be understood in giving my vote lic life was characterized by a devotion to his as he does, in a solemn, irreversible compact for this will that all our gratitude is to be cen- country without regard to partisan opinions or to render to these gallant men, who have come tered in one man in the Army. I have not prejudices. The remark that I propose to make forward voluntarily to save the nation, every forgotten there are other able and illustrious in connection with that is, that in no act in the benefit, every reward, every compensation, generals in the Army entitled to the undying life and service of General Grant, to my mind, which it is in our power to give them. gratitude of the American people as well as is the sagacity and foresight of the distinguished But, Mr. Speaker, I will not go on to speak those whose names appear in all that I have Lieutenant General more plainly indicated than of the great characteristics of the American heard during this discussion. I
suppose it will
in the fact that nearly one month before the Army. It is neither necessary nor fit. I know be the will of the President of the United States head of this nation bad discovered that slavery there is not a man here, nor within the extended on the passage of this bill to give the commis- must be stricken down before liberty could be borders of this Government, who does not resion contemplated in it to Lieutenant General saved, that great fact was announced by Gen. || spond to this sentiment, and is not willing at all Grant, as one who occupies the official position eral Grant, and in terms fearless and distinct, times and on all occasions to acknowledge it. in the Army the highest of any, except it may the vigor of which startled the American mind But, sir, this is not the only development that be the President of the United States.
at the time it was announced by this pioneer | this war has made. It has brought out the Sir, there is no man more willing than I to upon the great subject of emancipation. I genius and ability of men in America for the extend that gratitude to General Grant, be- undertake to say here, in the face of the nation, highest command in the field, and for the most cause his heroism, his bravery, his patriotism, that the sagacity of the Lieutenant General as skillful operations in military service. And, his fortitude, and his determination through a military commander was nowhere more com- sir, in these developments no single map stands this war have been unequaled in the history pletely vindicated than it was in that foresight, || higher, shines brighter, or is more distinctly of the civilized world ; but while lie has shown that determined, and announced in advance, before the world than General Grant. this heroism and bravery, let us not forget the that policy which is contained in the letter which Let the minds of members here to-day recur thousands and hundreds of thousands of men I send to the Clerk's desk, and ask to have read to the year 1864. Let them remember how then whom he led, of the men who faced the battle- -a letter which bears date nearly a month the fate of this nation quivered, as it were, in ments of the enemy, of the men whose blood, before the proclamation of emancipation. uncertainty and in doubt. Let them remember whose valor, and whose patriotism equally con- The Clerk read as follows:
how this man of iron will, of modest deportsecrated the glorious victories which the Amer
VICKSBURG, MISSISSIPPI, August 30, 1862.
ment, and of lion heart, took these gallant sol. ican Army achieved during the bloody revolu. DEAR SIR:
The people of the
diers, the volunteers of a free people, and tion through which we have just passed. It is North need not quarrel over the institution of sla- marched through the Wilderness with them a tribute which we owe, not only to General very. What'Vice President Siephens acknowledges
against the most compact and powerful army thecorner-stone of the confederacy is already knocked Grant, but to the men who followed him, to out. Slavery is already dead and cannot be resur
that the confederacy had. See him leading those whom he commanded, that while we ex- rected. It would take a standing arıny to maintain those brave men through the continuous battles tend to this brave and illustrious general the slavery in the South, if we were to make peace to
of the Wilderness to Richmond, before it and day, guarantying to the South all their former conundying gratitude of the nation, we should at stitutional privileges. I never was an abolitionist;
round it, until, as he himself said, the shell the same time extend to those brave and faith: not even what could be called anti-slavery; but I try of the rebellion was crushed and its hollowness ful soldiers the sentiment of respect and es.
to judge fairly and hovestly, and it became patent to
exposed to the world. And then behold this teem which we cherish for every man who has South could never live at peace with each other except
man, when Richmond had surrendered, mod. engaged in this war for the suppression of the as one nation, and that without slavery. As anxious estly refusing to go into the city with display, rebellion.
as I am to see peace established. I would not, there-
to be there first to take possession of the citaBut, sir, General Grant has that which com- tion is forever settled.
del that had so long resisted our conquest. mends him to my respect much more than many Your sincere friend.
U.S. GRANT. Behold him, sir, allowing others to march in in others who were engaged in the war. I mean Hon. E. B. WASHBURNE.
triumph, because he saw that there was more his Christian charity, his meekness, and his hon- Mr. UPSON. I wish to call the attention work to be done, and that work he was deterorable manhood in granting to those whom of the House to the recommendation of the mined to pursue to its final accomplishment. he had subdued the rights which civilization committee in regard to striking out the third Leaving, then, the empty show and the place demands shall be extended to an enemy that section of this bill. That section provides that of honor, you see him giving up to subalterns is at your feet.
this office shall terminate with the life of the the taking possession of the city of Richmond, When General Lee, whose ability I suppose first appointee. It strikes me that this testi- while he goes on steadfastly in pursuit of his will not be denied, as it never has been devied, monial will be more valuable if we make it | high purpose of making his work successful, by any gentleman on this floor, surrendered special; and it is also in accordance with the and compelling the leader of the armies of the his sword to General Grant, it was handed back precedent, for when General Washington died rebellion to lay down his sword before him. to him, as a manifestation of that Christian this office died with him. If we make this a That is one of the instances that evince the charity and goodness of heart which should permanent office, it will not be a special testi- characteristics of the man, and that raised him characterize a true-hearted hero when his en- monial, and we shall lessen the honor we intend so high in the world's estimation. emy is at his feet.
General Grant was ready to confer. I hope that amendment will not And now what do we offer him by this bill? to extend to his conquered adversary those prevail, but that the third section will be re- We offer him, what I will not allude to, but principles of civilized wartare which our fathers | tained in the bill as it originally stoo
what we have heard so well described, and what extended to their enemies in the bloody days The SPEAKER. The third section of the has been so happily depicted by the gentleman of the Revolution. bill has been already stricken out.
from Connecticut, [Mr. DEMING;} we offer But, sir, this is no new office that is proposed Mr. DELANO. Mr. Speaker, I should not him a small boon. Is it in imitation of aristo be given, if I understand it. If my recollec- attempt to trouble the House with a moment's tocratic or monarchical Governments that it is tion cerves me right, in reading the history of remarks were it not for the amendment which proposed to do this? No; it is in imitation of this country, General Washington occupied has been offered by the gentleman from Penn- the great Ruler of all who bestows blessings the same position that we now expect to be sylvania, [Mr. Stevens.]
and rewards upon the just and righteous, and given to General Grant, or to such other gen- The great struggle through which we have || punishments upon the others. I am not here eral as the President of the United States in passed for the preservation of the nation's life | to-day to imitate what other nations have done his wisdom may see fit. I believe that the has developed great virtues and merit in the for their high chieftains and great military men. mantle of the illustrious Washington may well American character; and among those virtues But I desire to show my gratitude, with the fall upon the shoulders of General Grant. J and that merit nothing stands out, in my esti- || gratitude of this nation, in behalf of a great believe that he has walked in the footsteps of mation, more conspicuous than the merit of and a good man. Let us do it in imitation of the Father of his Country, and has shown an the common soldiers who have fought, under divine authority, and not in imitation of man. amiability of character and a tenderness of competent generals, the great battles that have Because other nations who have preceded us heart toward his foes that Washington did to secured our liberties. Sir, I should feel myself may have acted in the right way, that affords those who had given aid and comfort to the incompetent for a seat in this House if it were no reason for refusing to pursue a just path. followers and adherents of King George during possible for me for a single moment to ignore One word more. I hope this House will not the seven years of the revolutionary war. the merit of those soldiers.
adopt the amendment of the gentleman from Therefore it is with pleasure that I record Mr. Speaker, there never was such an army Pennsylvania, [ Mr. STEVENS.] There is another my vote in favor of that hero, and I do it with before upon the face of the earth. The sun man-and I will say, Mr. Speaker, other men-a sentiment that it is not for him alone, but as never shone upon such an army: I pray God in the recent military history of this country a recommendation to the people of the coun- that the necessity for its repetition may never who deserve to be remembered. Though I con. try that they shall stand by those whose illus- occur in the world. It was an outpouring of cede to General Grant an elevation in great trious deeds of valor have been exhibited on the loyal people of the country; the giving up deeds and in great achievements higher than the field of battle, whether as officers or sol. of sons, of fathers, of husbands, with all the any other man in this war, God so ordered, diers, without distinction of rank or position.
comforts and endearments of pleasant and and he but fulfilled his mission. But there Mr.SHELLABARGER. I rise, Mr. Speaker, happy homes, all surrendered at the shrine of are other names connected with the history of for the purpose of making a single statement our country's honor and glory and existence. America which, if they are not written so high in regard to a matter alluded to in the remarks I subscribe, therefore, to all that has been said upon the scroll of fame as that of General of my colleague, [Mr. Finck.) With exact upon this subject so eloquently and so well by Grant, will be found but a little way below, justice and propriety, my colleague stated that the gentleman from Kentucky, [Mr. McKEE;) | and one of those names, I am proud to say, in the services of General Grant there had and I strike hands with him here to-day, and I belongs to the State of Ohio.