Obrazy na stronie

who pretend to see in history an explanation of this le-ter; and it was the stream over which the souls of the gend, make the river Achelous to have laid waste, by dead were first conveyed. The Acheron is represent. its frequent inundations, the plains of Calydon. This, ed under the form of an old man arrayed in a humid introducing confusion among the landmarks, became vestment. He reclines upon an urn of a dark colthe occasion of continual wars between the Ætolians our. In Virgil and later poets Acheron sometimes and Acarnanians, whose territories the river divided designates the lower world. — II. A river of Brutas above stated, until Hercules, by means of dikes, re- tium, flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum a short distance strained its ravages, and made the course of the stream below Pandosia. Alexander, king of Epirus, who had uniform. Hence, according to this explanation, the come to the aid of the Tarentines, lost his life passserpent denoted the windings of the stream, and the ing this river, being slain by a Lucanian exile. He had bull its swellings and impetuosity, while the tearing off been warned by an oracle to beware of the Acherusian of the horn refers to the turning away of a part of the waters and the city Pandosia, but supposed that it rewaters of the river, by means of a canal, the result of ferred to Epirus and not to Italy. (Justin, 12, 2.which draining was shown in the fertility that succeed. Liv. 8, 24.)—III. A river of Elis, which falls into the ed. (Diod. Sic. 4, 35.) The Achelous must have Alpheus. On its banks were temples dedicated to been considered a river of great antiquity as well as Ceres, Proserpina, and Hades, which were held in high celebrity, since it is often introduced as a general rep: veneration. (Strab. 344.)—IV. A river of Bithynia, resentative of rivers, and is likewise frequently used near the cavern Acherusia, and in the vicinity of Hefor the element of water. (Eustath, ad Il. 21, 194.- raclea. (Apollon. Rhod. 2, 745.) Eurip. Bacch. 625.—Id. Androm. 167.–Aristoph. ACHERONTỈA, I. a town of Bruttium, placed by Pliny Lysistr. 381.Heyne, ad Il. 21, 194.) The reason on the river Acheron (Plin. 3, 5.)—II. A city of of this peculiar use of the term will be found in the Lucania, now Acerenza, on the confines of Apulia. remarks of the scholiast. The Achelous was the lar- It was situated high up on the side of a mountain, and gest river in Epirus and Ætolia, in which quarter were from its lofty position is called by Horace nidus Achethe early settlements of the Pelasgic race, from whom rontiæ, “the nest of Acherontia.” Procopius speaks the Greeks derived so much of their religion and my of it as a strong fortress in his days. (Horat. Od. 3, thology. Hence the frequent directions of the Oracle 4, 14, et schol. ad loc.Procop. 3, 23.) at Dodona, “to sacrifice to the Acheloüs," and hence ACHERUSĨA, I, a lake in Epirus, into which the the name of the stream became associated with some Acheron flows. (Vid. Acheron.)II. According to of their oldest religious rites, and was eventually used some modern expounders of fable, a lake in Egypt, in the language of poetry as an appellation, kar' tfóxnu, near Memphis, over which the bodies of the dead were for the element of water and for rivers, as stated above conveyed, previous to their being judged for the ac('Axelwov Tūv anyalov údwp).-II. There was an- tions of their past lives. The authority cited in supother river of the same name, of which nothing farther port of this is Diodorus Siculus (1, 92). A proper is known, than that, according to Pausanias (8, 38), it examination of the passage, however, will lead to the flowed from Mount Sipylus. Homer, in relating the following conclusions : 1st, that no name whatever is story of Niobe (I. 24, 615), speaks of the desert given by Diodorus for any particular lake of this kind; mountains in Sipylus, where are the beds of the god- and, 2d, that cach district of Egypt had its lake for the dess-nymphs, who dance around the Achelous.- III. purpose mentioned above, and that there was not mereA river of Thessaly, flowing near Lamir. (Strab. 434.) ly one for the whole of Egypt. (Diod. Sic. 1, 92, et

ACHERDUS, a borough of the tribe Hippothoontis, in Wesseling, ad loc.)--III. A cavern in Bithynia, near Attica. (Steph. B.--Aristoph. Eccles. 390.) the city of Heraclea and the river Oxinas, probably on

Achèron, I. a river of Epirus, rising in the mount- the very spot which Arrian (Peripl. Mar. Eur., p. ains to the west of the chain of Pindus, and falling 125, ed. Blancard) calls Tyndaridæ. Xenophon (Aninto the Ionian sea near Glykys Limen (Taukųç Aynv). ab. 6, 2) names the whole peninsula, in which it lies, In the early part of its course, it forms the Palus the Acherusian Promontory. This cavern was two Acherusia ('Axepovola Aluvn), and, after emerging stadia in depth, and was regarded by the adjacent infrom this sheet of water, disappears under ground, habitants as one of the entrances into the lower world. from which it again rises and pursues its course to the Through it Hercules is said to have dragged Cerberus sea. Strabo (321) makes mention of this stream only up to the light of day; a fable which probably owed after its leaving the Palus Acherusia, and appears to its origin to the inhabitants of Heraclea. (Diod. Sic. have been unacquainted with the previous part of its 14, 31.--Dionys. Perieg. 790, et Eustath. ad loc.) course. Thucydides, on the other hand (1,46), would Apollonius Rhodius (2, 730) places a river, with the seem to have misunderstood the information which he name of Acheron, in this quarter. This stream was had received respecting it. His account is certainly a asterward called, by the people of Heraclea, Soonautes confused one, and has given rise to an inaccuracy in (Lowvaútns), on account of their fleet having been D'Anville's map. The error of D'Anville and others saved near it from a storm. (Apollon. Rhod. 2, 746, consists in placing the Palus Acherusia directly on the et schol. ad loc.) Are the Acheron and the Oxinas coast, and the city of Ephyre at its northeastern ex- the same river? tremity; in the position of the latter contradicting the ACHILLAS, I. a bishop of Alexandrea from A.D. 311 very words of the writer on whom they rely. No to 321. His martyrdom is commemorated on the 7th other ancient authority places the Palus Acherusia on of November.-11. An Alexandrean priest, banished the coast. Pausanias (1, 17) makes the marsh, the with Arius, 319 A.D. He fled to Palestine. - III. river, and the city, to have been situated in the interior (Vid. Supplement.) of Thesprotis; and he mentions also the stream Co ACHILLEA, an island near the mouth of the Borys cytus (which he styles üdwp dTeprÉOTETOV), as being in thenes, or, more properly, the western part of the Drothe same quarter. He likewise states it as his opin- mus Achillis insulated by a small arm of the sea. (Vid. ion, that. Vomer, having visited these rivers in the Dromus Achillis and Leuce.) course of his wanderings, assigned them, on account ACHILLĒ18, a poem of Statius, turning on the story of their peculiar nature and properties, a place among of Achilles. (Vid. Statius.) the rivers of the lower world. The poets make Ache

Achilles, I. a son of the Earth (ynyévns), unto ron to have been the son of Sol and Terra, and to whom Juno fled for refuge from the pursuits of Jupihave been precipitated into the infernal regions and ter, and who persuaded her to return and marry that there changed into a river, for having supplied the deity. Jupiter, grateful for this service, promised him Titans with water during the war which they waged that all who bore this name for the time to com with Jupiter. Hence its waters were muddy and bit- should be illustrious personages. (Ptol. Hephast


apud Photium, Biblioth., vol. i., p. 152, ed. Bekker.) | Phænix as his first instructer ( 11. 9, 481, seqq.), while -II. The preceptor of Chiron (Id.).—III. The invent- from another passage (Il. 11, 831) it would appear, or of the ostracism (Id.).-IV. A son of Jupiter and that the young chieflain merely learned from the cenLamia. His beauty was so perfect, that, in the judg- taur the principles of the healing art. Those, how ment of Pan, he bore away the prize from every com- ever, who pay more regard in this case to the statepetitor. Venus was so offended at this decision, thai ments of other writers, make Chiron to have had she inspired Pan with a fruitless passion for the nymph charge of Achilles first, and to have fed him on the Echo, and also wrought a hideous change in his own marrow of wild animals; according to Libanius, on person (Id.). –V. A son of Galatus, remarkable for that of lions, but acce ling to the compiler of the his light coloured, or, rather, whitish hair (Id.).–VI. Etymol. Mag., on that of stags. Compare Bayle, The son of Peleus, king of Phthiotis in Thessaly. Dict. Hist. 1, 53.) Chiron is said to have given hun His mother's name appears to have been a matter of the name of Achilles ('Ayirmeve), from the circunsome dispute among the ancient expounders of my- stance of his food being unlike that of the rest of men thology (Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. 1, 558), although the (à priv., and xian, fructus quibus descuntur homimore numerous authorities are in favour of Thetis, nes"). Other etymologies are also given ; but most one of the sea-deities. According to Lycophron (v. likely none are true. (Compare, on this part of our 178), Thetis became the mother of seven male child subject, the Etymol. Mag.--Prol. Hephast. apud dren by Peleus, six of whom she threw into the fire, Photium, Biblioth., vol. i., p. 152, ed Bekker.- Heyne, because, as Tzetzes informs us in his scholia, they ad Il. 1, 1.-Wassenberg, ad schol. in Il. I, p. 130.) were not of the same nature with herself, and the Calchas having predicted, when Achilles had attained treatment she had received was unworthy of her rank the age of nine years, that Troy could not be taken as a goddess. The scholiast on Homer, however (II. without him, Thetis, well aware that her son, if he 16, 37), states, that Thetis threw her children into the joined that expedition, was destined to perish, sent fire in order to ascertain whether they were mortal or him, disguised in female attire, to the court of Lycomnot, the goddess supposing that the fire would consume edes, king of the island of Scyros, for the purpose what was mortal in their natures, while she would of being concealed there. A difficulty, however, arises preserve what was immortal. The scholiast adds, in this part of the narrative, on account of the early that six of her children perished by this harsh experi- age of Achilles when he was sent to Scyros, which ment, and that she had, in like manner, thrown the can only be obviated by supposing, that he remained seventh, afterward named Achilles, into the flames, several years concealed in the island, and that the when Peleus, having beheld the deed, rescued his off- Trojan war occupied many years in preparation. (Comspring from this perilous situation. Tzetzes (ubi su- pare the remarks of Heyne, ad Apollod., l. c., p. 316, pra) assigns a different motive to Thetis in the case and Gruber, Wörterbuch der altclassischen Mythologie of Achilles. He makes her to have been desirous of und Religion, vol. 1., p. 32.) At the court of Lycomconferring immortality upon him, and states that with edes, he received the name of Pyrrha (Iluppú,

Role this view she anointed him (Expiev) with ambrosia fa"), from his golden locks, and became the father of during the day, and threw him into fire at evening. Neoptolemus by Deidamia, one of the monarch's Peleus, having discovered the goddess in the act of daughters. (Apollod. I. c.) In this state of concealconsigning his child to the flames, cried out with ment Achilles remained, until discovered by Ulysses, alarm, whereupon Thetis, abandoning the object she who came to the island in the disguise of a travelling had in view, left the court of Peleus and rejoined the merchant. The chieftain of Ithaca offered, it seems, nymphs of the ocean. Dictys Cretensis makes Peleus various articles of female attire for sale, and mingled to have rescued Achilles from the fire before any part with them some pieces of armour. On a sudden blast of his body had been injured but the heel. Tzetzes, being given with a trumpet, Achilles discovered himfollowing the authority of Apollodorus, gives his first self by seizing upon the arms. (Apollod. I. c.-Staname as Ligyron (Alyúpwv), but the account of Aga- tius, Achill. 2, 201.) The young warrior then joined mestor, cited by the same scholiast, is more in ac- the army against Troy. Thi account, however, of cordance with the current tradition mentioned above. the concealment of Achilles is contradicted by the exAgamestor says, that the first name given to Achilles press authority of Homer, who represents him as pro. was Pyrisous (IIvpiooos), i. e., "saved from the fire.” ceeding directly to the Trojan war from the court or What has thus far been stated in relation to Achilles, his father. (II. 9, 439.) As regards the forces which with the single exception of the names of his parents, he brought with him, the poet makes them to have Peleus and Thetis, is directly at variance with the au come from the Pelasgian Argos, from Alus, Alope, and thority of Homer, and must therefore be regarded as Trachis, and speaks of them as those who possessed a mere posthomeric fable. The poet makes Achilles Phthia and Hellas, and who were called Myrmidones, say, tha: Thetis had no other child but himself; and Hellenes, and Achæi. (II. 2, 681, seqq.) Hence, though a daughter of Peleus, named Polydora, is men- according to Heyne, the sway of Achilles extended tioned in a part of the Iliad (16, 175), she must have from Trachis, at the foot of Mount Eta, as far as the been, according to the best commentators, only a half river Enipeus, where Pharsalus was situated, and sister of the hero. (Compare Heyne, ad loc.) Equally thence to the Peneus.—The Greeks, having made at variance with the account given by the bard, is the good their landing on the shores of Troas, proved so more popular fiction, that Thetis plunged her son into superior to the enemy as to compel them to seek shelthe waters of the Styx, and by that inimersion render- ter within their walls. (Thucyd. 1, 11.) No sooner ed the whole of his body invulnerable, except the heel was this done than the Greeks were forced to turn by which she held him. On this subject Homer is al- their principal attention to the means of supporting together silent; and, indeed, such a protection from their numerous forces. A part of the army was theredanger would have derogated too much froin the char- fore sent to cultivate the rich vales of the Thracian acter of his favourite hero. There are several passa- Chersonese, theu abandoned by their inhabitants on ges in the Iliad which plainly show, that the poet does account of the incursions of the barbarians from the not ascribe to Achilles the possession of any peculiar interior. (Thucyd. ubi supra.) But the Grecian arphysical defence against the chances of battle. (Com my, being weakened by this separation of its force, pare Il. 20, 262 : id. 288 : and especially, 21, 166, could no longer deter the Trojans from again taking where Achilles is actually wounded by Asteropæus.) the field, nor prevent succours and supplies from being The care of his education was intrusted, according to sent into the city. Thus the siege was protracted to he common authorities, to the centaur Chiron, and to the length of ten years. During a great part of this Planix, son of Amyntor. Homer, however, mentions | time, Achilles was employed in lessening the resources

of Priam by the reduction of the tributary cities of slain (in accordance with Hector's prophecy, Il. 21, Asia Minor. With a fleet of eieven vessels he rav- 452), in the Scæan gate, while rushing into the city. aged the coasts of Mysia, made frequent disembarca- Hyginus states that Achilles went round the walls of tions of his forces, and succeeded eventually in de- Troy, boasting of his exploit in having slain Hector, stroying eleven cities, among which, according to until Apollo, in anger, assumed the forin of Paris, and Strabo (584), were Hypoplacian Thebe, Lyrnessus, slew him with an arrow (Hygin. fab. 107), but, with and Pedasus, and in laying waste the island of Lesvos. surprising inconsistency, he mentions in another place (Compare Homer, Il. 9, 328.) Among the spoils of (fab. 110), that he was slain by Deïphobus and Alex. Lyrnessus, Achilles obtained the beautiful Briseis, ander or Paris. The scholiast on Lycophron, cited while, at the taking of Thebe, Chryseis the daughter above, says that the Trojans would not give up the of Chryses, a priest of Apollo at Chrysa, became the corpse of Achilles until the Greeks had restored the prize of Agamemnon. A pestilence shortly after ap- various presents with which Priam had redeemed the peared in the Grecian camp, and Calchas, encouraged dead body of Hector. The ashes of the hero were by the proffered protection of Achilles, ventured to mingled in a golden ur with those of Patroclus, and attribute it to Agamemnon's detention of the daughter the promontory of Sigæum is said to mark the place of Chryses, whom her father had endeavoured to ran- where both repose. A tomb was here erected to his som, but in vain. The monarch, although deeply of memory, and near it Thetis caused funeral games to fended, was compelled at last to surrender his captive, be celebrated in honour of her son, which were afterbut, as an act of retaliation, and to testify his resent- ward annually observed by a decree of the oracle of ment, he deprived Achilles of Briseis. Hence arose Dodona (vid. Sigæum). It is said, that, after the ta" the anger of the son of Peleus," on which is based king of Troy, the ghost of Achilles appeared to the the action of the Iliad. Achilles on his part withdrew Greeks, and demanded of them Polyxena, who was his forces from the contest, and neither prayers, nor accordingly sacrificed on bis tomb by his son Neopto. entreaties, nor direct offers of reconciliation, couched lemus, or Pyrrhus. (Eurip. Hec. 35, seqq.-Senec. in the most tempting and flattering terms (II. 9, 119, Troad. 191.-Orid, Met. 13, 441, seqq.-Q. Calah. seqq.), could induce him to return to the field. Among 14.) Another account makes the Trojan princess to other things the monarch promised him, if he would have killed herself through grief at his loss. (Tzetzes, forget the injurious treatment which he had received, ad Lycophr. 323.-Philostratus, Heroica., p. 714, ed. the hand of one of his daughters, and the sovereignty Morellus.) The Thessalians, in accordance with the of seven cities of the Peloponnesus. (Il. 9, 142 and oracle just mentioned, erected a temple to his memory 149.) The death of his friend Patroclus, however, at Sigeum, and rendered him divine honours. Every by the hand of Hector (17. 16, 821, seqq.), roused him year they brought thither two bulls, one white and the at length to action and revenge, and a reconciliation other black, crowned with garlands, and along with having thereupon taken place between the two Grecian them some of the water of the Sperchius. (Gruber. leaders, Briseis was restored. (II. 19, 78, se99.--Id. Wörterbuch der altclassischen Mythologie, vol. 1., p. 43.) 246, seqq.) As the arms of Achilles, having been Another and still stranger tradition informs us, that worn by Patroclus, had become the prize of Hector, Achilles survived the fall of Troy and married Helen ; Vulcan, at the request of Thetis, fabricated a suit of but others maintain that this union took place after his impenetrable armour for her son. (II. 18, 468, seqq.) | death, in the island of Leuce, where many of the anArrayed in this, Achilles took the field, and after a cient heroes lived in a separate elysium (rid. Leuce). great slaughter of the Trojans, and a contest with the When Achilles was young, his mother asked him god of the Scamander, by whose waters he was nearly whether he preferred a long life spent in obscurity, or overwhelmed, met Hector, chased him thrice around a brief existence of military glory. He decided in the walls of Troy, and finally slew him by the aid of favour of the latter. (Compare Il. 9, 410, seqq.) Minerva. (Il. 22, 136, sc99.) According to Homer Some ages after the Trojan war, Alexander, in the (II. 24, 14, seqq.), Achilles dragged the corpse of Hec- course of his march into the East, offered sacrifices on tor, at his chariot-wheels, thrice round the tomb of the tomb of Achilles, and expressed his admiration as Patroclus, and from the language of the poet, he well of the hero, as of the hard whom he had found to would appear to have done this for several days in immortalize his name. (Plutarch, Vit. Alexand. 15.) succession. Virgil, however, makes Achilles to have -VII. Tatius, a native of Alexandrea, commonly asdragged the body of Hector thrice round the walls of signed to the second or third century of the Christian Trov. In this it is probable that the Roman poet fol- era. The best critics, however, such as Huet, Char. lowed one of the Cyclic, or else Tragic, writers. (Heyne, don la Rochette, Coray, and Jacobs, make him to have Ercurs. 18, ad Æn. 1.) The corpse of the Trojan flourished after the time of Heliodorus, since they have hero was at last yielded up to the tears and supplica- discovered in him what they consider manifest imitations of Priam, who had come for that purpose to the tions of the latter writer. Nay, if it be true that Mutent of Achilles, and a truce was granted the Trojans sæus, whom he has also imitated, composed his poem for the performance of the funeral obsequies. (Il. 24, of Hero and Leander before 430 or 450 of our era, 599.--11. 669.) Achilles did not long survive his we must then place Achilles Tatius even as low as the lustrious opponent. Some accounts make him to have middle of the 5th century. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Gi died the day after Hector was slain. The common 6, 231.) According to Suidas, he became, towards the authorities, however, interpose the combats with Pen- end of his life, a Christian and bishop. But as the thesilea and Memnon previous to his death. (Com- lexicographer makes no mention of his episcopal sce, pure Heyne, Excurs. 19, ad Æn. 1.-Quint. Smyrn. and as Photius, who speaks in three different places of 1, 21, seqq.) According to the more received account, him, is silent on this head, it may be permitted us 10 as it is given by the scholiast on Lycophron (V. 269), doubt the accuracy of Suidas's statement. (Photii and also by Dietys Cretensis and Dares Phrygius, Bibliothec., vol. i., p. 33, ed. Bekker.-Id. ibid., p. 50.Achilles, having become enamoured of Polyxena, the Id. ibid., p. 66.) Equally unworthy of reliance would daughter of Priam, signified to the monarch that he appear to be another remark of the same lexicographer, would become his ally on condition of receiving her that Achilles Tatius wrote a treatise on the sphere. hand in marriage. Priam consented, and the parties If this were correct, we ought to put him one or two kaving come for that purpose to the temple of the centuries earlier, inasmuch as Firnicus, a Latin writer Thymbræan Apollo, Achilles was treacherously slain of the middle of the fourth century, cites the “Sphere by Paris, who had concealed himself there, being of Achilles." (Astron. 4, 10.) Suidas, however, wounded by him with an arrow in the hcel. Another who is not accustomed to discriminate very nicely be tradition, related by Arctinus, makes him to have been tween persons bearing the same name, here conforuds

him with the author of the “Introduction to the Phe. Achillzum, a town on the Cimmerian Bossurus, nomena of Aratus” (rul. No. VIII.). Achilles Tatius where anciently was a ternple of Achilles. It lay ncar is the author of a romance, entitled, Tà katà Aev- the modern Buschuk. (Mannert, 4, 326.) κίππην και Κλιτοφώντα, « The loves of Leucippe and ACHILLÉUS, I. a relation of Zenobia, invested with Clitophon," as it is commonly translated. Some crit- the purple by the people of Palmyra, when they revoltics, such as Huet and Saumaise, have preferred it to ed from Aurelian. (Vopisc.) Zosimus calls him Anthe work of Heliodorus; but Villoison, Coray, Wyt- tiochus (1, 60).-II. A Roman commander, in the tenbach, Passow, Villemain, and Schoell, restore the reign of Dioclesian, who assumed the purple in Egypt. pore-eminence to the latter. (Schoell, Hist. Litt. Gr., The emperor marched agaist him, shui him up in vol. vi., p. 233.-Forcign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. Alexandrea, and took the place after a siege of eight 131.) The book," says Villemain, " is written ander months. Achilleus was put to death, having been exan influence altogether pagan, and in constant allusion posed to lions, and Alexandrea was given up to pilto the voluptuous fables of mythology.” The remark lage. (Oros. 7, 25.-- Aurel. Vict. de Cæs. c. 39.) is perfectly correct. Pictures of the utmost licen Achivi, properly speaking, the name of the Achæan tiousness, and traces of everything that is infamous in race ('Ayatoi) Latinized. Its derivation through the ancient manners, are seen throughout. Unchaste in Æolic dialect is marked by the digammated sound of imagination, and coarse in sentiment, the author has the letter o ('Apa Foi). This appellation was genermade his hero despise at once the laws of morality ally applied by the Roman poets, especially Virgil

, as and those of love. Clitophon is a human body, unin a name for the whole Greek nation, in imitation of the formed by a human soul, but delivered up to all the Homeric usage. In legal strictness it should have instincts of nature and the senses. He neither com- been confined by the Romans to the inhabitants of the mands respect by his courage nor affection by his province of Achaia. constancy. Struggling, however, in the writer's mind, ACHLYS. Vid. Supplement. some finer ideas may be seen wandering through the АсHMET. Vid. Supplement. gloom, and some pure and lofty aspirations contrasting ACHOLIUS. Vid. Supplement strangely with the chaos of animal instincts and de ACICHORŅUS, a general with Brennus in the expresires. His Leucippe glides like a spirit among actors dition which the Gauls undertook against Pæonia. of mere flesh and blood. Patient, high-minded, re- (Paus. 10, 19.) He was chosen by Brennus as his signed, and firm, she endures adversity with grace; lieutenant, or, rather, as a kind of colleague, which ofpreserving, throughout the helplessness and temptations fice the name itself, in the original language of the of captivity, irreproachable purity, and constancy un- Gauls, is said to designate. Thus the true Gallic apchangeable. The critics, while visiting with proper pellation was Kikhouïaour, or Akikhouzaour, which severity the sins both of the author and the man, do the Greeks softened into Kızúploc (Diod. Sic. frag. lib. not refuse to render full justice to the merits of the 22- vol. ix., p. 301, ed. Bip.) and 'Akizuplos (Paus. work. It possesses interest, variety, probability, and 10, 19), and which they mistook for a proper name. simplicity. • The Romance of Achilles Tatius," says (Compare Thierry, Histoire des Gaulois, vol. i., p. 145, Viliemain, “purified as it should be, will appear one and Oren's Welsh Dictionary, 8. v. Cycưiawr.) Dio of the most agreeable in the collection of tne Greek dorus Siculus (l. c.) makes Cichorius to have succeed. Romances. The adventures it relates present a preg- ed Brennus. nant variety; the succession of incidents is rapid ; its ACIDALĨA, a surname of Venus, from a fountain of wonders are natural; and its style, although some the same name at Orchomenus, in Bæotia, sacred to what affected, is not wanting in spirit and effect.” her. The Graces bathed in this fountain. Photius also, as rigorous in morals as a bishop should Acidinus. Vid. Supplement. be, praises warmly the elegance of the style, observ Acilia, I. gens, a plebeian family of Rome, of whom ing that the author's periods are precise, clear, and eu- many medals are extant. (Rasche, Lex. Rei Nun., phonous. (Foreign Quarterly Review, No. 9, p. 131.) vol. i., col. 47.) The name of this old and distinguishSaumaise was of opinion, that Achilles Tatius had ed line occurs five times in the consular fasti, during given to the world two several editions of his romance, the time of the republic, and twelve times in those of and that some of the manuscripts which remain be- the empire, down to the reign of Constantine. (Sigon. long to the first publication of the work, while others Fast. Cons.) The two most celebrated branches of supply us with the production in its revised state. Ja- the house were those of Acilius Glabrio and Acilius cobs, however, in the prolegomena to his edition, has Balbus.-II. Ler, a law introduced by Acilius the shown that the variations in the manuscripts, which tribune, A.U.C. 556, for the planting of five colonies gave rise to this opinion, are to be ascribed solely to along the coast of Italy, two at ihe months of the Vulthe negligence of copyists, as they occur only in those turnus and Liternus, one at Puteoli, one at Salernum, words which have some resemblance to others, and in and one at Buxentum. (Liv. 32, 29.)—III. Calpur which it was easy to err. Few works, moreover, were nia Ler (introduced A.U.C. 686), excluded from the as often copied as this of Achilles Tatius. The best senate, and from all public employments, those who ndition is that of Jacobs, 2 vols. 8vo, Lips., 1821, in had been guilty of bribery at elections. Cicero calls which may be seen a very just, though unfavourable, it merely Calpurnia Ler, but others Acilia Calpurnia critique on the editions of Saumaise and Boden, the Lex. (Ernesti, Ind. Leg.)-IV. Lex, a law introduformer of which appeared in 1640, 12mo, Lugd. Bat., ced A.U.C. 683, by the consul Manius Acilius Giaand the latter in 1776. 8vo, Lips. A French version brio, relative to actions de pecuniis repetundis. It of the work is given in the Collection des Romans determined the forms of proceeding, and the penalties Grecs, traduits en Français ; avec des notes, par MM. to be inflicted. (Compare Ernesti, Ind. Leg.) Courier, Larcher, et autres Hellénistes," 14 vols. Acilius, I. a Roman, who wrote a work in Greek 16mo, Paris, 1822-1828.-VIII. Tatius, an astro on the history of his country, and commentaries op nomical writer, supposed to have lived in the first half the twelve tables. He lived B.C. 210, and was a conof the fourth century, since he is quoted by Firmicus temporary of Cato's. His history was translated into {Astron. 4, 10), who wrote about the middle of the Latin by an individual named Claudius, and was entisame century. Suidas confounds him with the indi- tled, in this latter language, Annales Acilienses. (Voss. vidual mentioned in No. VII. We possess, under the Hist. Gr. 1, 10.)—II. Quintus, appointed a commis'itle of Eloaywyn eic ’Apútov palvóleva, “ Intro- sioner, about 200 B.C., for distributing among the new duction to the Phænomena of Aratus,” a fragment of colonists the conquered lands along the Po.-III. A his work on the sphere. This fragment is given in the tribune, author of the law respecting the maritime colUranologia of Petavius (Petau), Paris, 1630, fol. onies. (Vid. Acilia II. IV. Glabrio M., a consul

with P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, A.U.C. 561, and the pais. It was founded either by Athamas, or by Acræconqueror of Antiochus at Thermopylæ. (Liv. 35, pheus, a son of Apollo. Pausanias calls the place 24.-Id. 36, 19.)-V. Glabrio M., son of the prece. Acræphnium (9, 23. ---Compare Steph. Byz. 8. v.). ding, a decemvir. He built a temple to Piety, in ful ACRAGALLĪDÆ. vid. Crauallidæ. filment of a vow which his father had made when ACRĂGAS, I. the Greek name of Agrigentum.-II. fighting against Antiochus. He erected also a gilded A river in Sicily, on which Agrigentum was situate. statue (statuam auralam) to his father, the first of the It gave its Greek name to the city. The modern kind ever seen at Rome. (Val. Max. 2,5.Liv. 40, 34. name is San Blasio. (Mannert, 9, 2, 354.)-III. An

Compare Hase, ad loc.VI. A consul, A.U.C. 684, engraver on silver, whose country and age are both ? appointed to succeed Lucullus in the management uncertain. He is noticed by Pliny (33, 12, 55), who

of the Mithradatic war. (Cic. in Verr. 7, 61.)-VII. speaks of cups of his workmanship, adorned with Aviola Manius, a lieutenant under Tiberius in Gaul, sculptured work, preserved in the temple of Bacchus A.D. 19, and afterward consul. He was roused from at Rhodes. His hunting pieces on cups were very a trance by the flames of the funeral pile, on which he famous. (Sillig, Dict. Art. s. o.) had been laid as a corpse, but could not be rescued. ACRĂTUS, a freedman of Nero, sent into Asia to (Plin. 7, 53.-Val. Max. 1, 8./VIII. Son of the plunder the temples of the gods, which commission he preceding, consul under Claudius, A.D. 54.--IX. A executed readily, being, according to Tacitus (Ann. consul with M. Ulpian Trajanus, the subsequent em-15, 45), “cuicumque flagitio promptus." Secundus peror. He was induced to engage with wild beasts Carinas was joined with him on this occasion, whom in the arena, and, proving successful, was put to death Lipsius (ad Tac. I. c.) suspects to be the same with by Domitian, who was jealous of his strength. the Carinas sent into exile (Dio Cassius, 59, 20) by

Aciris, now the Agri, a river of Lucania, rising the Emperor Caligula, for declaiming against tyrants. aear Abællinum Marsicum, and falling into the Sinus Compare Juvenal, 7, 204. Carentinus. Near its mouth stood Heraclea. ACRIDOPHĂGI, an Æthiopian nation, who fed upon ACINDYNUS. Vid. Supplement.

locusts. Diodorus Siculus (3, 28) says, that they Acis, a Sicilian shepherd, son of Faunus and the never lived beyond their 40th year, and that they then uymph Simæthis. He gained the affections of Gala- perished miserably, being attacked by swarms of winged læa, but his rival Polyphemus, through jealousy, crush- lice (atepwtoi posipes), which issued forth from their ed him to death with a fragment of rock, which he skin. The account given of their diet is much more hurled upon him. Acis was changed into a stream, probable. The locust is said to be a very common and which retained his naine. According to Servius (ad palatable food in many parts of the East, after having Virg. Eclog. 9, 39) it was also called Acilius. Cluve-been dried in the sun. This is thought by some to have rius places it about two miles distant from the modern constituted the food of the Israelites on the occasion Castello di Acci. Fazellus, however, without much mentioned in Exodus (16, 14). Wesseling (ad Diod. reason, assigns the name of Acis to the Fiume Freddo, Sic. 3, 28) is of this opinion. But the salvim of Monear Taormina. Sir Richard Hoare describes the ses evidently mean quails, as the received version has Acis of Cluverius as a limpid though small stream. rendered the word. The story of Acis is given by Ovid (Met. 13, 750, seq.) Acrion, a Locrian, iras a Pythagorean philosopher : ACOkres. Vid. Supplement.

he is mentioned by Valerius Maximus (8,7) under the ACOMINĀTUS. Vid. Nicetas.

name of Arion, which is a false reading instead of AcAcontius, a youth of Cea, who, when he went to rion. (Cic. Fin. 5, 9.) Delos to sacrifice to Diana, fell in love with Cydippe, AcrisionĒis, a patronymic appellation given to a beautiful virgin, and, being unable to obtain her, by Danaë, as daughter of Acrisius. (Virg. Æn. 7, 410, reason of his poverty, had recourse to a stratagem. and Servius, ad loc.) A sacred law obliged every one to fulfil whatever AcrisioniĂdes, a patronymic of Perseus, from his promise they had made in the temple of the goddess; grandfather Acrisius. (Ovid, Met. 5, v. 70.) and Acontius having procured an apple or quince, Acrisius, son of Abas, king of Argos, by Ocalea, wrote on it the following words : " I swear by Diana daughter of Mantineus. He was born at the same I will wed Acontius." This he threw before her. The birth as Prætus, with whom it is said that he quarrelnurse took it up, and handed it to Cydippe, who read led even in his mother's womb. After many dissen. aloud the inscription, and then threw the apple away. sions, Prætus was driven from Argos. Acrisius had After some time, when Cydippe's father was about io Danaë by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedæmnon; and an give her in marriage to another, she was taken ill just oracle having declared that he should lose his life by before the nuptial ceremony. Acontius thereupon has the hand of his grandson, he endeavoured to frustrate tened to Athens, and, the Delphic oracle having decla. the prediction by the imprisonment of his daughter, in red that the illness of Cydippe was the punishment of order to prevent her becoming a mother (vid. Danaë). ber perjury, the parties were united.

His efforts failed of success, and he was eventually ACòris. Vid. Supplement.

killed by Perseus, son of Danaë and Jupiter. AcrisiAcea, I. a village on the Cimmerian Bosporus. us, it seems, had been attracted to Larissa by the re(Stab., p. 494.)--11. A promontory and town of Scyth- ports which had reached him of the prowess of Peria Minor, now Ekerne or Cararna.

At Larissa, Perseus, wishing to show his skill ACHRADINA, one of the five divisions of Syracuse, in throwing a quoit, killed an old man who proved to and deriving its name from the wild pear trees with be his grandfather, whom he knew not, and thus the which it once abounded (expus, a wild pear-tree). It oracle was fulfilled. Acrisius reigned about 31 years. is sometimes called the citadel of Syracuse, but in- (Hygin. fab. 63.-Ooid, Met. 4, fab. 16.--Horat. 3, correctly, although a strongly fortified quarter. It was od. 16. — Apollod. 2, 2, &c.Paus. 2, 16, &c. - Vid. very thickly inhabited, and contained inany fine build- Danaë, Perseus, Polydectes.) ings, yielding only to Ortygia. (Laporte Du Theil, ACRÏTAS, a promontory of Messenia, in the Peloponad Strab., vol 2, p 358, not. 3, French transl.) As nesus. (Plin. 4, 5.-Mela, 2, 3.) Now Cape Gallo regards the situation of Achradina, and its aspect in AcroĂThos, or ACROTHÓUM. The name Acroathos more modern times, compare Swinburn, Travels in properly denotes the promontory of the peninsula of the Two Sicilies, 3, 382 (French transl.), and Göller, Athos, now Cape Monte Santo. It is the lower one de Silu et Origine Syracusarum,

of the two, the upper one being called Nymphæum ACRÆA. Vid. Supplement.

(Promontorium). By Acrothoum (or Acrothoi) is ACRÆPHNřa, a city of Bæotia, situate on Mount meant a town on the peninsula of Athos, situate some Pous, towards the northeast extremity of the Lake Co- distance up the mountain, and of which Mela observes


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