Obrazy na stronie

Remains of at least sixteen species of plesio- | their several species, of reptiles more or less alsaur, the largest twenty feet in length, but aver-lied to modern gavials and crocodiles, but with aging twelve or fourteen feet, have been found vertebræ demonstrating their more marine habin the same series of secondary strata of Eng. | its, have already been re-constructed from the land in which the ichthyosaurs occur. Both abundance of petrified remains in the oolitic genera make their first appearance in the lowest strata of England. beds of lias, and seem to have become extinct As examples of the ancient dragons of the during the formation of the chalk-deposits. land, our author selects the great herbivorous

That accomplished scholar and naturalist, the Iguanodon of Mantell, and its contemporary and Dean of Llandaff — to whom, in conjunction probable foe, the almost equally huge carnivowith Sir Henry De la Beche, the discovery of rous Megalosaurus of the Dean of Westminster. the plesiosaurus is due — has best interpreted These monsters, whose fossil thigh-bones equal the living habits of this most heteroclite of ani- or surpass those of the mammoth or mastodon, mal forms:

had cavities for marrow in the interior of all the of its paddles; that it was marine is almost equally is brief and neat:" That it was aquatic is evident from the form long-bones of the limbs, like those in existing

terrestrial quadrupeds. Mr. Broderip's comment so, from the remains with which it is universally associated; that it may have occasionally visited the shore, the resemblance of its extremities to of these great land-lizards is this possession of

“ One of the most distinguishing characteristics those of the turtle may lead us to conjecture ; its marrow-bones. The great bones of the extremimotion, however, must have been very awkward ties of the enaliosaurians and ancient crocodilion land; its long neck must have impeded its ans were solid throughout; and the comparative progress through the water; presenting a striking weight, so far from being inconvenient in the mecontrast to the organization which so admirably dium through which they generally had to make fits the ichthyosaurus to cut through the waves. their way, performed the office of ballast to steady May it not therefore be concluded (since, in them on the water, and prevent them, when on addition to these circumstances, its respiration the surface, from exposing too much of their must have required frequent access of air), that bodies, and being what the sailors call crank. But it swam upon or near the surface, arching back in the enormous and dragon-like forms now units long neck like a swan, and occasionally dart-der consideration — those oviparous quadrupeds

, ing it down at the fish which happened to float in short, whose progression was to be performed within its reach? It may, perhaps, have lurked in shoal water along the coast

, concealed among places and sloughs — a combination of lightness

on the land, and most probably in sandy or miry the seaweed, and raising its nostrils to a level with the surface from a considerable depth, may filled cylinder made the appropriate machinery

with strength was required, and the marrowhave found a secure retreat from the assault of dangerous enemies; while the length and flexi

complete.” — p. 357. bility of its neck may have compensated for the The peculiar structure of the teeth of the want of strength in its jaws, and its incapacity iguanodon adapting it to “cut out its huge morfor swift motion through the water, by the sud- sels from the tough Clathrariæ and other similar denness and agility of the attack which they enabled it to make on every animal fitted for its rigid plants which are found entombed with its prey, which came within its reach.”

remains," is given in the words of Buckland and

Owen. The not less remarkable modifications The Pliosaurus was in most respects a gigan- of the teeth of the megalosaurus — which comtic plesiosaur, but had an enormous head with bine mechanical contrivances analogous to those long and strong jaws armed with large conical- adopted in the construction of the knife, the sapointed teeth, and requiring, therefore, for its bre, and the saw, rendering them the most desupport, a neck as short and thick and strong as structive and carnassial of natural weaponsthat of the grampus, which this ancient sea-dragon are described in the classic language of the sixth equalled or surpassed in size. The Kimmeridge “ Bridgewater Treatise.” From the most auclay is the common depository of its fossillized thentic sources, not without evidence of shrewd remains.

original observation, the author has succeeded in The Cetiosaurus, an aquatic dragon, but with producing a vivid picture of the typical examtoes free and armed with claws, as in the croco- ples of the “ dinosaurians,” or “fearfully-great diles, rivalled the modern whale in bulk, and land-lizards, which once had dominion where was unquestionably the most gigantic, as, being Queen Victoria now reigns." provided with both teeth and claws, it was the But not the earth only or the waters of those most formidable of ancient reptiles. It co-exist- primeval times brought forth abundantly their ed with the true Enaliosauria or sea-dragons, dragon-brood :- flocks also of unclean creatures and probably preyed upon the plesiosaur. Four of the reptilian classes with expanded wings species of this genus, and six other genera, with steered aloft their flight, incumbent on the dank

and dusky atmosphere of the same remote age. A brief sketch of the conflicting opinions to The genera Pterodactylus, Ornithopterus and which the heteroclite organization of the pteroRhamphosaurus, with their several species, of saurian gave rise, before the master-eye of Cuwhich about twenty are now known, represented vier discerned its true relations, is prefixed to the order Pterosauria or ancient flying dragons. the chapter on “ Flying Dragons.” Collini (1784) Every type of this order has long been blotted considered it a fish, Blumenbach (1807) a bird, out of the book of living creatures. The ptero- and Soemmering (1810) a mammal ;- pregdactyles seem to have been introduced into this nant signs of the discrepant charaeters of strucplanet with the ichthyosaur at the beginning of ture which were associated together in the flying the colitic period, and both dragons of the air reptile of the secondary æra. Indeed, so anomand sea to have disappeared before the com- alous are the combination and modification of mencement of the tertiary epoch in geology. A parts in the skeleton of the pterodactyle, that little harmless insectivorous lizard, however, so there are still dissentients from the authority of far analogous to the pterodactyle as to be able Cuvier. Even M. Agassiz bas deemed it an to glide, by means of an expanded parachute, error to regard this extinct animal as a reptile through the air in long flying leaps from branch of flight: he thinks rather that it must have to branch or from tree to tree, still exists in lived in the water along with the ichthyosaur some of the islands of the Indian Archipelago. and plesiosaur, and groups them together into Linnæus gave it the name of Draco volans; but the family of“ palæosaurians.” But the experiits structure presents an essentially distinct modi- enced and indefatigable Von Meyer says, in a fication of the reptilian type from that of the recent description of one of the most extraordipterosauria. In the modern Druco certain of nary forms of the order pterososauria, that longthe slender ribs are much elongated, and sustain, continued study of the very interesting structure as on the whalebones of an umbrella, the mem- of these animals had only the more convinced him branes of the wings. In the pterodactyle the of the accuracy of the views published by Cuvier, bones of the upper-arm and fore-arm, but more so early as 1800. The pterodactyles were flying especially those of the finger answering to the saurians. The thin compact walls and large cavififth or "little finger,” are much elongated, and ties of the bones, the connection of the vertebral must have spread out a long and broad fold of ribs with the sternum by means of osseous ribs, skin like that which forms the wings of bats. the processes of the chief ribs in order to confer The head of the pterodactyle was large — the greater firmness on the chest, the long sacrum, jaws long and strong armed with slender re as well as the circumstance that in the posterior curved sharp-pointed teeth - and in some of the limbs the tibia is the longest bone, so strikingly species (Rhamphorhynchus) — sheathed at their recall the structure of birds, that it seems inextremities with horn : thus combining the char- comprehensible how anybody can doubt that acteristic armature of both birds and beasts. they were flying animals, M. Von Meyer be

The neck-bones were proportionally robust to lieves also, with Cuvier, that the pterodactyles sustain and wield the doubly-armed head, and were not clothed with feathers like birds, nor yet were not more than seven in number, as in with hair like bats, but had a naked skin, which mammals, but were constructed after the type of the author of the 'Recreations' surmises to those of reptiles. The ribs, slender as in liz- have been of lurid hue and shagreen-like texards, not flat and broad as in birds, were never- ture, resembling in some degree the external theless connected to a broad sternum by bony tegument of a chamæleon or guana, except the "sternal ribs," as in birds, and supported like smooth membrane of the wing. The average wise osseus supracostal processes, as in the feath- size of the pterodactyles seems to have been that ered class. A greater number of vertebræ were of a crow or raven, but indications of a species anchylosed to form a “sacrum” than in other (Ptergiganteus) perhaps as large as an eagle, reptiles

, though not so many as in birds, - nor have lately been detected in the chalk-formais the pelvis of the pterodactyle of such a con- tions of Kent. MM. Van Breder and Von Meystruction as to have enabled it to walk on the er have recently disclosed a new feature in the hind-legs, as birds do. The hooked claws on the organization of certain species of pterodactyle non-elongated fingers of the hand would not only Pt. longicaudus, Pt. Münsteri, and Pt. Gæmhave enabled this saurian to suspend itself when mingi), viz., a long stiff tail, formed by the coit wished to rest, but to drag itself prone on the alescence of many caudal vertebræ, and serving earth, — and there is much reason for conclud- doubtless to increase the extent of the tegumenting, with our author, that “the pterodactyle ary parachute, and to give more precision and shuffled along upon the ground, after the man- more rapid and extensive changes of direction ner of a bat, and scuttled through the water to the flight. when it had occasion to swim."

We hope we have extracted and abridged

enough to give a fair notion of Mr. Broderip's | varied erudition, and pervaded with gleams of volume. It has taught or agreeably reminded gentle humor, the fit accompaniment of a pure us of many zoological facts, and some general benevolence of spirit, we feel assured that it will izations of much interest; and, being simply prove to old and young readers a source of real written, enlivened by the stores of a rich and recreation. — Quarterly Review.



It is with the last named town and cantonCedant arma toge. The noise of war bas where I remained during the most stirring period passed. The landscape is covered under a deep of the present crisis, and which I left only a few snow, — and still better, protected from the mere days ago — that I begin my sketches. The first sight-seer by a strong easterly wind; so that of my lions is — more is implied in the assertion there exists no great temptation for me to repeat than a pun a bear! The town of Berne not what you have already read in the newspapers

, only carries a bear in its arms, — not only has or what has been said a hundred times over in that figure prominently sculptured on all public guide-books and fashionable travels. As to the monuments and keeps under the town walls livwar just concluded, I could not, even with the ing specimens of this its tutelary deity, — its best will to spoil a good deal of paper, tell you very name is derived from the word. This much about it. It was an exact repetition of means literally the town of bears : and it is the old “ Veni, vidi, vici ;” — the federal army only by an Italian translation of the people's appeared before Fribourg and Lucerne, and name, Berner, that you can elevate them into with this nearly all was finished. There was a the more illustrious family of the Ursini and few hours' fighting near the rustic bridge of Gid- Orsini. Some go so far as to assert that the likon, and several persons were killed — but not real aborigines of the country were bearsenough to grace a regular bulletin. In my opin- which is not improbable. I cannot, however, ion, the very best feature of the war is that so accede to the opinion of those who consider the little can be said of it; and if my natural aver- present inhabitants as lineal descendants of the sion to that costly and profitless occupation were just named original occupiers of the country;less than it is, I should have some reason to de- for, though the manners of the males are by no test peace itself when ushered in by parting means of the most refined description, there are war. It is amongst the loud, and not very har- beauty and charm in the females of Berne. The monious, notes of troops of discharged soldiers, inhabitants of Berne are no more ashamed of hastening home to their families or drinking last their animal prototype than John Bull is of his. cups to each other before separation, that I must They like to represent themselves and Switzermake out the scrapings of my note-book, and land — at least in their caricatures, of which the get together the various recollections and im- last weeks have produced several good ones pressions which the last few months have left on under the figure of a bear; now playing at cards my mind. Still, since Switzerland, bidding adieu, with M. Guizot, now fidling out from the King like Joan of Arc, to her flocks and pastures, has of Prussia a round contribution of 300,000 Swiss appeared fully-armed on the political scene of francs (for Neufchatel). In conclusion of this Europe, I think I undertake a not uncalled-for chapter on bears, it may be mentioned that real service in trying to bring before your readers or entirely uncivilized and unshaved bears are some of the features of the day and of the country. still to be met with, if not in Berne, at all events

The real character of Switzerland and of its in the mountains of the Swiss canton of the inhabitants in all its principal variations can be Grisons and near the borders of Sardinia ; observed only in the three capitals of the coun and that the club-rooms of the radicals of Berne try – the Vororts which are charged by turn are in the radical inn of The Bear, – the club with the executive powers of the Confederation. itself being called Baerenleist, or the Society of Zurich is the most civilized town of Switzerland | Bears. and the representative of its intelligence and The town of Berne has at first sight something statesmanship; Lucerne is the seat of the retro rich and imposing about it. A rivulet runs grade party; and the blindly progressive party through each of the large streets, spreading

the reckless and rude radicalism of the coun. coolness in summer and contributing to cleanlitry - you may study in Berne.

ness at all seasons. The streets are formed by

massive houses of stone: nearly all the ground come from the province and are sprung from floors being occupied by shops with continuous the peasantry. porticoes on the front called bowers (lauben), – It will be easy, now, to understand the true so that in rain you may perambulate the whole position of things in Berne. By a double protown without an umbrella. On a closer exam-scription, first of the patricians and then of the ination, you find that the architectural plan is liberal bourgeoisie, the educated classes were beyond description meagre ;— consisting of three put aside, and the wealth and intelligence of the long parallel streets, of which the middle is the country removed from the political stage. The largest, occasionally intersected by dark alleys present class of rulers is poor in money and inor narrow cross streets. In spite of its massive tellect, — with a few exceptions — and entirely appearance, the town, in an industrious sense of dependent on the peasantry; who, therefore, the word, is evidently in a state of rapid decay. are now the real masters of the country or canIn this respect, it exhibits the consequences of a ton. These latter constitute the least cultivated system of national economy borrowed apparent and most neglected population of all Switzerly froin its animal name-sake; for it may be said land, — being equal in ignorance to the small to live upon its own fat - and by sucking its mountain cantons, and standing in morality or paws. Before the French Revolution, Berne primitive purity of manners considerably below was in possession of Vaud and Argovia, and was them. Under the rule of the patricians the by far the most extensive and powerful portion country was deliberately sacrificed to the town, of Switzerland. The French Revolution took and wilfully retained in ignorance : such, howfrom it its richest provinces and its most indus- ever, being then the case in all the advanced trious and intelligent inhabitants. The Cantons cantons — in Zurich, Basle, &c. Since the al. of Vaud and Argovio at the present moment, in most general subversion of the former cantonal industry, wealth, education, and almost every constitutions, successful efforts have been made thing, have far outstripped their former mistress everywhere else for the education of the people; Still, during the lapse of several centuries great whereas in Berne the peasantry have remained bad become the treasures collected in the capi- in the state of ignorance under which they latal; and during the time of Napoleon, and long bored before the reform. With the vices and after the peace, Berne proudly maintained its expensive tastes of civilization they unite the ancient position of pre-eminence amongst the primitive ignorance of such mountain cantons as towns of Switzerland. A political revolution in Uri, Schwitz, and Unterwalden. Even in the 1830 drove the patricians — who until then had town you meet with many persons, especially fecontinued to be the sole rulers of the canton males, unable to read and write. Hence the from the government. After a fruitless attempt peasantry of Berne are the most disobedient, to repossess themselves by force of their lost restless, and unmanageable population of Switzpower, they bethought them to punish their dis- erland. The town of Berne, though still the obedient subjects by a severe system of domestic seat of government, is no longer the seat of poeconomy, that is to say, by locking up their litical power; and whilst formerly, in a commoney, limiting their expenses at home to the mercial point of view, it was the ware and store least possible outlay, and placing and working house of the whole canton, it now only exhibits their capitals abroad. These families now live the dimensions of a market-town supplying the like anchorites; forming a little world of their surrounding neighbourhood with the colonial and own, visiting only amongst themselves, and en- manufactured goods which they want. No tirely imperceptible in the common movements source of wealth remains to it beyond the cirof the town. Thus a double loss accrued to cumstance that it is the seat of government, and Berne: it lost the most abundant source at once thence of a number of public offices and judicial of its wealth and of its intelligence. This state courts, — and has yet a numerous class of usurof things has continued without change for six ers and lawyers who are living at the expense of teen or seventeen years, — nor is it likely to the country. change. The wealthy burghers of the canton This condition of the once flourishing town - who replaced the patricians -- though liberal and canton became a fact of public notoriety to and far from being either poor or ignorant, were the generality of Switzerland during the present about two years ago driven from power by a war, when the entire Swiss nation was drawn new revolution,- and now live in the same out and brought together. On their marches inactivity and retirement as their predecessors with the whole unarmed population of Switzin the government. The present rulers are the erland, the Bernese soldiery, though not deficient country party ; styled in derision by the dissat. in bravery, showed themselves the most slovenisfied inhabitants of the town, the boor-gentlemen ly, the most disobedient, the most given to plun(Bauernherren), because almost all of them | der; and most of the excesses committed during

the war were, and are, laid to the charge of the public orators in other cantons speak the regular Bernese troops. The moral and intellectual in- High-German, — only with what we call a northferiority of the Bernese is a truth attested by erly accent. If, however, you see their speeches the whole nation and openly spoken of every printed, from pulpit or senate, you feel tempted where. The President of Berne and of the to give their eloquence the preference to that of Diet, Col. Ochsenbein — who commanded a Germany for simplicity, clearness, power, and division of Bernese troops, and did every thing brevity. It is in Berne alone that, even in the in his power to restrain the unlawful propensities Council-house, the provincial patois is seldom of his soldiers — found himself obliged to ask for ennobled into the written High-German lana personal testimonial to that purport from the guage. general-in-chief, — which at this moment is mak As I have no cause to be otherwise displeased ing the circuit of the Swiss papers.

with Berne, I have been thus circumstantial What language they speak at Berne it is diffi- only because these defects have been but recult to say. Those who make some pretension cently brought into a strong light, - and beto education speak French, though Berne is a cause it would be a grievous injustice to persist German town; but the German spoken there is in judging the character of Switzerland from the worst of all Switzerland. All the Swiss the inhabitants of that capital and canton. In pronounce their German in a harsh manner: many respects it forms just now an exception to but the vowels being very distinct, almost like the general civilization of Switzerland. Italian, the idiom is excellent for singing. The

- Athenæum.



that the Guaribas, or howling monkeys, are in

the habit of breaking them by striking them upon Mr. Leopold Lassar, of Berlin, has addressed stones or the limbs of iron-like trees. — Voyage a circular to all the booksellers, which proves up the Amazon. that the spirit of speculation is making rapid progress in Germany. He offers to divide the top of each of the omnibuses of that city into

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. thirty-six compartments of 12 inches by 10, and to let each compartment for the small sum of M. Conscience, whose Flemish novels have about twelve cents weekly to the booksellers for recently drawn the public attention to that althe purpose of advertising their works. He most forgotten language, has been appointed makes the almost incredible statement that tutor of Flemish language and literature to the 196,560 readers would read these advertise- Belgian princes, the Count of Flanders and the ments, and draws the conclusion that this would Duke of Brabant. be by far the most effectual method of advertising

A French naturalist has calculated the power which a volcano, such as Mount Etna, must pos

sess in order to throw up the lava to the mouth THE BRAZIL-NUT TREE.

of its crater, and finds that it is equal to 53,262,500

steam engines, each of 400 horse-power. The one of all these most attractive was that which produces the Brazil-nut, called in the country “ castanhas.” Botanically it is the Bertholletia excelsa. This tree was upwards of 100

SHORT REVIEWS AND NOTICES. feet in height, and between two and three in

Tu DRAMATIC WORKS OF R. B. SHERIdiameter. From the branches were depending the fruits, large as cocoa-nuts. The shell of these DAN, with a Memoir of his Life. By G. G. S.

Small 8vo. H. G. Bohn. is nearly half an inch in thickness, and contains the triangular nuts, so nicely packed that, once A voluine of Mr. Bohn's Standard Library, removed, no skill can replace them. It is no and a very interesting one. The life of the easy matter to break this tough covering, requir- “ orator, dramatist

, minstrel,” as well as of the ing some instrument and the exercise of consid- | politician, the manager, and the diner-out, is erable strength; yet we were assured by an condensed, but, considered as a biography, is all intelligent friend at the Barra of the Rio Negro,' the better for the condensation. In too many

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