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tion, with a corrected text, and notes cri. tion of particular tenets, never issued tical and explanatory."
We know from the British press. that extraordinary efforts were made “Much as we reprobate," they conto get this translation into circulation, tinue, “the matter of this publication, and we believe they have not ceased. and the plan on which it is conducted, By these means, many unsuspecting the means which are employed to inpersons bave been deceived. We sinuate it into publick notice, strike us would suggest to our readers the neces as yet more reprehensible. The assity of caution in purchasing or sub- sumption of the name of a respected scribing for new translations. Great prelate of the church of England, caution, likewise, ought to be used in (archbishop Newcome,) for the sancrecommending them. To support our tion of a work, in which every doc. censure of the “improved version,” trine professed by that church, and by we will cite a passage respecting its that respected member of it, is directly merits, from the London Quarterly attacked, is something more than artiReview, for May, 1809.
fice; it is a falsehood and a fraud. “It is with no small regret,” say It can have no other object than that of the reviewers, “ that we impart to our procuring a circulation, by drawing in readers the disappointment which we unsuspecting purchasers. It is the daghave experienced, and inform them ger of an enemy under the cloak of a that they have here a work produced friend." in a spirit most adverse to fair investi We are convinced, that the best gation, and conducted on a plan which way of establishing a solid conviction must ever tend to propagate errour to a of the correctness and excellence of dangerous extent. We have occasion the received translation of the scripto look very little beyond the title tures, is, to examine its history somepage, before the disguise is thrown off, what in detail, and to make some comand the real nature of the publication parison of it with other translations. betrayed by no unequivocal proofs. To this we now proceed. The origiIt is perceived to come from a society nal from which the following account of Socinians, and to bave for its main is taken, may be found in Fuller's object, the propagation of the peculiar Church History, B. X. tenets of that sect. This object is
At a conference held at Hampton pursued with persevering industry Court, in 1603, between the leaders of and audacious freedom. The sacred the puritans and the bishops, by king code of Christian faith is mutilated James VI. of Scotland, and I. of Engand perverted with the most unsparing land, Dr. Reynolds, president of Corpus violence. Every allowed rule of fair Christi College, requested bis majesty, criticism is occasionally violated. The that “the bible be new translated,” on meaning of expressions is twisted from account of want of agreement between the acknowledged sense by construc- the translation then in use and the tions at once forced and unauthorized. original. To this the king answered, Confident assertion and gratuitous as “I profess I could never yet see a sumption stand frequently in the place bible well translated in English ; but of reasoning; and reasoning, where it I think that of all, that of Geneva is is attempted, consists of wrong con- the worst. I wish some special pains clusions, built on ill-founded premises. were taken for a uniform translation, In fact, we think ourselves fülly war. which should be done by the best learnranted in affirming, that a more sys- ed in both universities; then reviewed tematick and daring attempt to make by the bishops ; presented to the privy the holy scriptures bend to the sanc- council; lastly, ratified by royal au
thority, to be read in the whole church church, commonly called the bishop's and no other.” The bishop of Lon• bible, to be followed, and as little aldon opposed Dr. Reynolds, until he tered as the original will permit. saw that the king was pleased with “2. The names of the propbets, and the plan, and was determined to have the holy writers, with the other names it executed. In consequence of this re- in the text, to be retained as near as solution, fifty-four translators were ap- may be, accordingly as they are vul. pointed for the accomplishment of this garly used. important work, and divided into six 63. The old ecclesiastical words to companies. Seven of these appear to be kept, viz. as the word church, not have died before the commencement to be translated congregation, &c. of the work, or to have been otherwise "
64. When any word bath divers prevented from engaging in it, as only significations, that to be kept which forty-seven are found, in Foller's list. hath been most commonly used by the The number of persons in each com- most eminent fathers, being agreeable pany, the places where they were em- to the propriety of the place and the ployed, and the portion of the scrip- analogy of faith. tures appointed to each company, and “ 5. The division of the chapters to the rules laid down by king Jaines for be altered either not at all, or as little their guidance, are as follows : as may be, if necessity so require.
There were two divisions or com “6. No marginal notes at all to be panies at Westminster, two at Cam. affixed, but only for the explanation of bridge, and two at Oxford. The first the Hebrew or Greek words, which division at Westminster consisted of cannot, without some circumlocution, 10, and had for their portion, the so briefly and fitly be expressed in the Pentateuch, and the old testament his- text. tory, from Joshua to the first book of “7. Such quotations of places to be the Chronicles. The first division at marginally set down, as shall serve for Cambridge consisted of 8, and bad the the fit reference of one scripture to old testament history from the first of another. the Chronicles, and the Hagiographa, “8. Every particular man, of each i. e. Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Canticles, company, to take the same chapter or and Ecclesiastes. In the first division chapters ; and, having translated or at Oxford there were 7, to whom were amended them severally by himself, assigned, the four greater prophets, when he thinks good, all to meet towith the Lamentations, and the twelve gether, confer what they have done, lesser prophets. The second division and agree for their part what shall at Cambridge consisted of 7, and had stand. the Prayer of Manasseh, and the rest “9. As any one company hath deof the Apocrypha. The second Oxspatched any one book in this manner, ford division consisted of 8, and bad they shall send it to the rest, to be the four Gospels, the acts of the Apos- considered of seriously and judiciously; tles, and the Apocalypse. The second for his majesty is very careful on this division at Westminster was made up point. of 7, and had the epistles of St. Paul “ 10. If any one company, upon and the other canonical epistles. the review of the book so sent, shall
• Now," says Fuller, " for the bet- doubt or differ upon any places, to ter ordering of their proceedings, his send them word thereof, note the places, majesty recommended the following and therewithal send their reasons ; rules, by them to be most carefully ob- to which, if they consent not, the difserved.
ference to be compounded at the gene“ 1. The ordinary bible read in the ral meeting, which is to be of the
chief persons of each company, at the nels with channels, which was abunend of the work.
dantly useful in the Spanish, Italian, “ 11. When any place of special French, and Dutch (German) lanobscurity is doubted of, letters to be
guages. These, with Jacob, rolled directed by authority, to send to any away the stone from the mouth of the learned in the land, for his judgment well of life ; so that now even Rachel's in such a place.
weak women may freely come forth to “ 12. Letters to be sent from every drink themselves, and water the flocks of bishop to the rest of his clergy, admon. their families at the same." ishing them of this translation in hand; This bible was begun in 1607, but and to move and charge as many as was not completed and published till being skilful in the tongues, have taken 1611. It underwent a thorough repains in that kind, to send his particu- vision in 1769, by Dr. Blayney, under lar observations to the company, either the direction of the vice-chancellor at Westminster, Cambridge, or Oxford. and delegates of the university of Ox
13. The directors in each compa- ford ; in which, 1. The punctuation ny to be, the deans of Westminster was thoroughly revised; 2. The words and Chester, for that place; and the printed in italicks examined, and corking's professors in Hebrew and Greek rected by the Hebrew and Greek origiin each university.
nals ; 3. The proper names, to the “ 14. Tbese translations to be used, etymology of which allusions are made when they agree better with the text in the text, translated, and entered in than the bishop's bible itself, viz. Tin the margin ; 4. The heads and rundal's, Matthews', Coverdale's, Whil- ning titles corrected; 5. Some mate. church, Geneva.'
rial errours in the chronology rectified ; Besides these directions, three or and, 6. The marginal references refour aged and venerable divines in both examined, corrected, and their number universities, not engaged in the trans- greatly increased. Copies of this relation, to be assigned by the vice- vision are the most correct copies of chancellor upon conference with the the present authorized version. rest of the heads, to be overseers of the Such a work as our translation, protranslations, as well Hebrew as Greek, ceeding from so much various erudifor the better observance of the fourth tion, employed with such anxious care, rule above specified.
presents great and various claims to “ And now, after long expectation our respect. The history of it, which and great desire,” says Fuller,
came has been given, must gain the highest forth the new translation of the bible, authority, and entitle it to our highest (most beautifully printed) by a select confidence. It was produced by the and competent number of divines, ap- collected learning of the age, an age pointed for that purpose ; not being certainly not exceeded in extent of 100 many, lest one should trouble biblical learning in England by the another; and yet many, lest many present. It is not merely a faithful things might haply escape them. Who, translation, conveying the meaning of neither coveting praise for expedition, the original writers, but it gives their nor fearing reproach for slackness, (see. very style and manner of expression. ing in a business of moment, none de. We know of but one general translaserve blame for a convenient slowness,) tion equal to it, and that is the Ger. had expended almost three years in man one of Auguste and De Wette, the work, not only examining the published within a few years. There channels by the fountain, translations are some specimens of parts of the with the original, which was absolutely scriptures executed in excellent style. necessary, but also comparing chan. Of these, the best are Rosenmueller's
translation of Job, and a part of the Hitherto, for the most part, Christians prophets, contained in his commentary of every name, in England and the on the old testament, Storr's translation United States, have, in their controof some epistles of St. Paul, likewise versies, appealed to king James's transcontained in his commentaries, and lation, as of common standard authori. bishop Lowth's Isaiah.
ty. We pretend to nothing of the In most of the new versions we have spirit of prophecy, but we hazard the geen, strange specimens are to be conjecture that this situation of things found. Purver translates John xviii. will not continue long. We have a 12, "So the regiment, the colonel, and party among us liberal in name, bold, the officers, took Jesus and bound him." and determined on innovation. This Waterland proposes, Acts xix. 38, in- translation stands in their
It stead of, " the law is open and there presents a formidable obstacle to their are deputies ;" “it is term tiine, and designs. We believe them to be wait. the judges are sitting." Horwood, in ing with impatience the proper time Luke xiii. 6, says,
a gentleman bad for giving their adherents a version of planted a fig tree.” Wakefield trans- the whole scriptures, which shall speak lates James i. 17, “ the father of lights their views. We believe also that it with whom is no parallax, nor tropical is very possible for men to “ wrest the shadow !" Campbell, Matt. iv. 15, scriptures to their own destruction,” has the canton of Zebulun, for land of and we solemnly call upon all restless Zebulun. Again, in the miracle of and determined innovators, to pause the loaves, Matt. xvii. 24, how many and consider what they are doing, maunds filled ; and we have seen when they throw aside a translation proposals by a man of our own country, which has, heretofore, been a bond of to have a republican translation of the union among all, to which our ears bible, in which, instead of kings, po- have always been habituated, whose tentates, lords, thrones, &c. we may language we have always beard and have presidents, senators, statesmen, repeated, from childhood, and in which chairs of state, &c.
we have always seen the word of God We know it has been objected to arrayed; to set up a standard translaour translation that many words and tion of their own, so prepared as to be modes of expression have become ob. clearly decisive in supporting all their solete. Tbat there are some such in. favourite dogmas.
M. stances we admit, but we deny that they are either numerous or important. The words are very few, which cannot be found in the best dictionaries of
To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate. our language. At the same time, the English bible is the principal standard BRIEF ARGUMENT IN FAVOUR OF EPISof the English language, and has done
COPACY, FROM STACKHOUSE. more to preserve its purity, than all “And as they would not, if they our other books together. Perhaps it could, so neither is it probable that might be well to amend places in our they could, if they would have inversion, containing obselete words and troduced, into the universal church, phrases, and where it does not agree another form of government, than such exactly with the original; but we are as was instituted by the apostles. lli convinced, that a new translation in indeed, only one or two churches had general is quite unnecessary, and been governed by bishops, there would would be unfavourable lo the interests be room to suspect that this might be of religion.
an undue deviation from the apostoli
THE SAVAGE CHARACTER.
cal pattern. But when all the churches, byters; and that, from the age next founded by the apostles, though never after the apostles, to the age next beso remote, and not so much as known fore ours, there never was above one by name, to one another, did all agree presbyter* taken notice of in history, in the same form of government, so (and him we find branded as a beretick that there is not one church we read on this account,) as pretending to be of, but what we are able to prove was equal to a bishop." Body of Digoverned by a single bishop; this, we vinity, p. 743. fol. think, could never, so soon, so universally, bave been brought about, unless
If the foregoing argument is just, I all churches had, together with the and I believe it has never yet been
answered, how can those, who have same faith, received also the same form of government from the apostles, it to their consciences or their God,
thrown aside the Episcopacy, answer. If the several bishops, in their several that they continue, against light and churches, did challenge and exercise an authority over their presbyters, knowledge, in a state of schism ?
S. which was contrary to the command
of Christ and the institution of the 1 apostles, how came it to pass, that no
To the Editor of the Gospel Advocate. in presbyters did ever oppose them, and THE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON
object to them this violation of their Lord's command, and invasion of their I was much interested in the obser. rights ? If the apostles did delegate an vations of your correspondent, in the equal share of authority to every prese number of the Gospel Advocate for byter of each church, how came these June, on the last days of James II. presbyters quietly to suffer this au- It is indeed delightful, as he observes, thority to be forced away from them, to find Christianity, even when debased and transferred upon the bishops? with errours, shedding its benign inWhy did not the presbyters of that Auence upon such a mind. Illustraage, as well as some of ours, pretend tions like this, of the practical influthat they were equal to the greatest
ence of our holy religion, seem to me of the bishops? Were not they, who to be eminently useful ; and I have lived in the next age, as well acquaint- thought that it might not be unpleasing ed with the practice of the apostles, to your readers, after contemplating as we are, at the distance of so many its effects upon the heart of a bigoted centuries? And if they were,
and cruel monarch of one of the most came it to pass, that no presbyter of civilized nations of the earth, to turn them all had, in those days, courage to the wilds of America and see it enough to tell an assuming bishop, there subduing beneath its mild and
that he arrogated too much to him. peaceful yoke, the lawless ferocity of self; that he could not but know, what the children of the forest. For this every one knew, that the Lord, and his apostles, from whom they received purpose, I send you the following
extracts from a work lately published, their faith, their doctrine, and their entitled, “ A Narrative of the Mission authority, had decreed that there should
of the United Brethren among the be an exact equality between them, and no one pretend to a superiority over * Aerius, a presbyter in Asia Minor, who another ?' And yet it is certain matter first maintained that bishops were not suof fact, that such an authority was periour to presbyters, flourished in the latexercised without any opposition ; that tar part of the fourth century. This idea
was first acted upon by Calvin at Geneva, such a power was challenged by about the year 1536, and the presbyterian bishops, and never resisted by prese government established there in 1541.