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Katerin, and commences his ascent. He may rest on the for the millions of Israel with their flocks and herds. If way by a beautiful fountain, to which a superstitious a place could be found where they could encamp, then legend is annexed ; and at length reaching the top he finds the mountain which should be in face of the camp, and a ruined chapel marking the spot where the body of St. overlooking it, so that what took place on it should be Catherine was found. The view from the top is similar manifest to the people, would be naturally fixed upon as in kind with that from Jebel Musa, but is more extensive. that on which the law was delivered ; and we should be It is indeed a most commanding height, being above a the more certain of this if the ascent of the mountain were thousand feet more lofty than that of the peak of Jebel immediately from the place of encampment. These conMusa and the highest point of Horeb. The gulf of Suez ditions are demonstrable from the following texts, which and the mountains of Africa alone bound the vision on the we abstain from inserting at length, but which should be south-west, wbile upon the east the sight embraces the carefully considered, Exod. xix. 2, 11, 24; xx. 18; xxiv. gulf of Akabah and its stern mountain coast. It is,' says 4, 7, 17; xxxiii. 18, 25, 31. A place thus suitable for Mr. Borrer, ' a view of wild and magnificent grandeur; a encampment, Dr. Robinson seems to have discovered, and, sea of rocky heights, of such savage sterility no other with his usual skill, has applied it to the illustration of the point of the world can surely command. It is, indeed, a question. But to apprehend the matter clearly, it is necesgreat and terrible wilderness,
sary to remind the reader of the relative position of the The question, Which of all these summits was the par peaks which we have already named. The general chaticular mountain which Moses so often ascended, and on | racter of the region has been already described. One of which the Law was delivered ? is one of great interest, and the ridges of which this upper region of mountains is has of late years been much discussed. The claims of formed, extends about three miles north and south; and Jebel Musa, Jebel Sufsafeh, Jebel Katerin, and Jebel Ser | it is in the valley on the east side of this ridge that the bal, have respectively been warmly advocated. We have convent is situated. The ridge as a whole is now called had, and still retain, a disposition to look favourably upon by the monks Sinai; the bigh peak in which it terminates the claims of the last named mountain, which appears at one southward is Jebel Musa (Mount Moses), and is that time, from various inscriptions and other circumstances, which subsisting traditions point out as the mount of to have been regarded as the Sinai of Scripture-certainly God ;' the peak at the other extremity of this ridge, to the as a place of pilgrimage; and it is difficult to see on what north, is now called by the Christians Horeb, and by the grounds any mountain of Sinai should have been a place natives Jebel Sufsafeh. We have already shewn that these of Christian pilgrimage, but from its connection with the are incorrect applications of the names Horeb and Sinaitransactions recorded in the Pentateuch. That it stands the former belonging to the whole upper region, and the so much apart, in solitary magnificence, from the central latter to the particular mount from which the law was group of mountains, and in the more open region, where delivered; but we here point out these names for topospace for encampment for the numerous hosts of Israel graphical distinction. Jebel Katerin (Mount Catherine) should more naturally be found, are also circumstances is not of the same ridge, but is the highest summit of the strongly in its favour. But still, as it lies out of the or. next adjoining or parallel ridge, which lies on the west of dinary route, our information concerning this mountain the Sinai ridge. It extends more southward than the and its surrounding vallies is so defective, and it has been Sinai ridge, and its distinguishing summit of Jebel Katerin so little regarded with reference to the essential conditions rises loftily to the south-west of the Jebel Musa, the of this question, that we must be content for the present to southernmost and loftiest summit of the Sinai ridge. reserve its claims, and confine our attention to the central These data being realized, it remains to state that the two summits.
southern summits of the adjoining ridges, namely, Jebel The difficulty which has been most strongly felt has Katerin and Jebel Musa, being the high central summits been to find room at all in the vallies of this upper region of the whole region, do not afford around their bases any place of encampments such as we have stated the scrip broad and spreading base into several high and almost tural accounts to require. But the case is different with perpendicular peaks. It has an aspect of awful and imregard to that other northern peak of the Sinai ridge which posing grandeur, and though inferior to the neighbouring bears the names of Horeb and Sufsafeh; for it overlooks summit in elevation, far surpasses it in effect. It per an ample plain, the discovery of which is due to Dr. fectly overlooks the plain. The summit, which as seen Robinson, while the mountain itself seems to answer very from the plain of er-Rahah seems but a point, spreads completely to the conditions required for the Sinai of out into an area of considerable extent, composed of dark Moses. It happened that this plain attracted his attention gray sun-burnt granite. The view from it is little less exbefore he explored the summits, and he was hence qualified tensive than that from the other summit of Jebel Musa ; to consider their respective relations to it. It was on their and it commands the place most completely; and every first approach by the upper road to the convent that this object of sufficient magnitude and every transaction upon valley, gradually expanding into a plain, was traversed its summit must have been distinctly visible to the Israelby them. As they advanced up this valley, the dark and ites encamped below, in the only place where an encampfrowning front of Horeb (Sufsafeh) began to appear, ment of a large host is possible. It is indeed most sur• We were still gradually ascending, and the valley gra prising that tradition, which accepts this as the place of dually opening; but as yet all was a naked desert. After encampment, as it could not but do, passes by this mount wards a few shrubs were sprinkled round about, and a and goes on to another more remote, and infinitely less small encampment of black tents was seen on our right, suitable. There is not the slightest reason,' says Dr. with camels and goats browsing, and a few donkies be Robinson, to suppose that Moses had anything to do longing to the convent. ..., As we advanced, the valley with the summit which now bears his name. It is three still opened wider and wider with a gentle ascent, and miles distant from the plain in which the Israelites must becarne full of shrubs and tufts of herbs, shut in on each have stood, and hidden from it by the intervening peak of side by lofty granite ridges, with ragged shattered peaks a the modern Horeb. No part of the plain is visible from thousand feet high, while the face of Horeb rose directly the summit; nor are the bottoms of the adjacent vallies; before us. Both my companion and myself involuntarily nor is any spot to be seen around it where the people could exclaimed, “Here is room enough for a large encamp have been assembled' (Researches, i. 154). “Against ment!” Reaching the top of the ascent or water-shed, a this position, and in behalf of a tradition of fifteen hunfine large plain lay before us, sloping down gently towards dred years standing,' a vigorous stand has lately been the S.S.E., enclosed by rugged and venerable mountains made by Mr. Borrer, in his Journey from Naples to Jeruof dark granite, naked, splintered peaks and ridges, and salem, pp. 333-336. He says that the assertion contained terminated at the distance of more than a mile by stern in the last sentence may surely be doubted by any one and awful summits, rising perpendicularly, in frowning who has stood upon that summit, upon the brink of a tremajesty, from twelve to fifteen hundred feet in height. It mendous precipice, and gazed down upon the panoramic was a scene of solemn grandeur, wholly unexpected, and view of surpassing sublimity, embracing nigh at hand such as we had never seen ; and the associations which at three extensive wadys, and in the distance innumerable the moment rushed upon our minds were almost over smaller ones, intersecting the mountains below in all direcwhelming. Next day the travellers returned from the tions. Among these narrow wadys, shaded from the convent to examine this plain, which is called er-Rahah, scorching sun, the multitude of Israel would find for their more exactly. It proved to be about two miles long, and flocks and herds more vegetation than upon an open plain varying in breadth from one-third to two-thirds of a mile; exposed to the burning heat. Again, among these inferior or equivalent to a surface of at least one square mile. mountains, covered with loose piles of granite, and traThis space is nearly doubled by a recess in the west, and versed by numerous ravines, they would be better enabled by the broad and level area of Wady Sheikh on the east, to seek for herbage, more likely to discover springs, than which issues at right angles to the plain, and is equally in among the perpendicular precipices walling in the barren view of the front and summit of the present Horeb. plain of er-Rahah. True: but all this is admitted. This examination convinced them that here there was Doubtless, the host of Israel were scattered with their space enough to satisfy all the conditions of the scriptural tents, their flocks, and their herds, throughout these wadys narrative, so far as relates to the assembling of the con including also the plain of er-Rahah. It is only alleged gregation to receive the law. Here, too, one sees the fit that er-Rahah was the head-quarters of the camp, and ness of the injunction to set bounds around the mount, that the spot to which the people converged from the vallies neither man nor beast might approach too near (Exod. round to enter into covenant with Jehovah and witness xix. 12, 37). The encampment before the mount might the delivery of his law. probably include only the head-quarters of Moses and the But the objector proceeds: “From the Scripture narraelders, and a portion of the people, while the remainder tive may it not be inferred that the camp, or at all events with their flocks, were scattered among the adjacent val part of it, was not within sight of the top of the mount on lies.' The view thus taken has been more or less con which the Lord appeared, for Moses brought forth the firmed by later travellers, for however else they differ, people out of the camp to meet God, and they stood at the they agree that the plain of er-Rahah must have been at nether part of the mount ? Most of this is, however, comleast the principal place of assemblage and encampment to patible with the other hypothesis, which the writer supthe Israelites, if they were at all encamped and the law poses himself disproving; and the text cited means, that delivered in this upper region.
all the people came from all their various places of enIt only remains to see how the mountains which have re campment, and stood at the nether or lower part of the spectively been indicated as the mount of God' are suited mount, beyond or outside the limits fixed by Moses. to this farther point in the condition of the question. We As to Jebel Katerin, it suffices to say that the objections have seen the grounds on which the mount called Horeb which have been urged against the claims of the tradi-Jebel Sufsafeh-claims the preference, although no his tional Sinai, apply to it in a still stronger degree; and as torical traditions are at this day connected with it. Dr. no tradition applies to it, there is no probability that it Olin, who had independently arrived at the same conclu would have been ever named, but for the fact of its being the sion as Dr. Robinson, describes this mount as rising from a | highest summit among these mountains. (APPENDIX, No. 6.]
13 Thou shalt not kill.
14 Thou shalt not commit adultery. 1 The ten commandments. 18 The people are afraid.
15 Thou shalt not steal. 20 Moses comforteth them. 22 Idolatry is forbidden. 24 Of what sort the altar should be.
16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against
thy neighbour. AND God spake all these words, saying, *17 "Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's
2 'I am the LORD thy God, which have house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, the liouse of 'bondage.
nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is 3 | Thou shalt have no other gods before thy neighbour's. me.
18 | And all the people saw the thun4 "Thou shalt not make unto thee any derings, and the lightnings, and the noise of graven image, or any likeness of any thing the trumpet, and the mountain smoking: and that is in heaven above, or that is in the when the people saw it, they removed, and earth beneath, or that is in the water under stood afar off. the earth:
19 And they said unto Moses, "Speak 5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to thou with us, and we will hear: but let not them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God speak with us, lest we die. God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity 20 And Moses said unto the people, Fear of the fathers upon the children unto the not: for God is come to prove you, and that third and fourth generation of them that hate his fear may be before your faces, that ye sin me;
not. 6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of I 21 And the people stood afar off, and them that love me, and keep my command Moses drew near unto the thick darkness ments.
where God was. 7 'Thou shalt not take the name of the 22 | And the LORD said unto Moses, Thus LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in have seen that I have talked with you from vain.
heaven. 8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it 23 Ye shall not make with me gods of holy.
silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of 9 'Six days shalt thou labour, and do all gold. thy work :
24 T An altar of earth thou shalt make 10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, and thine oxen: in all places where I record thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy | my name I will come unto thee, and I will cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates : bless thee.
11 For ®in six days the LORD made heaven 25 And if thou wilt make me an altar of and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, stone, thou shalt not 'build it of hewn stone: and rested the seventh day: wherefore the for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. | polluted it.
12 T 'Honour thy father and thy mother : 26 Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto that thy days may be long upon the land | | mine altar, that thy nakedness be not diswhich the LORD thy God giveth thee.
covered thereon. Y Deut. 5. 6. Psal. 81. 10. 2 Heb, servants. 3 Levit. 26. 1. Psal. 97. 7. 4 Levit, 19. 12. Deut. 5. 11. Matth. 5. 33.
5 Chap. 23. 12. Ezek. 20. 12. Luke 13. 14. 6 Gen. 2. 2.
7 Deut. 5. 16. Matth. 15. 4. Ephes. 6. 2. 8 Matth. 5. 21.
Verses 24-26. •Altar of earth,' etc.-The building of These rude altars were suited to inculcate the idea that altars by the patriarchs is frequently mentioned, but no elaborate and figured altars were not necessary in the particular account is given of their form or materials. sacrifices to Jehovah, as they were in sacrifices to most From such incidental notices as do occur it is safe to of the heathen gods; and they precluded the occasion for infer, that the altars here enjoined are intended as a return idolatry which such altars were likely to afford. The to the patriarchal simplicity in such erections, and which patriarchal altars could scarcely have been more simple had probably been forgotten in Egypt; and, at the same than those here directed to be built; of unhewn stones, time, to keep up in the Hebrew mind a marked distinction or of earth where stone could not well be obtained in between Jehovah and the gods of Egypt, while the forms the desert. The altar on which Jacob poured his offering of Egyptian idolatry were still fresh in recollection. I of oil at Bethel was only the rude stone which had served hand, foot for foot, 1 Levit. 25. 39. Deut. 15. 12. Jer. 34. 14. 4 Heb. be evil in the eyes of, &c. 5 Levit. 24. 17. 6 Deut. 19. 3. 7 Levit. 20. 9. Prov. 20. 20. Matth. 15. 4. Mark 7. 10. 8 Or, revileth. Or, his neighbour. 10 Heb. his ceasing. 11 Heb. avenged. 19 Levit. 24, 20. Deut. 19. 21. Matth. 5. 38.
for his pillow during the night (Gen. xxviii. 18). The injunction in the text against hewn stones was most probably designed as a restriction operating to the exclusion of sculptured figures. How intimately altars were identified with the worship of the god to whom they were dedicated, will appear from the strict injunction laid upon the Israelites to overthrow the altars of the lands they subdued (Exod. xxxiv. 13), and also from the fact that, when they apostatized from their faith and worshipped Baal, they overthrew the altars of the Lord, and built others in their stead (1 Kings xix. 10). The reason for the former injunction would appear to have been, not merely that such altars had been polluted by sacrifices to
idols, but lest the people should be seduced to appropriate or imitate them, and with them the worship to which they were consecrated; and this, at times, they actually did. And that when they turned away to new gods, they erected new, and doubtless more adorned, altars, was pra bably not merely because a new god required a new altar, but because the simple altars of Jehovah then appeared to their corrupt minds as unsuitable for sacrifices to other gods, as the adorned ones connected with idol. worship were declared by God himself to be unsuitable for sacrifices offered to Him. Respecting the prohibition of tools, see the note on Deut. xxvii. 5.
11 And if he do not these three unto her,
then shall she go out free without money. 1 Laws for menservants. 5 For the servant whose
ear is bored. 7 For womenservants. 12 For 12 He that smiteth a man, so that he manslaughter. 16 For stealers of men. 17 For | die, shall be surely put to death. cursers of parents. 18 For smiters. 22 For an hurt
13 And if a man lie not in wait, but God by chance. 28 For an ox that goreth. 33 For
deliver him into his hand; then I will aphim that is an occasion of harm.
point thee a place whither he shall flee. Now these are the judgments which thou 14 But if a man come presumptuously shalt set before them.
upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; 2 'If thou buy an Hebrew servant, six | thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he years he shall serve: and in the seventh he may die. shall go out free for nothing.
| 15 | And he that smiteth his father, or his 3 If he came in by himself, he shall go mother, shall be surely put to death. out by himself: if he were married, then his 16 | And he that stealeth a man, and wife shall go out with him.
selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he 4 If his master have given him a wife, and | | shall surely be put to death. she have born him sons or daughters; the 17 | And he that 'curseth his father, or wife and her children shall be her master's, his mother, shall surely be put to death. and he shall go out by himself.
18 T And if men strive together, and one 5 And if the servant "shall plainly say, I smite 'another with a stone, or with his fist, love my master, my wife, and my children; and he die not, but keepeth his bed : I will not go out free:
19 If he rise again, and walk abroad upon 6 Then his master shall bring him unto his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: the judges; he shall also bring him to the only he shall pay for \'the loss of his time, door, or unto the door post; and his master and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed. shall bore his ear through with an aul; and 20 | And if a man smite his servant, or he shall serve him for ever.
his maid, with a rod, and he die under his 7 T And if a man sell his daughter to be hand; he shall be surely "punished. a maidservant, she shall not go out as the | 21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day menservants do.
or two, he shall not be punished : for he is 8 If she please not her master, who hath his money. betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her | 22 | If men strive, and hurt a woman with be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange na child, so that her fruit depart from her, and tion he shall have no power, seeing he hath yet no mischief follow : he shall be surely dealt deceitfully with her.
punished, according as the woman's husband 9 And if he have betrothed her unto his will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the son, he shall deal with her after the manner judges determine. of daughters.
23 And if any mischief follow, then thou 10 If he take him another wife; her food, shalt give life for life, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall 24 "Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for he not diminish.
2 Heb. with his body.
3 Heb. saying shall say.
25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, 31 Whether he have gored a son, or have stripe for stripe.
gored a daughter, according to this judgment 26 And if a man smite the eye of his shall it be done unto him. servant, or the eye of his maid, that it 32 If the ox shall push a manservant or perish ; he shall let him go free for his eye's maidservant; he shall give unto their master sake.
thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be 27 And if he smite out his manservant's stoned. tooth, or his maidservant's tooth; he shall let 33 And if a man shall open a pit, or if a him go free for his tooth's sake.
man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an 28 9 If an ox gore a man or a woman, ox or an ass fall therein; that they die : then 's the ox shall be surely 34 The owner of the pit shall make it stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but good, and give money unto the owner of the owner of the ox shall be quit.
them; and the dead beast shall be his. 29 But if the ox were wont to push with 35 T And if one man's ox hurt another's, his horn in time past, and it hath been testified that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, and divide the money of it; and the dead o.x but that he hath killed a man or a woman; also they shall divide. the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also 36 Or if it be known that the ox hath used shall be put to death.
to push in time past, and his owner hath not 30 If there be laid on him a sum of money, | kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; then he shall give for the ransom of his life and the dead shall be his own. whatsoever is laid upon him.
13 Gen. 1.5.
Verses 23, 24. * Life for life, eye for eye,' etc. This is the Bedouins may serve in some degree to illustrate this the natural law of equity, and it is probable that it was subject, as well as the nice balancing which the law of introduced into the law of Moses in conformity with the retaliation operates in producing. In case of murder, the practice of more ancient times. This law of direct re friends of the murdered may, at their option, either retaliation was also authorized by the legislature of Greece taliate or accept a heavy blood fine. But no other offence and Rome (Pausan. i. 28; A. Gellius, xx. 1). It is still is, in practice, liable to capital or corporal punishment. observed with much exactness among various savage na Pecuniary fines are awarded for every offence, and as tions. In Guinea (Whidah), for instance, murder is pu | they are generally heavy, in comparison with the delinnished with death, the destruction of a limb with the quency, the dread of incurring them tends much to keep same, incendiaries are burned, etc. The strict and in the wild natives of the desert in order; the nature and variable application of such a law must, however, in amount of the fines which immemorial usage has assigned many supposable cases prove inconvenient, and in others to particular offences being well known to the Arabs. impossible ; for which reason particular punishments, and Burckhardt says, “ All insulting expressions, all acts of even compensations by way of reparation to the injured violence, a blow however slight (and a blow may differ party, were introduced. Of this we find some examples in degree of insult according to the part struck), and the in the law itself (Exod. xxi. 22 ; xxii. 3, 6); and the infliction of a wound, from which even a single drop of prevalence of compensation, as now among the Arabs, is blood flows, all have their respective fines ascertained.' evinced by the rarity, in the subsequent Jewish history, of The kadi's sentence is sometimes to this effect :examples of the actual application of the ler talionis. • Bokhyt called Djolan “ a dog." Djolan returned the The most marked example is afforded in the excision of insult by a blow upon Bokhyt's arm; then Bokhyt cut the thumbs and great toes of Adonibezek, who had him Djolan's with a knife. Bokhyt therefore owes, to self thus barbarously treated seventy kings—the captives Djolanof his wars (Jud. i. 6, 7).
For the insulting expression . . . i sheep 30. · He shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever For wounding him in the shoulder . 3 camels is laid upon him. This is the only place in which com Djolan owes to Bokhytpensation, in lieu of capital punishment, is expressly per For the blow on his arm . . . . 1 camel mitted ; but that it was allowed in other cases, where the Remain due to Djolan 2 camels and 1 sheep.' law denounced capital or corporal punishment, may be Other affairs are arranged on the same principle. It inferred from different passages. Thus in Num. xxxv. is observable that in case of theft in the home camp, or 31, 32, such compensation is expressly forbidden in cases in that of a friendly tribe (for robbery and theft are not, of murder, or for enabling the homicide to leave the city in other cases, considered crimes), the criminal is conof refuge; but the interdiction is not applied to any other demned by an ancient law to the loss of his right hand, offence of man against man. For a statement on the but custom allows him to redeem his hand on payment of subject of what the Arabs call the price of blood,' see five she camels to the person he purposed to rob. the note ou the passage referred to. The practice among