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offerings are presented, and the bramhŭns entertained. About four the festival closes by another repetition of the same ceremonies. The god is then washed, anointed, clothed, and put into the temple; where food remains before him for some time, and is then given to the bramhŭns.
Besides these many other festivals less popular are held in the course of the year.
Many small black stones, having images of Krishnŭ cut in them, are to be found in the houses of the Hindoos; to which different names are given, but they are all forms of Krishnů. The temples dedicated to Krishnů are very numerous ; and it is a scandalous fact that the image of Radha, his mistress, always accompanies that of Krishnů, and not those of his wives Rookminēē and Sŭtyú-bhama. Many persons may be heard in the streets, and when sitting in their shops, repeating to themselves and to parrots the names of Radha and Krishnă, as works of merit. Pantomimical entertainments are frequently represented, in which the lewd actions of this god are exhibited.
Six parts out of ten of the whole Hindoo population of Bengal are supposed to be the disciples of this god. The far greater part of these, however, are of the lower orders, and but few of them bramhŭnsn. The mark on their foreheads consists of two straight lines from the tip of the nose to the back of the head.
A story of Krishnů.-The death of Shishoo-palŭ is thus related : A quarrel arose at a sacrifice between Krishnŭ and this monarch, respecting the point of precedency, which
* The greater part of the bramhŭns are disciples of the female deities, (Shaktus.)
Shishoo-pală would not resign to Krishnů: 'What !' says he, 'shall I be preceded by the son of a cowherd; one who has eaten with a cow-keeper, who has led cows to pasture, and has been guilty of all manner of abominations?' Krishnŭ restrained his rage for some time; but at length became exceedingly angry, and cut off his head at one blow. It was prophesied of Shishoo-pală, that as soon as he saw the person by whose hands he should die, two of his four arms would fall off; and this is said to have happened the moment he saw Krishnŭ at the meeting of the kings at this sacrifice.
Another story.-On a certain occasion the lascivious Krishnŭ heard, that king Dũndēē possessed a horse, which every night assumed the form of a beautiful female. Krishnŭ asked for this horse: but the king refused him, and fled to Bhēēmŭ, Krishnu's friend; who, rather than abandon a person who had claimed his protection, resolved to break the ties of friendship with Krishně, and go to war with him. A war commenced, which continued to rage with the utmost fury, till the horse, assuming the shape of a kinnŭrēē, ascended to heaven, the period of the curse under which it lay being expired.
Krishnŭ ruining his friend by urging him to declare a deliberate falsehood. In the war betwixt the family of Dooryodhủnŭ and the Pandėvės, Dronacharjyŭ was so mighty a warrior that the Pandúvós had no hope of success, unless they could cut him off; to accomplish which, Krishnŭ contrived to throw Dronacharjyŭ off his guard, by causing it to be reported through the army, that his son Ushwŭtt'hama was killed. The father refused to believe the report, unless Yoodhist’hirŭ would say it was true. Krishnŭ pressed Yoodhist’hirŭ to tell this lie, as it would VOL. I.
insure success to their affairs; and, in cases of extremity, the shastrŭ had declared it lawful to employ falsehood. Yoodhist'hirŭ at first positively refused, but was at length persuaded by the entreaties of Krishnŭ, Orjoonŭ, and others; who told him the assertion would not be a lie, as an elephant of Dooryodhủnŭ's, of the same name, had actually been killed in battle. Dronacharjyŭ was so overcome when he was thus brought to believe the news, that Úrjoonŭ soon dispatched him; which completely changed the face of the battle. On account of this falsehood, Yoodhist’hirů, in going to heaven, was terrified by a sight of the torments of hell.—Where did Krishnŭ, the father of
this lie, go?
Theft and murder committed by Krishnă.-When Krishnŭ was going to Mŭt'hoora to destroy Kủngsă, as he approached the city he felt ashamed of the meanness of his dress, which consisted only of some shreds of cloth, like ropes, tied round his loins; and said to his brother Bŭlă-ramů, “ All are going to this sacrifice elegantly dressed ; we cannot go in this condition. Krishnŭ then sent his brother to a washerman, who however would not part with the clothes in his possession, as they belonged to king Kủngsú. A quarrel ensued, in the midst of which Krishnŭ killed the washerman, and carried off the clothes. These freebooters next went to a shop, and stole two necklaces; and afterwards seized some sandal-wood, which a deformed woman was taking to the palace of Kungsú : but, to reward her, Krishnŭ pulled her straight, and made her more beautiful than the úpsŭras. The woman asked Krishnŭ, since he had made her so beautiful, who should marry her. Krishnŭ asked her, to whom she wished to be united. She said, to himself ;-and from that time she became his mistress.
This is an image of Krishnŭ in his childhood. He is testing on one knee, with his right hand extended, craving some sweetmeats from his mother.
This infant god is worshipped at the festivals in honour of Krishnŭ : the ceremonies are the same, though the formulas are different.
Those who preserve stone, or brass, or other images of this god in their houses, as many do, worship them every day, or whenever they choose. Many persons receive the initiating incantation of Gopalŭ as their guardian deity.
Girēëshủ-chủndrũ, the raja of Núdē@ya, in the year 1807, had two dreams, in which the god Gopalŭ appeared to him, and told him, that in a certain place in Nudē@ya, a beautiful image of him was buried deep in the ground. The raja paid no attention to his dreams, till the god appeared to him a third time, telling him the same thing : when he consulted his principal servants, who sent labourers to dig up the image; but none was found. A few nights after, Gopalè appeared again, and told the raja that he was to be found in such a place, describing the spot in a more particular manner. The raja again sent his servants, who found the image. The greatest rejoicings took place at Núdēēya on this occasion ; learned bramhŭns were called ; and a vast concourse of people collected from the surrounding country to behold this miraculously discovered god, and to witness his installation, at which four thousand roopees were expended : a temple was afterwards erected on the spot, and the god placed in it. This image is now become very famous: the offerings presented to it do not amount, it is said, to less than two hundred roopees monthly.
o The cowherd.
Another image of the infant Krishnů, called Balŭgopală, made of stone or metal, is kept in the houses of many, and worshipped daily, as well as at the festivals in honour of Krishnů.
This is another form of Krishnů. In some places the image is worshipped every day, as well as at the festivals in honour of Krishnů.
A celebrated image of this god is set up at grů-dwēēpů, where an annual festival is held, on the 11th and five following days of the decrease of the moon, in Choitrů. The origin of this image is so recent, that the story is known to every Hindoo :-Two religious mendicants, since become famous among the followers of Krishnŭ, Choitặnyú and Nityanŭndŭ, sent their disciple Ghoshŭ-t'hakoorů, who did not relish an austere life, to Ŭgrŭ-dwēēpů, and directed him to take a certain stone with him, and make an image of Gopēē-nat’hủ, which he should set up there and worship. Ghoshă-t'hakoorů obeyed his spiritual guides; took the stone on his head; set it up as a god, the gift of Choitủnyŭ and Nityanúndu, and began to
p The god of the milk-maids.