Obrazy na stronie

who pretend to see in history an explanation of this legend, make the river Achelous to have laid waste, by its frequent inundations, the plains of Calydon. This, introducing confusion among the landmarks, became the occasion of continual wars between the AEtolians and Acarnanians, whose territories the river divided as above stated, until Hercules, by means of dikes, restrained its ravages, and made the course of the stream uniform. Hence, according to this explanation, the serpent denoted the windings of the stream, and the bull its swellings and impetuosity, while the tearing off of the horn refers to the turning away of a part of the waters of the river, by means of a canal, the result of which draining was shown in the fertility that succeeded. (Diod. Sic. 4, 35.) The Achelous must have been considered a river of great antiquity as well as celebrity, since it is often introduced as a general representative of rivers, and is likewise frequently used for the element of water. (Eustath, ad Il. 21, 194— Eurip. Bacch. 625–Id. Androm. 167.—Aristoph. Lysistr. 381.—Heyne, ad Il. 21, 194.) The reason of this peculiar use of the term will be found in the remarks of the scholiast. The Achelotis was the largest river in Epirus and AEtolia, in which quarter were the early settlements of the Pelasgic race, from whom the Greeks derived so much of their religion and mythology. Hence the frequent directions of the Oracle - at Dodona, “to sacrifice to the Achelous,” and hence the name of the stream became associated with some of their oldest religious rites, and was eventually used in the language of poetry as an appellation, kar' #5óxm, for the element of water and for rivers, as stated above ('Axe?...ov Träv Tmyaiov táop).-II. There was another river of the same name, of which nothing farther is known, than that, according to Pausanias (8, 38), it flowed from Mount Sipylus. Homer, in relating the story of Niobe (Il 24, 615), speaks of the desert mountains in Sipylus, where are the beds of the goddess-nymphs, who dance around the Achelois-III. A river of Thessaly, flowing near Lamia. (Strab. 434.) Acherous, a borough of the tribe Hippothoontis, in Attica. (Steph. B.-Aristoph. Eccles. 360.) Achéron, I. a river of Epirus, rising in the mountains to the west of the chain of F. and falling into the Ionian sea near Glykys Limen (TZukio Atuffv). In the early part of its course, it forms the Palus Acherusia ('Axepovata Aiuvn), and, after emerging from this sheet of water, disappears under ground, from which it again rises and pursues its course to the sea. Strabo (324) makes mention of this stream only after its leaving the Palus Acherusia, and appears to have been unacquainted with the previous part of its course. Thucydides, on the other hand (1,46), would seem to have misunderstood the information which he had received respecting it. His account is certainly a confused one, and has given rise to an inaccuracy in D'Anville's map. The error of D'Anville and others consists in placing the Palus Acherusia directly on the coast, and the city of Ephyre at its northeastern extremity; in the position of the latter contradicting the very words of the writer on whom they rely. No other ancient authority places the Palus Acherusia on the coast. Pausanias (1, 17) makes the marsh, the river, and the city, to have been situated in the interior of Thesprotis; and he mentions also the stream Cocytus (which he styles top dropréaratov), as being in the same quarter. He likewise states it as his opinion, that Homer, having visited these rivers in the course of his wanderings, assigned them, on account of their peculiar nature and properties, a place among the rivers of the lower world. The poets make Acheron to have been the son of Sol and Terra, and to have been precipitated into the internal regions and there changed into a river, for having supplied the Titans with water during the war which they waged with Jupiter. Hence its waters were muddy and bit

ter; and it was the stream over which the souls of the dead were first conveyed. The Acheron is represented under the form of an old man arrayed in a humid vestment. He reclines upon an urn of a dark colour. In Virgil and later poets Acheron sometimes designates the lower world.—II. A river of Bruttium, flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum a short distance below Pandosia. Alexander, king of Epirus, who had come to the aid of the Tarentines, lost his life in passing this river, being slain by a Lucanian exile. He had been warned by an oracle to beware of the Acherusian waters and the city Pandosia, but supposed that it referred to Epirus and not to Italy. (Justin, 12, 2– Lir. 8, 24.)—III. A river of Elis, which falls into the Alpheus. On its banks were temples dedicated to Ceres, Proserpina, and Hades, which were held in high veneration. (Strab. 344.)—IV. A river of Bithynia, near the cavern Acherusia, and in the vicinity of Heraclea. (Apollon. Rhod. 2, 745.) AcheroNTIA, I. a town of Bruttium, placed by Pliny on the river Acheron (Plin. 3, yoff A city of Lucania, now Acerenza, on the confines of Apulia. It was situated high up on the side of a mountain, and from its lofty position is called by Horace nidus Acherontia, “the nest of Acherontia.” Procopius speaks of it as a strong fortress in his days. (Horat. Od. 3, 4, 14, et schol. ad loc.—Procop. 3, 23.) Acherusia, I. a lake in Epirus, into which the . Acheron flows. (Wid. Acheron.)—II. According to some modern expounders of fable, a lake in Egypt, near Memphis, over which the bodies of the dead were conveyed, previous to their being judged for the actions of their past lives. The authority cited in support of this is Diodorus Siculus (1,92). A proper examination of the passage, however, will lead to the following conclusions: 1st, that no name whatever is given by Diodorus for any particular lake of this kind; and, 2d, that each district of Egypt had its lake for the !". mentioned above, and that there was not merey one for the whole of Egypt. (Diod. Sic. 1, 92, et Wesseling, ad loc.)—III. A cavern in Bithynia, near the city of Heraclea and the river Oxinas, probably on the very spot which Arrian (Peripl. Mar. Eur., p. 125, ed. Blancard) calls Tyndaridae. Xenophon (Anah. 6, 2) names the whole peninsula, in which it lies, the Acherusian Promontory. This cavern was two stadia in depth, and was regarded by the adjacent inhabitants as one of the entrances into the lower world. Through it Hercules is said to have dragged Cerberus up to the light of day; a fable which probably owed its origin to the inhabitants of Heraclea. (Diod. Sic. 14, 31–Dionys. Perieg. 790, et Eustath. ad loc.) Apollonius Rhodius (2,730) places a river, with the name of Acheron, in this quarter. This stream was afterward called, by the people of Heraclea, Soonautes (Xotovatormc), on account of their fleet having been saved near it from a storm. (Apollon. Rhod. 2, 746, et schol. ad loc.) Are the Acheron and the Oxinas the same river! Achillas, I. a bishop of Alexandrea from A.D. 311 to 321. His martyrdom is commemorated on the 7th of November.—II. An Alexandrean priest, banished with Arius, 319 A.D. He fled to Palestine. —III. (Vid. Supplement.) Achillea, an island near the mouth of the Borys thenes, or, more properly, the western part of the Dromus Achillis insulated by a small arm of the sea. (Wid. Dromus Achillis and Leuce.) Achilléis, a poem of Statius, turning on the story of Achilles. (Wid. Statius.) Achilles, I. a son of the Earth (ymyévnc.), unto whom Juno fled for refuge from the pursuits of Jupiter, and who persuaded her to return and marry that deity. Jupiter, grateful for this service, promised him that all who bore this name for the time to com should be illustrious personages. (*, Hephæst I

apud Photium, Biblioth., vol. i., p. 152, ed. Bekker.) —II. The preceptor of Chiron (Id.)-III. The inventor of the ostracism (Id.) –IV. A son of Jupiter and Lamia. His beauty was so perfect, that, in the judgment of Pan, he bore away the prize from every competitor. Venus was so offended at this decision, that she inspired Pan with a fruitless passion for the nymph Echo, and also wrought a hideous change in his own

erson (Id.).-W. A son of Galatus, remarkable for |. light coloured, or, rather, whitish hair (Id.).-W. I. The son of Peleus, king of Phthiotis in Thessaly. His mother's name appears to have been a matter of some dispute among the ancient expounders of mythology (Schol, ad Apoll. Rhod. 1, 55S), although the more numerous authorities are in favour of Thetis, one of the sea-deities. According to Lycophron (r. 178), Thetis became the mother of seven male children by Peleus, six of whom she threw into the fire, because, as Tzetzes informs us in his scholia, they were not of the same nature with herself, and the treatment she had received was unworthy of her rank as a goddess. The scholiast on Homer, however (Il. 16, 37), states, that Thetis threw her children into the fire in order to ascertain whether they were mortal or not, the goddess supposing that the fire would consume what was mortal in their natures, while she would preserve what was immortal. The scholast adds, that six of her children perished by this harsh experiment, and that she had, in like manner, thrown the seventh, afterward named Achilles, into the flames, when Peleus, having beheld the deed, rescued his offspring from this perilous situation. Tzetzes (ubi supra) assigns a different motive to Thetis in the case of Achilles. He makes her to have been desirous of conferring immortality upon him, and states that with this view she anointed him (optev) with ambrosia during the day, and threw him into fire at evening. Peleus, having discovered the goddess in the act of consigning his child to the flames, cried out with alarm, whereupon Thetis, abandoning the object she had in view, left the court of Peleus and rejoined the nymphs of the ocean. Dictys Cretensis makes Peleus to have rescued Achilles from the fire before any part of his body had been injured but the heel. Tzetzes, following the authority of Apollodorus, gives his first name as Ligyron (Alyopov), but the account of Agamestor, cited by the same scholiast, is more in accordance with the current tradition mentioned above. Agamestor says, that the first name given to Achilles was Pyrisous (IIvpigoog), i.e., “saved from the fire.” What has thus far been stated in relation to Achilles, with the single exception of the names of his parents, Peleus and Thetis, is directly at variance with the authority of Homer, and must therefore be regarded as a mere posthomeric fable. The poet makes Achilles say, that Thetis had no other child but himself; and though a daughter of Peleus, named Polydora, is mentioned in a part of the Iliad (16, 175), she must have been, according to the best commentators, only a half sister of the hero. (Compare Heyne, ad loc.) Equally at variance with the account given by the bard, is the more popular fiction, that Thetis plunged her son into the waters of the Styx, and by that immersion rendered the whole of his body invulnerable, except the heel by which she held him. On this subject Homer is altogether silent; and, indeed, such a protection from danger would have derogated too much from the character of his favourite hero. There are several passages in the Iliad which plainly show, that the poet does not ascribe to Achilles the possession of any peculiar physical defence against the chances of battle. (Compare Il. 20, 262: id. 288 . and especially, 21, 166, where Achilles is actually wounded by Asteropaeus.) The care of his education was intrusted, according to ..he common authorities, to the centaur Chiron, and to Phoenix, son of Amyntor. Homer, however, mentions


Phoenix as his first instructer (Il 9, 481, seqq.), while from another passage (It. 11, 831) it would appear. that the young chieftain merely learned from the centaur the principles of the healing art. Those, however, who pay more regard in this case to the statements of other writers, make Chiron to have had charge of Achilles first, and to have fed him on the marrow of wild animals; according to Libanius, on that of lions, but according to the compiler of the Etymol. Mag., on that of stags. (Compare Bayle, Dict. Hist. 1, 53.) Chiron is said to have given him the name of Achilles ("A Yuzzleto), from the circumstance of his food being unlike that of the rest of men (a priv., and xiào), “fructus quibus rescuntur homnes”). Other etymologies are also given ; but most likely none are true. (Compare, on this part of our subject, the Etymol. Mag.—Ptol. Hephast. apud Photium, Biblioth., vol. i., p. 152, ed Bekker.—Heyne, ad Il. 1, 1.—Wassenberg, ad schol. in Il. 1, p. 130.) Calchas having predicted, when Achilles had attained the age of nine years, that Troy could not be taken without him, Thetis, well aware that her son, if he joined that expedition, was destined to perish, sent him, disguised in female attire, to the court of Lycomedes, king of the island of Scyros, for the purpose of being concealed there. A difficulty, however, arises in this part of the narrative, on account of the early age of Achilles when he was sent to Scyros, which can only be obviated by supposing, that he remained several years concealed in the island, and that the Trojan war occupied many years in preparation. (Compare the remarks of Heyne, ad Apollod, l.c., p. 316, and Gruber, Wörterbuch der altclassischen Mythologie und Religion, vol. i., p. 32.) At the court of Lycomedes, he received the name of Pyrrha (IIvoid, “Ru

fa”), from his golden locks, and became the father of

Neoptolemus by Deidamia, one of the monarch's daughters. (Apollod. l. c.) In this state of concealment Achilles remained, until discovered by Ulysses, who came to the island in the disguise of a travelling merchant. The chieftain of Ithaca offered, it seems, yarious articles of female attire for sale, and mingled with them some pieces of armour. On a sudden blast being given with a trumpet, Achilles discovered himself by seizing upon the arms. (Apollod. l. c.—Statius, Achill. 2, 201.) The young warrior then joined the army against Troy. This account, however, of the concealment of Achilles is contradicted by the express authority of Homer, who represents him as pro. ceeding directly to the Trojan war from the court of his father. (Il. 9, 439.) As regards the forces which he brought with him, the poet makes them to have come from the Pelasgian Argos, from Alus, Alope, and Trachis, and speaks of them as those who possessed Phthia and Hellas, and who were called Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Achaei. (Il. 2, 681, seqq.) Hence, according to Heyme, the sway of Achilles extended from Trachis, at the foot of Mount CEta, as far as the river Enipeus, where Pharsalus was situated, and thence to the Peneus—The Greeks, having made good their landing on the shores of Troas, proved so superior to the enemy as to compel them to seek shelter within their walls. (Thucyd. 1, 11.) No sooner was this done than the Greeks were forced to turh their principal attention to the means of supporting their numerous forces. A part of the army was therefore sent to cultivate the rich vales of the Thracian Chersonese, then abandoned by their inhabitants on account of the incursions of the barbarians from the interior. (Thucyd, ubi supra.) But the Grecian army, being weakened by this separation of its force, could no longer deter the Trojans from again taking the field, nor prevent succours and supplies from being sent into the city. Thus the siege was protracted to the length of ten years. During a great part of this time, Achilles was employed in lessening the resources

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of Priam by the reduction of the tributary cities of Asia Minor. With a fleet of eieven vessels he ravaged the coasts of Mysia, made frequent disembarcations of his forces, and succeeded eventually in destroying eleven cities, among which, according to Strabo (584), were Hypoplacian Thebe, Lyrnessus, and Pedasus, and in laying waste the island of Lesbos. (Compare Homer, Il. 9, 328.) Among the spoils of Lyrnessus, Achilles obtained the beautiful Briseis, while, at the taking of Thebe, Chryseis the daughter of Chryses, a priest of Apollo at Chrysa, became the prize of Agamemnon. A pestilence shortly after apo in the Grecian camp, and Calchas, encouraged

y the proffered protection of Achilles, ventured to attribute it to Agamemnon's detention of the daughter of Chryses, whom her father had endeavoured to ransom, but in vain. The monarch, although deeply of. fended, was compelled at last to surrender his captive, but, as an act of retaliation, and to testify his resentment, he deprived Achilles of Briseis. Hence arose “the anger of the son of Peleus,” on which is based the action of the Iliad. Achilles on his part withdrew his forces from the contest, and neither prayers, nor entreaties, nor direct offers of reconciliation, couched in the most tempting and flattering terms (Il 9, 119, seqq.), could induce him to return to the field. Among other things the monarch promised him, if he would forget the injurious treatment which he had received, the hand of one of his daughters, and the sovereignty of seven cities of the Peloponnesus. (Il. 9, 142 and 149.) The death of his friend Patroclus, however, by the hand of Hector (Il. 16, 821, seqq.), roused him at length to action and revenge, and a reconciliation having thereupon taken place between the two Grecian leaders, Briseis was restored. (Il 19, 78, seqq.—ld. 246, seqq.) As the arms of Achilles, having been worn by Patroclus, had become the prize of Hector, Vulcan, at the request of Thetis, fabricated a suit of impenetrable armour for her son. (Il 18, 468, seqq.) Arrayed in this, Achilles took the field, and after a great slaughter of the Trojans, and a contest with the god of the Scamander, by whose waters he was nearly overwhelmed, met Hector, chased him thrice around the walls of Troy, and finally slew him by the aid of Minerva. (Il 22, 136, seqq.) According to Homer (Il 24, 14, seqq.), Achilles dragged the corpse of Hector, at his chariot-wheels, thrice round the tomb of Patroclus, and from the language of the poet, he would appear to have done this for several days in succession. Virgil, however, makes Achilles to have dragged the body of Hector thrice round the walls of Troy. In this it is probable that the Roman poet followed one of the Cyclic, or else Tragic, writers. (Heyne, Ercurs. 18, ad AEn. 1.) The corpse of the Trojan hero was at last yielded up to the tears and supplications of Priam, who had come for that purpose to the tent of Achilles, and a truce was granted the Trojans for the performance of the funeral obsequies. (Il 24, 599–Id, 669.) Achilles did not long survive his illustrious opponent. Some accounts make him to have died the day after Hector was slain. The common authorities, however, interpose the combats with Penthesilea and Memnon previous to his death. (Compure Heune, Ezcurs. 19, ad AEn. 1.-Quint. Smyrn. i, 21, seqq) According to the more received account, as it is given by the scholiast on Lycophron (r. 269), and also by Dictys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius, Achilles, having become enamoured of Polyxena, the daughter of Priam, signified to the monarch that he would become his ally on condition of receiving her hand in marriage. Priam consented, and the parties having come for that purpose to the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo, Achilles was treacherously slain by Paris, who had concealed himself there, being wounded by him with an arrow in the heel. Another tradition, related by Arctinus, makes him to have been

slain (in accordance with Hector's prophecy, Il 21, 452), in the Scaean gate, while rushing into the city. Hyginus states that Achilles went round the walls of Troy, boasting of his exploit in having slain Hector, until Apollo, in anger, assumed the form of Paris, and slew him with an arrow (Hygin. fab. 107), but, with surprising inconsistency, he mentions in another place (fab. 110), that he was slain by Deiphobus and Álexander or Paris. The scholiast on Lycophron, cited above, says that the Trojans would not give up the corpse of Achilles until the Greeks had restored the various presents with which Priam had redeemed the dead body of Hector. The ashes of the hero were mingled in a golden urn with those of Patroclus, and the promontory of Sigaeum is said to mark the place where both repose. A tomb was here erected to his memory, and near it Thetis caused funeral games to be celebrated in honour of her son, which were afterward annually observed by a decree of the oracle of Dodona (rid. Sigaeum). It is said, that, after the taking of Troy, the ghost of Achilles appeared to the Greeks, and demanded of them Polyxena, who was accordingly sacrificed on his tomb by his son Neoptolemus, or Pyrrhus. (Eurip. Hec. 35, seqq.—Senec. Troad. 191—Orid, Mct. 13, 441, seqq.—Q. Calah. 14.) Another account makes the Trojan princess to have killed herself through grief at his loss. (Tzetzes, ad Lycophr. 323.−Philostratus, Heroica., p. 714, ed. Morellus.) The Thessalians, in accordance with the oracle just mentioned, erected a temple to his memory at Sigeum, and rendered him divine honours. Eve

year they brought thither two bulls, one white and the other black, crowned with garlands, and along with them some of the water of the Sperchius. (Gruber. Wörterbuch der altclassischen Mythologic, vol. i., p. 48.) Another and still stranger tradition informs us, that Achilles survived the fall of Troy and married Helen; but others maintain that this union took place after his death, in the island of Leuce, where many of the ancient heroes lived in a separate elysium (rid. Leuce). When Achilles was young, his mother asked him whether he preferred a long life spent in obscurity, or a brief existence of military glory. He decided in favour of the latter. (Compare Il. 9, 410, seqq.) Some ages after the Trojan war, Alexander, in the course of his march into the East, offered sacrifices on the tomb of Achilles, and expressed his admiration as well of the hero, as of the hard whom he had found to immortalize his name. (Plutarch, Vit. Alexand. 15.) —VII. Tatius, a native of Alexandrea, commonly assigned to the second or third century of the Christian era. The best critics, however, such as Huet, Chardon la Rochette, Coray, and Jacobs, make him to have flourished after the time of Heliodorus, since they have discovered in him what they consider manifest imitations of the latter writer. Nay, if it be true that Musacus, whom he has also imitated, composed his poem of Hero and Leander before 430 or 450 of our era, we must then place Achilles Tatius even as low as the middle of the 5th century. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Gr. 6, 231.) According to Suidas, he became, towards the end of his life, a Christian and bishop. But as the lexicographer makes no mention of his episcopal sce, and as Photius, who speaks in three different places of him, is silent on this head, it may be permitted us to doubt the accuracy of Suidas's statement. (Photii Bibliothec., vol. i., p. 33, ed. Bekker.—Id, ibid., p. 50Id, ibid., p. 66.) Equally unworthy of reliance would appear to be another remark of the same lexicographer, that Achilles Tatius wrote a treatise on the sphere. If this were correct, we ought to put him one or two centuries earlier, inasmuch as Firinicus, a Latin writer of the middle of the fourth century, cites the “Sphere of Achilles.” (Astron. 4, 10.) Suidas, however, who is not accustomed to discriminate very nicely be tween persons bearing the same name, *.

him with the author of the “Introduction to the Pha- Achillium, a town on the Cimmerian Bosporus,
nomena of Aratus” (rid. No. VIII). Achilles Tatius where anciently was a temple of Achilles. It lay near
is the author of a romance, entitled, Ta karū Aev. the modern Buschuk. (Mannert,4, 326.)
kittny kai Kattoovra, “ The loves of Leucippe and Achillfus, I. a relation of Zenobia, invested with
Clitophon,” as it is commonly translated. Some crit- the purple by the people of Palmyra, when they revolt-
ics, such as Huet and Saumaise, have preferred it to led from Aurelian. (Vopisc.) Zosimus calls him An-
the work of Heliodorus; but Willoison, Coray, Wyt- tiochus (1, 60)—II. A Roman commander, in the
tenbach, Passow, Villemain, and School, restore the reign of Dioclesian, who assumed the purple in Egypt.
pre-eminence to the latter. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Gr., | The emperor marched against him, shut him up in
vol. vi., p. 23.3—Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. Alexandrea, and took the place after a siege of eight
131.) “The book,” says Villemain, “is written under months. Achilleus was put to death, having been ex-
an influence altogether pagan, and in constant allusion posed to hons, and Alexandrea was given up to pil-
to the voluptuous fables of mythology.” The remark lage. (Oros. 7, 25–Aurel. Vict. de Cars. c. 39.)
is perfectly correct. Pictures of the utmost licen- || Achivi, properly speaking, the name of the Achaean
tiousness, and traces of everything that is infamous in race (Axalot) Latinized. i. derivation through the
ancient manners, are seen throughout. Unchaste in Æolic dialect is marked by the digammated sound of

imagination, and coarse in sentiment, the author has
made his hero despise at once the laws of morality
and those of love. Clitophon is a human body, unin-
formed by a human soul, but delivered up to all the
instincts of nature and the senses. He neither com-
mands respect by his courage nor affection by his
constancy. Struggling, however, in the writer's mind,
some finer ideas may be seen wandering through the
gloom, and some pure and lofty aspirations contrasting
strangely with the chaos of animal instincts and de-
sires. His Leucippe glides like a spirit among actors
of mere flesh and blood. Patient, high-minded, re-
signed, and firm, she endures adversity with grace;
preserving, throughout the helplessness and temptations
of captivity, irreproachable purity, and constancy un-
changeable. The critics, while visiting with proper
severity the sins both of the author and the man, do
not refuse to render full justice to the merits of o
work. It possesses interest, variety, probability, and
simplicity. “The Romance of Achilles Tatius,” says
Viliemain, “purified as it should be, will appear one
of the most agreeable in the collection of the Greek
Romances. The adventures it relates present a preg-
nant variety; the succession of incidents is rapid; its
wonders are natural; and its style, although some-
what affected, is not wanting in spirit and effect.”
Photius also, as rigorous in morals as a bishop should
be, praises warmly the elegance of the style, observ-
ing that the author's periods are precise, clear, and eu-
phonous. (Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. 131.)
Saumaise was of opinion, that Achilles Tatius had
given to the world two several editions of his romance,
and that some of the manuscripts which remain be-
long to the first publication of the work, while others
supply us with the production in its revised state. Ja-
cobs, however, in the prolegomena to his edition, has
shown that the variations in the manuscripts, which
gave rise to this opinion, are to be ascribed solely to
the negligence of copyists, as they occur only in those
words which have some resemblance to others, and in
which it was easy to err. Few works, moreover, were
as often copied as this of Achilles Tatius. The best
•dition is that of Jacobs, 2 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1821, in
which may be seen a very just, though unsavourable,
critique on the editions of Saumaise and Boden, the
former of which appeared in 1640, 12mo, Lugd. Bat.,
and the latter in 1776, 8vo, Lips. A French version
of the work is given in the “Collection des Romans
Grecs, traduits en Français; avec des notes, par MM.
Courier, Larcher, et autres Hellénistes,” 14 vols.
16mo, Paris, 1822–1828.-VIII. Tatius, an astro-
nomical writer, supposed to have lived in the first half
of the fourth century, since he is quoted by Firmicus
{Astron. 4, 10), who wrote about the middle of the
same century. Suidas confounds him with the indi-
vidual mentioned in No. VII. We possess, under the
title of Eigayoyi, eiç 'Apátov Pavóueva, “Intro-
duction to the Phaenomena of Aratus,” a fragment of
his work on the sphere. This fragment is given in the

Uranologia of Petavius (Petau), Paris, 1630, fol.

the letter c ('Aral Fot). This appellation was gener-
ally applied by the Roman poets, especially Virgil, as
a name for the whole Greek nation, in imitation of the
Homeric usage. In legal strictness it should have
been confined by the Romans to the inhabitants of the
province of Achaia.

Achly's. Wid. Supplement.
AchM ET. Vid. Supplement.
Achollus. Wid. Supplement.

Acuchonius, a general with Brennus in the expe-
dition which the Gauls undertook against Paeonia.
(Paus 10, 19.) He was chosen by Brennus as his
lieutenant, or, rather, as a kind of colleague, which of-
fice the name itself, in the original language of the
Gauls, is said to designate. Thus the true Gallic ap-
pellation was Kikhoutaour, or Akikhouiaour, which
the Greeks softened into Kuraptor (Diod. Suc. frag. lib.
22—vol. ix., p. 301, ed. Bip.) and 'Akiraptoc (Paus.
10, 19), and which they mistook for a proper name.
(Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. i., p. 145,
and Ouren's Welsh Dictionary, s. v. Cycuriaucr.) Dio-
dorus Siculus (l.c.) makes Cichorius to have succeed-
ed Brennus.
Acipalia, a surname of Venus, from a sountain of
the same name at Orchomenus, in Boeotia, sacred to
her. The Graces bathed in this fountain.
Acidinus. Wid. Supplement.
Acilia, I. gens, a plebeian family of Rome, of whom
many medals are extant. (Rasche, Ler. Rei Num.,
vol. i., col. 47.) The name of this old and distinguish-
ed line occurs five times in the consular fasti, during
the time of the republic, and twelve times in those of
the empire, down to the reign of Constantine. (Sigon.
Fast. Cons.) The two most celebrated branches of
the house were those of Acilius Glabrio and Acilius
Balbus.-II. Ler, a law introduced by Acilius the
tribune, A.U.C. 556, for the planting of five colonies
along the coast of Italy, two at the mouths of the Vul-
turnus and Liternus, one at Puteoli, one at Salernum,
and one at Buxentum. (Liv. 32, 29.)—III. Calpur
nia Lex (introduced A.U.C. 686), excluded from the
senate, and from all public employments, those who
had been guilty of bribery at elections. Cicero calls
it merely Calpurnia Ler, but others Acilia Calpurnia
Lez. (Ernesti, Ind. Leg.)—IV. Lez, a law introdu-
ced A.U.C. 683, by the consul Manius Acilius Gia-
brio, relative to actions de pecuniis repetundis. It
determined the forms of proceeding, and the penalties
to be inflicted. (Compare Ernesti, Ind. Leg.)
Acı Lius, I. a Roman, who wrote a work in Greek
on the history of his country, and commentaries on
the twelve tables. He lived B.C. 210, and was a con-
temporary of Cato's. His history was translated into
Latin by an individual named Claudius, and was enti-
tled, in this latter language, Annales Acilienses. (Voss.
Hist. Gr. 1, 10.)—H. Quintus, appointed a commis-
sioner, about 200 B.C., for distributing among the new
colonists the conquered lands along the Po.—III. A
tribune, author of the law respecting the maritime col-
onies. (Wid. Acilia II.)—IV. Glabrio M., a consul

with P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, A.U.C. 561, and the conqueror of Antiochus at Thermopylae. (Liv. 35, 24.—Id. 36, 19.)—V. Glabrio M., son of the preceding, a decemvir. He built a temple to Piety, in fulfilment of a vow which his father had made when fighting against Antiochus. He erected also a gilded statue (statuan auratam) to his father, the first of the kind ever seen at Rome. (Wal. Max. 2, 5.—Liv. 40,34. Compare Hase, ad loc.)—VI. A consul, A.U.C. 684, appointed to succeed Lucullus in the management of the Mithradatic war. (Cuc. in Verr. 7, 61.)—VII. Aviola Manius, a lieutenant under Tiberius in Gaul, A.D. 19, and afterward consul. He was roused from a trance by the flames of the funeral pile, on which he had been laid as a corpse, but could not be rescued. (Plin. 7, 53.-Val. Max. 1, 8.)—WIII. Son of the preceding, consul under Claudius, A.D. 54.—IX. A consul with M. Ulpian Trajanus, the subsequent emror. He was induced to engage with wild beasts in the arena, and, proving successful, was put to death by Domitian, who was jealous of his strength. Aciris, now the Agri, a river of Lucania, rising near Abaellinum Marsicum, and falling into the Sinus Tarentinus. Near its mouth stood Heraclea. Acindy Nus. Wid. Supplement. Acis, a Sicilian shepherd, son of Faunus and the uymph Sima this. He gained the affections of Galataca, but his rival Polyphemus, through jealousy, crushed him to death with a fragment of rock, which he hurled upon him. Acis was changed into a stream, which retained his name. According to Servius (ad Virg. Eclog. 9, 39) it was also called Acilius. Cluverius places it about two miles distant from the modern Castello di Acci. Fazellus, however, without much reason, assigns the name of Acis to the Fiume Freddo, near Taormina. Sir Richard Hoare describes the Acis of Cluverius as a limpid though small stream. The story of Acis is given by Ovid (Met. 13,750, seq.) Acoktes. Wid. Supplement. Acominatus. Wid. Nicetas. Acontius, a youth of Cea, who, when he went to Delos to sacrifice to Diana, sell in love with Cydippe, a beautiful virgin, and, being unable to obtain her, by reason of his poverty, had recourse to a stratagen. A sacred law obliged every one to fulfil whatever promise they had made in the temple of the goddess; and Acontius having procured an apple or quince, wrote on it the following words: “I swear by Diana I will wed Acontius.” This he threw before her. The nurse took it up, and handed it to Cydippe, who read aloud the inscription, and then threw the apple away. After some time, when Cydippe's father was about to give her in marriage to another, she was taken ill just before the nuptial ceremony. Acontius thereupon has. tened to Athens, and, the bo. oracle having declared that the illness of Cydippe was the punishment of her perjury, the parties were united. Acoris. Wid. Supplement. Acra, I. a village on the Cimmerian Bosporus. (Stab., p. 494.)—II. A promontory and town of Scythia Minor, now Ekerne or Cararna. Ach RAdina, one of the five divisions of Syracuse, and deriving its name from the wild pear trees with which it once abounded (axpúc, a wild pear-tree). It is sometimes called the citadel of Syracuse, but incorrectly, although a strongly fortified quarter. It was very thickly inhabited, and contained inany fine buildings, yielding only to Ortygia. (Laporte Du Theil, Strab, vol 2, p 358, not. 3, French transl.) As regards the situation of Achradina, and its aspect in more modern times, compare Swinburn, Travels in the Tico Sucilies, 3,382 (French transl.), and Göller, de Suu et Origine Syracusarum, p. 49, seqq. Acraea. Wid. Supplement. Acraeph Nia, a city of Boeotia, situate on Mount Ptous, towards the northeast extremity of the Lake Co

pais. It was founded either by Athamas, or by Acraepheus, a son of Apollo. Pausanias calls the place Acraephnium (9, 23–Compare Steph. Byz. s. v.). Ack AGALLIDAE. rid. Crauallidae. AchAGAs, I. the Greek name of Agrigentum.—II. A river in Sicily, on which Agrigentum was situate. It gave its Greek name to the city. The modern name is San Blasio. (Mannert, 9, 2, 354.)—III. An engraver on silver, whose country and age are both uncertain. He is noticed by Pliny (33, 12, 55), who speaks of cups of his workmanship, adorned with sculptured work, preserved in the temple of Bacchus at Rhodes. His hunting pieces on cups were very famous. (Sillig, Dict. Art. s. v.) AcRKtus, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia to plunder the temples of the gods, which commission he executed readily, being, according to Tacitus (Ann. 15, 45), “cuicumque flagitio promptus.” Secundus Carinas was joined with him on this occasion, whom Lipsius (ad Tac. l.c.) suspects to be the same with the Carinas sent into exile (Dio Cassius, 59, 20) by the Emperor Caligula, for declaiming against tyrants. Compare Jurenal, 7, 204. Acridoph KG1, an AEthiopian nation, who fed upon locusts. Diodorus Siculus (3, 28) says, that they never lived beyond their 40th year, and that they then so miserably, being attacked by swarms of winged ice (Treporoi otsipeg), which issued forth from their skin. The account given of their diet is much more probable. The locust is said to be a very common and palatable food in many parts of the East, after having been dried in the sun. This is thought by some to have constituted the food of the Israelites on the occasion mentioned in Exodus (16, 14). Wesseling (ad Diod. Sic. 3, 28) is of this opinion. But the salrum of Moses evidently mean quails, as the received version has rendered the word. Acrion, a Locrian, was a Pythagorean philosopher: he is mentioned by Valerius Maximus (8, 7) under the name of Arion, which is a false reading instead of Acrion. (Cic. Fin. 5, 9.) Acrision Eis, a patronymic appellation given to Danaë, as daughter of Acrisius. (Virg. Æn. 7, 410, and Serrius, ad loc.) Acrision, Kdes, a patronymic of Perseus, from his grandfather Acrisius. (Orid, Met. 5, c. 70.) Acrisius, son of Abas, king of Argos, by Ocalea, daughter of Mantineus. He was born at the same birth as Proetus, with whom it is said that he quarrelled even in his mother's womb. After many dissensions, Proetus was driven from Argos. Acrisius had Danae by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedæmon; and an oracle having declared that he should lose his life by the hand of his grandson, he endeavoured to frustrate the prediction by the imprisonment of his daughter, in order to prevent her becoming a mother (rid. i. His efforts failed of success, and he was eventually killed by Perseus, son of Danaë and Jupiter. Acrisius, it seems, had been attracted to Larissa by the reports which had reached him of the prowess of Perseus. At Larissa, Perseus, wishing to show his skill in throwing a quoit, killed an old man who proved to be his grandfather, whom he knew not, and thus the oracle was fulfilled. Acrisius reigned about 31 years. (Hygin. fab. 63.−Orid, Met. 4, fab. 16.—Horat. 3, od. 16–Apollod. 2, 2, &c.—Paus. 2, 16, &c. — Wid. Danaë, Perseus, Polydectes.) AcRitas, a promontory of Messenia, in the Peloponnesus. (Plin. 4, 5–Mela,2,3.) Now Cape Gallo AcroAthos, or Acrothou M. The name Acroathos properly denotes the promontory of the peninsula of Athos, now Cape Monte Santo. It is the lower one of the two, the upper one being called Nymphaeum (Promontorium). By Acrothoum (or Acrothoi) is meant a town on the peninsula of Athos, situate some distance up the mountain, and of which *: observes

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