Obrazy na stronie


No sensible quantity of water seemed to be some hours are requisite to render the effect formed during these analyses. This shows farther complete. We perceive at first a white thick that what has been called a prussiate of mercury vapor, which soon disappears. The diminution is really a prusside of that metal.

of volume is considerable, and the glass in which When a pure solution of potash is introduced the mixture is made becomes opaque, its inside into this gas, the absorption is rapid. If the al- being covered with a solid brown matter. On kali be not too concentrated, and be not quite mixing ninety parts of prussine, and 227 ammo saturated, it is scarcely tinged of a lemon-yellow nia, they combined nearly in the proportion of color. But, if the prussine be in excess, we ob- one to one and a half. This compound gives a tain a brown solution, apparently carbonaceous. dark orange-brown color to water, but dissolves On pouring potash combined with prussine only in a very small proportion. The liquid into a saline solution of black oxide of iron, and produces no prussian blue with the salts of iron. adding an acid, we obtain prussian blue. It When prussic acid is exposed to the action would appear from this phenomenon that the of a voltaic battery of twenty pairs of plates, prussine is decomposed the instant that it com- much hydrogen gas is disengaged at the negative bines with the potash: but this conclusion is pole, while nothing appears at the positive pole. premature; for, when this body is really decom. It is because there is evolved at that pole prusposed by means of an alkaline solution, carbonic sine, which remains dissolved in the acid. acid is always produced, together with prussic A portion of pure cyanide of mercury was acid and ammonia. But on pouring barytes into heated by Faraday till perfectly dry, and then a solution of prussine in potash, no precipitate enclosed in a green glass tube, and, being coltakes place, which shows that no carbonic acid gas lected to one end, was decomposed by heat, is present. On adding an excess of quicklime, whilst the other end was cooled. The cyanogen no trace of ammonia is perceptible. Since, then, soon appeared as a liquid, limpid, colorless, and no carbonic acid and ammonia have been formed, very fluid; not altering its stāte at 0° Fahr. A water has not been decomposed, and conse tube containing it being opened in the air, the quently no prussic acid evolved. How then expansion within did not seem to be very great ; comes the solution of prussine in potash to pro- and the liquid passed with comparative slowduce prussian blue, with a solution of iron and ness into the state of vapor, producing great acid ?' The following is M. Gay Lussac's inge- cold. The vapor collected over mercury proved nious solution of this difficulty :

to be pure cyanogen. Liquid cyanogen, evolved The instant an acid is poured into the solu- in contact with moisture, does not mix with the tion of prussine in potash, a strong effervescence water, but floats over it. In a few days the of carbonic acid is produced, and at the same water and cyanogen react on each other, and time a strong smell of prussic acid becomes per- carbonaceous matter is evolved. Faraday, Phil. ceptible. Ammonia is likewise formed, which Trans. 1823. remains combined with the acid employed, and

In the first volume of the Journal of Science which may be rendered very sensible to the and the Arts, Sir H. Davy has stated some inte. smell by the addition of quicklime. Since, resting particulars relative to prussine. By therefore, we are obliged to add an acid in heating prusside of mercury in `muriatic acid order to form prussian blue, its formation oc- gas, he obtained pure liquid prussic acid, and casions no farther difficulty.

corrosive sublimate. By heating iodine, sulphur, Prussine rapidly decomposes the carbonates and phosphorus, in contact with prusside of at a dull red heat, and prussides of the oxides mercury, compounds of these bodies with prusare obtained. When passed through sulphuret sine or cyanogen may be formed. That of ioof barytes, it combines without disengaging the dine is a very curious body. It is volatile at a sulphur, and renders it very fusible, and of a very moderate heat, and on cooling collects in brownish black color. When put into water we flocculi, adhering together like oxide of zinc obtain a colorless solution, but which gives a deep formed by combustion. It has a pungent smell. brown (maroon) color to muriate of iron. What and very acrid taste. does not dissolve contains a good deal of sul

PRUTH, a considerable river of Europe, phate, which is doubtless formed during the which rises in the palatinate of Marmarosch, preparation of the sulphuret of barytes.

Hungary, and forms the boundary between the On dissolving prussine in the sulphureted Russian and Turkish dominions in Moldavia, hydrosulphuret of barytes, sulphur is precipi- falling into the Danube below Galatz. It is re

the Rustated, which is again dissolved when the liquid markable for the perilous situation is saturated with prussine, and we obtain a so

sian army under Peter I. in 1712, from which lution having a very deep brown maroon color. it was extricated by a treaty with the Turkish This gas does not decompose sulphuret of silver,

vizier. nor of potash.

PRY, v. 1. Perhaps of Span. perojar, to obPrussine and sulphureted hydrogen combine serve. To peep narrowly; inspect curiously or slowly with each other. A yellow substance is impertinently, obtained in fine needles, which dissolves in water,

He that prieth in at her windows, shall also hearken at her doors.

Ecclus. xiv. 23. does not precipitate nitrate of lead, produces no prussian blue, and is composed of one volume

I can counterfeit the deep tragedian, prussine (cyanogen), and one volume and a half

Speak, and look back, and pry on every side, of sulphureted hydrogen.",

Intending deep suspicion. Ammoniacal gas and prussine begin to act on

Shakspeare. Richard III.

Nor need we with a prying eye survey each other whenever they come in contact; but The distant skies to find the milky way. Creech,

I waked, and, looking round the bow'r, square miles, population of the circle about Searched ev'ry tree, and pry'd on every flow'r, 212,000, of the town 7500; the former consists If any where by chance I might espy

of a vast plain, traversed nearly throughout its The rural poet of the melody.

Dryden. extent by the river San; and watered by a numWe have naturally a curiosity to be prying and ber of other minor streams. The surface is ocsearching into forbidden secrets.

L'Estrange. casionally diversified by gentle elevations and All these I frankly own without denying ;

woods. But where has this Praxiteles been prying?

The only manufacture is a coarse linen and leather. The town is the see both of

Addison. PRYNNE (William), an English lawyer, who

a Greek and Catholic bishop. greatly distinguished himself in the civil com

PRZIBRAM, a town in the west of Bohemia, motions under Charles I., was born at Swains

near silver and lead mines, nineteen miles south wick, in Somersetshire, in 1600. His Histrio- of Beraun, and thirty-three S. S. W. of Prague. mastix, written against stage plays in 1632, con

Population 2300. taining some retlections that offended the court,

PRZIPICA, the greatest river in the east of he was sentenced by the star-chamber to pay a

Poland, is joined partly by a canal, partly by the fine of £5000, to stand in the pillory, to lose stream of the Muchawica, to the Bug and'Vishis ears, and to perpetual imprisonment.

Dur- tula, the great rivers of the central part of that ing his confinement, he wrote several more kingdom, and after flowing west falls into the books; particularly, in 1637, one entitled News Dnieper forty miles above Kiev. from Ipswich, which reflecting severely on the

PRZIPCOVIUS (Samuel), a learned Socibishops, he was again sentenced by the star- nian writer, born in 1590, who was driven from chamber to another fine of £5000, to lose the Poland with many others of that sect in 1658. remainder of his ears in the pillory, to be brand- lle took refuge in Prussia, where he died in ed on both cheeks with S: L. for seditious libel- 1670, aged eighty. His works are inserted in ler, and to be perpetually imprisoned in Caernar- the collection of Socinian writers published in von castle. Nothing however could intimidate 1656, in 9 vols. folio. the stubborn spirit of Prynne, he continued to PSALM, n. s. Fr. psalme, pseaume ; Gr. write, and in 1640, being set at liberty by the PsALM'IST, Yalpos. A holy song : psalmhouse of commons, he entered London in a kind PsAL'TER, ist is the author of such a of triumph, was elected into parliament for PsAL'TRY.

song : psalms, a collection Newport in Cornwall, and opposed the bishops of psalms : psaltery, a harp on which they are with great vigor, being the chief manager of played. archbishop Laud's trial. In the long parliament Praise with trumpets, pierce the skies, he was zealous in the Presbyterian cause; but, Praise with harps and psalteries. when the Independents gained the ascendancy,

Sandys's Paraph. he opposed them warmly, and promoted an

The choice and flower of all things profitable in agreement with the king. When the army di- other books, the psalms do both more briefly contain vided the house, and refused him entrance, he and more movingly express by reason of that poeti

Hooker. became a bitter enemy to them and their leader cal form wherewith they are written. Cromwell, and attacked them with his pen so The trumpets, sacbut, psalteries, and fife, severely that he was again imprisoned : but he

Make the sun dance. Shakspeare. Coriolanus. pleaded the liberty of the subject so successfully

Sternhold was made groom of the chamber, for that he was enlarged. Being restored to his turning certain of David's psalms into verse.

Peacham. seat after Cromwell's death, with the other secluded members, he assisted in promoting the resounded the benefits of the Almighty Creator.

The sweet singer of Israel with his psaltery, loudly restoration, and was appointed keeper of the

Id. Tower records ; where he was very useful by Those just spirits that wear victorious palms, the collections he published from them. He Hymns devote and holy psalms presented forty volumes of his works, in folio Singing continually

Milton and 4to., to Lincoln's Inn library, of which so In another psalm he speaks of the wisdom and ciety he was a member; and, dying in 1669, was power of God in the creation.

Burnet. buried under the chapel.

How much more rational is this system of the PRYTANES, in Grecian antiquity, were the psalmist, than the Pagan's scheme in Virgil, where presidents of the senate, whose authority con

one deity is represented as raising a storm, and ano. ther as laying it!

Addison. sisted chiefly in assembling the senate; which, for the most part, was done once every day, The When the quick spirits their warm march forbear,

Nought shall the psaltery and the harp avail, senate consisted of 500, fifty senators being And numbing coldness has unbraced the ear. elected out of each tribe : after which lots were

Prior. cast, to determine in what order the senators of She, her daughters, and lier maids, meet together each tribe should preside; which they did by at all the hours of prayer in the day, and chaunt turns, and during their presidentship were called psalms, and other devotions, and spend the rest of prytanes. However, all the fifty prytanes of the their time in such good works, and innocent divertribes did not govern at once, but one at a sions, as render them fit to return to their psalms and time, viz. for seven days; and, after thirty-five prayers.

Law. days, another tribe presided for other five weeks; PSALMS, Book OF, a canonical book of the and so of the rest

Old Testament. Most of the psalms have parPRZEMYSL, a circle and town of Austrian ticular titles, signifying either the name of the Poland, in the centre of that country, to the west author, the person who was to set it to music or of the circle of Lemberg. Its area is 1420 sing it, the instrument that was to be used, or

the subject and occasion of it. Many of the origin, and thoroughly to be understood only by psalms are inscribed with the names Korah, Je- actual inspiration. Ecclesiastical modes of acduthun, &c., from the persous who were to sing centuation were adopted in the reading of the them.

gospels, epistles, &c.; and, for the performance PSALMANAZAR (George), the name as- of those parts of the divine worship which were sumed by a very extraordinary character, born sung rather than thus musically or artificially in France and educated in a Jesuit's College: declaimed (see article Music, p. 280), the auupon leaving which, he led the life of a pilgrim. thentic, and, 300 years afterwards, the plagal Ai Liege he entered into the Dutch service, and modes of the ancient Greeks were introduced afterwards into that of Cologne. In the habit into the church by Gregory VIII. He declared of a pilgrim he begged through several countries, that, to ensure the perfect development of his in elegant Latin, and, accosting only gentlemen principles of psalmody, he was duly inspired by and clergymen, received liberal supplies, which God. These difficulties, together with the sylhe spent as freely. In Germany, he passed for a labic nature of their music, to suit the rythmical native of Formosa, a convert to Christianity, structure of the words, the exact performance of and a sufferer for it. At Sluys he fell in with which required the utmost attention to acquire, brigadier Lauder, a Scots colonel, who intro- excluded all participation on the part of the duced him to the chaplain ; who, to recommend people in praising their Maker, but through the himself to the bishop of London, took him over medium of the priests: a principle which, for to that city. The bishop patronised him with ages, proved a most powerful engine of priestcredulous humanity, and a large circle of his craft

. Of these ecclesiastical accentuations an great friends patronised him as a prodigy. He idea may be formed, though but a faint one, for published a History of Formosa, and invented a they are but mere shadows of them, by attending character and language for that island, and trans our cathedral service; they were formerly exlated the church catechism into it, which was pressed by a number of signs, termed pes flexus, examined by learned critics and approved. pes sinuosus, pes gutturalis, quassus, resupinus, Some of the learned, however, doubted him, quilissimi, &c., each of which designated a peparticularly Drs. Halley, Mead, and Wood- culiar inflexion of the human voice. ward. He was allowed the use of the Oxford With the exception of the Metzian hymns, library, and employed in compiling the Uni- which, from their popularity, are supposed to versal History. Some errors in his History of have partaken much of the principles of natural Formosa first led him to be suspected as an im- melody, and written by Benoit, who established postor. He died in 1753, and in his last will himself at Metz soon after the return of Charleconfessed the imposture.

magne from Rome (a specimen of which style Psalmody. The act or practice of singing we have inserted in our article Music), the holy songs was always esteemed a considerable principles appertaining to syllabic music were part of devotion. The plain song was early maintained unimpaired, in the church of Rome, used, being a gentle inflection of the voice, not up to the eighteenth century, to the total exmuch different from reading, like the chant inclusion of musical rhythm: and, notwithstanding cathedrals; at other times more artificial compo- the rapid progress of the arts and sciences after sitions, like our anthems. Sometimes a single the extinction of the Bards and Druids, it was person sung alone; sometimes the whole assem not before the first dawnings of the reformation bly joined together, which was the most ancient that melody, independently of absolute prosodial and general practice. At other times, as in those quantity and accentuation, was generally introof king David, the psalms were sung alternately, duced into the divine service, when, as may be the congregation dividing themselves into parts, expected, the grand distinction took place beand singing verses in turns. There was a fourth tween the Protestant and Catholic modes of way of singing, pretty common in the fourth cen- psalmody. The fauxbourdons of the Roman tury, which was, when a single person began the church are however still adopted by the Protesverse, and the people joined with him in the tants of Germany and Switzerland, both in the close; this was often used for variety in the modern as well as in the ancient modes; a species same service with alternate psalmody. The use of music brought to the highest pitch of excelof musical instruments, in the singing of psalms, lence in the pontificate of Marcellus, by Palesseems to be as ancient as psalmody itself; the trina and others; though of late, even amongst first psalm we read of being sung to the timbrel, the Catholics themselves, such have been the viz. that of Moses and Miriam, after the deliver- mutations of their ideas relative to ecclesiastical ance of the Israelites from Egypt: and afterwards music, these compositions have been allowed to musical instruments were in constant use in the be superseded by others totally of an opposite temple of Jerusalem. See Organ.

description, as the performance of the works of In the early ages of Christianity much was Haydn, Mozart, Rhigini, &c., has abundantly done by the priests to mystify the principles of testified; thus completing a revolution which, the various branches of psalmody, and the arts but fifty years ago, would not have been anticiand sciences in general, in order more effectually pated without feelings of horror and disgust. to keep the common people in ignorance, and In the church of England the system of consequently in superstition. To create the psalmodising in four parts has been of late greater reverence for the church and its priests, generally superseded by adhering to one, in who were alone supposed capable of understand- which all classes may with facility join. It is ing its sacred mysteries, psalmody was carefully nevertheless susceptible of great improvement, inculcated in the minds of youth as of divine as we shall endeavour presently to show. But,

as the understanding of the principles of music, and the melodious Phrygian, are formed of malike those of painting, depends more upon terials entirely different from all others; and, example than precept, one good specimen of being remarkable as rejecting all harmonic supeither conveying more to the mind, the eye, or port, are peculiarly serviceable for places of ear, than volumes, we have but little more to worship where there are no organs, or where the offer upon this subject than what has been mode of worship rejects the use of musical instated in substance in our article Music. struments to accompany the singing of the

With respect to the proper mode of singing, psalms and hymns. that is to be preferred which best tends to in As the musical staff and clef were inserted to duce the people assembled for the purpose of express the different compasses of the human praising their Maker to join with the greatest voice, and as all appreciable musical sound is ease, devotion, and dignity: singing in parts expressed within the limits of the octave, and constituting a system, which, whilst it precludes one note, termed the ninth (the replication of the possibility of congregational psalmody, can the second of the scale), it follows that melody only be effected with tolerable decency, by suitable for psalmody must, of all species of the hiring of persons to do that which we are in music, be the easiest to comprehend. The fact commanded to do for ourselves. The first principal points of attention, in the Lydian and point to be attended to is propriety of articula- Ionian measures, are the situations of the two tion; this is effected by warbling steadily on the half-tones denominated in solmisation mi fa, vowel, and quickly pronouncing the consonant: and, in the disjoined tetrachordial order, C singing being only a lengthening of the mode of sound, forming the modern major scale, mi fa speech. The necessity of this observation will and si do, thus: C DEF GABc (the capitals immediately be felt in the singing of the follow- denoting tones, and the Romans half-tones). ing lines from Dr. Watts,

This scale, so simple in its construction, and so “Their captive sons, exposed to scorn,' &c.,

strictly conformable to the feelings of every one

possessing a musical ear, is sufficient to explain when, if we endeavour to warble upon the con the whole mysteries of modern psalmody: the sonant, no tone can be produced, neither can alteration of one or the other of the half-tones any sense be given to the .melody or words; constituting the means whereby modulation is dwelling, on the contrary, upon the vowels, and effected into the dominant, sub-dominant, and quickly pronouncing the consonants, the air is relative minor of the primitive key, which are set in motion, a tune is formed, and the words the utmost limits assigned for the composition thoroughly understood and felt, more especially of psalmody. The principles also of any well when the congregation joins in the manner com- regulated melody in others of the Grecian modes mended by the ritual, which the reader will are to be acquired with equal facility; the being pardon us if we observe, consists neither in the habituated to the major and minor systems of boisterous vociferation, as if in glorification of sound causing the ancient modes in general to our noisy powers, too often observed in dis- be only momentarily difficult to adopt. To senting meetings, nor in the gross indifference so prove this assertion we notice the known secular, prevalent in the church of England.

for want of a sacred, melody, 'Scots wha hae,' Of the two modes upon which all modern which is written in the mixt Lydian mode of the music is composed, the major one, being the ancient Greeks. simplest to understand, is to be preferred; but On the variety of opinions published about great advantages will be obtained in the forma- the latter end of the sixteenth century upon the tion of psalm-tunes upon the other modes of the use and abuse of psalmody in churches, and of ancient Greeks, the adoption of which added the efforts of many writers to prove the improgreatly to the celebrity of their extraordinary, priety of its introduction in the reformed church, most powerful, and varied music, as compared as a relic only of monkish superstition, we need with our own; for the truth of this remark we not offer a comment. According to the Scripneed only refer the reader to our article Music, tures it has always formed, together with instruwhere the powers of the different Grecian modes mental accompaniments, a part of the divine are made evident in our practical illustration of service : and, sanctioned by the most enlightened the principles of Scottish music. The mixt men of the age, it prevails universally. Upon Lydian mode, comprising the notes from G to G the subject of interludes, voluntaries, &c.,'interof our diatonic scale of Č, making the half-tones ruptions of the divine service,' as they have often fall between the third and fourth, and sixth and been fairly designated, we would observe that seventh intervals, instead of the third and fourth, they were adopted in the church as early as the and seventh and eighth, intervals of the octave, time of St. Ambrose, and that in cases where the mingles well with the harmonic powers of the organist confines himself to the performance of organ, though it is best felt when employed in the sacred compositions of Handel, Graun, Mothe construction only of melody. The Lydian zart, Marcello, &c., and, in the composition of mode or measure, which has been supposed by his interludes, strictly regulates his melody acmany writers to have been lost to us, is precisely cording to the style of the psalm tune, improper our scale of F major; the same may be said of associations of ideas could not be raised in the the Ionian, transposed a fourth lower than the minds even of the most fastidious; on the conLydian measure." Excepting the Eolian mode, trary, they are known to create a tone of feeling which is our descending minor scale, these are highly proper for the occasion. Having, in our the only modes capable of receiving the princi- article Organ, sufficiently explained our sentiples of harmonic support. The Dorian mode, ments on the abuses of extemporaneous perfor

mances, and of the immoral tendency of intro- rises to twenty feet, and is covered with a smooth ducing secular music into the church, we cannot bark; the branches are angular, covered with oval better conclude this article, than by recommend- leaves, having a strong midrib, and many veins ing to the heads of our ecclesiastical affairs, the running towards the sides, of a light green color, establishment of one collection of psalm tunes standing opposite upon very short foot-stalks. to be sung throughout the established, church: From the wings of the leaves the flowers come such a regulation would surely prove not less out upon foot-stalks an inch and a half long: useful than one form of prayer; at least the they are composed of five large roundish conparishioners of one church would then have the cave petals, within which are a great number of advantage of joining in this part of the divine stamina shorter than the petals, and tipped with service with facility at another, which; from the pale yellow tops. After the flower is past, the strange mixture of musical styles observed germen becomes a large oval fruit, shaped like a at the different churches, is now become impos- pomegranate. A decoction of the roots of guava sible.

is employed with success in dysenteries : a bath The PsALTERY was a musical instrument of a decoction of the leaves is said to cure the much in use among the ancient Hebrews, who itch and other cutaneous eruptions. Guayava, called it nebel ; but we know little or nothing or guava, is distinguished from the color of the of the precise form of the ancient psaltery. See pulp into the two species above-mentioned, the MUSIC.

white and the red ; and, from the figure of the PSAMMETICUS, or PSAMMETICUUS, a re- fruit, into the round and the pear-fashioned or nowned conqueror, who subduing eleven other perfumed guava. The latter has a thicker rind, petty kings of Egypt became the founder of a and a more delicate taste than the other. The new dynasty in the kingdom of Egypt, about fruit is about the bigness of a large tennis ball; 670 B.C. He is memorable likewise for taking the rind or skin generally of a russet stained the city of Azot, after a siege of twenty-nine with red. The pulp within the thick rind is of years.

an agreeable flavor, and interspersed with a numPSATYRIANS, a sect of Arians, who, in the ber of small white seeds. The rind, when council of Antioch, held in the year 360, main- stewed, is eaten with milk, and preferred to any tained that the Son was not like the Father as other stewed fruit. From the same part is made to will; that he was taken from nothing, or made marmalade; and from the whole fruit is preof nothing; and that in God generation was not pared the finest jelly in the world. The fruit is to be distinguished from creation.

very astringent, and nearly of the same quality PSELLUS (Michael Constantine), a learned with the pomegranate; so should be avoided by Christian of the eleventh century, was, by birth, all who are subject to costiveness. The seeds a Constantinopolitan of consular rank, and flou- are so hard as not to be affected by the fermenrished under the emperor Constantine Mono- tation in the stomachs of animals; so that when machus. He was the chief instructor of the voided with the excrements they take root, gerConstantinopolitan youth, and at the same time minate, and produce thriving trees. Whole the companion and the preceptor of the empe- meadows in the West Indies are covered with ror. Towards the close of his life, Psellus re- guavas which have been propagated in this mantired into a monastery, and soon afterwards ner. The buds of guava, boiled with barley and died. His works, which have been much cele liquorice, produce an excellent ptisan for diarrbrated, are, Commentaries upon Aristotle's Logic hæas, and even the bloody flux, when not too inand Physics; a Compendium of Questions and veterate. The wood of the tree, employed as Answers; and an Explanation of the Chaldean fuel, makes a lively, ardent, and lasting fire. Oracles.

PSITTACUS, the parrot, in ornithology, a PSEU'DO, n. s. From Gr. pevôos. A pre- genus belonging to the order picæ. The bill is fix, which signifies false or counterfeit: as pseu- hooked from the base ; the upper mandible is do-apostle, a counterfeit apostle.

moveable: the nostrils are round, placed in the I will not pursue the many pseudographies in use, base of the bill, which in some species is furbut show of how great concern the emphasis were, nished with a kind of cere : the tongue is broad, if rightly used.

and blunt at one end : the head is large, and the It is not according to the sound rules of pseudology, crown fat: the legs are short, the toes placed to report of a pious prince, that he neglects his de- two before and two behind. It might seem survotion, but you

may report of a merciful prince, that prising why this animal, which is not naturally a he has pardoned a criminal who did not deserve it.


bird of prey, but feeds on fruits and vegetables, PSHAW, interj. An expression of contempt. should have the crooked beak allotted to the

A peevish fellow has some reason for being out of hawk and other carnivorous birds : the reason hunour, or has a natural incapacity for delight, and

seems to be that the parrot being a heavy bird, therefore disturbs all with pishes and pshaws. and its legs not very fit for service, it climbs up

Spectator. and down trees by the help of this sharp and PSIDIUM, the guava, or bay plum, a genug hooked bill, with which it lays hold of any thing of the monogynia order, and icosandria class of and secures itself before it stirs a foot; and helps plants; natural order nineteenth, hesperideæ: itself forward very much, by pulling its body on CAL. quinquefid, superior; there are five petals; with this hold Of all animals, the parrot and the berry is unilocular and monospermous. crocodile are the only ones which move the upper There are two species :

jaw; all creatures else moving the lower only. 1. P. pomiferum, the red guava; and 2. P. The parrot loves nothing so much as the seeds pyriferum, the white guava. The red guava of the carthamus, or bastard saffron. Parrots

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