Obrazy na stronie

hot distinguishing between the called and the elect, by the term 'elect she is means all those persons, who are regularly admitted into the Church by · baptism. Those, who are not already coiwinced of this, may find satis

faction in the perusal of Dr Kipling's treatise above referred to, entitled, "** The Articles of the Church of England proved not to be Calvinistic."* * He has there shown, with á force not to be resisted, however opposed,

rfor magna est "veritus, et prævalebit) that, in the estimation of the - Church of England, all baptized persons, i. e, all the called, are chosen

or elèct. This, as is stated more particularly in the Orthodox Church* man's Magazine for February last, p. 113+, he has done from the con

secration prayer in the baptismal office. The same may be shown, as the reviewer of Dr. Kipling's work has observed, from the passage of

the Catechism, in which it is said, the “Holy Ghost sanctifieth me (i. e. 1. the person catechised) and all the elect people of God;" as also from - a collect in the service of Confirmation, where the persons confirmed are - said to be "regenerate, and to have received forgiveness of all their sins," and from the prayer of the Bishop to God, that “ they may continue his for ever," which plainly implies that they are his at present. For, as it is the evident intention, and indeed the express direction, of the Church, that, in due time, all her baptized members should be catechised and confirmed, it hence follows, that all her baptized members are, in her language, elected or chosen.

I am, Gentlemen, yours, &c.

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Rompstone, June 14, isos,


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P. S.' I have pleasure in being able to add, that, in the excellent charge of the excellent Lord Bishop of Lincoln, lately delivered to the clergy of his diocese, the mischievous hydra, called Calvinism, has

received a fresh wound, which will doubtless contribute greatly to : 'impede its growth, if not to hasten its destruction. In that charge, of

which, I understand, his clergy have requested the publication, and · which, it is to be hoped, will be published, his Lordship has given a clear and conclusive proof of these important propositions; i. e. that “ Christ, by his oblation of himself once offered, made a fyll, perfect, s änd sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world, and that the Calvinistic notion of the predestinated election and salvation of some, and the consequent reprobation (or preterition) and condemnation of others, is inconsistent with the attributes of the Deity, as discovered by reason, with the general tenor of the holy Scriptures, and with the Articles, Homilies, and Liturgy of the Church of England.

* See Orthodox Churchman's Magazine, for January 1803, page 44, * In that page of our work, line 38, for baptized, read catechised.



GENTLEMEN, SINCE the discussions which have taken place in your miscellany, upon.

the subject of the intermediate state, I stumbled upon a treatise, (as I was hunting among my old books after another object) which if I mistake not, is calculated to throw a very, considerable light upon that important artiele, and will prove extremely interesting to your readers. As I presume it is in the hands of a very few, I shall trouble you with an essay or two, the matter and arguments of which I profess to draw from this valuable storehouse. It is intitled "Sheol; being a brief DISSERTATION.concerning the PLACE of DEPARTED SOULS, between the time of their DISSOLUTION, and the general RESURRECTION. By Walter Hodges, D.D. Provost of Oriel College, 1755."

T. The article of Christ's descent into hell has been received as a catholic doctrine ever since the council of Aquileia, which was held in the year 381, and from that time has made a part of the orthodox confessions of faith : so that it may be said, if Christ descended into sheol, how say some that there is no slucol, hades, or hell, which three words signify the same place or thing in different languages. For as sheol hath been rendered the grave, nothing is more meant in the opinion of some than that, Christ was buried, though that is asserted in express terms in the preceding article.

But these formularies of faith in the primitive times were conceived and expressed in as few words as possible, that the essential and necessary articles of the Christian Religion miglit be learnt and remembered with the greater ease, hence we cannot suppose they would, in this place; admit a useless word or repeat the clause le was buried, or any phrase that expressed the same sense.

But it may be urged, and indeed with greater appearance of success, that the same original Hebrew word is used in many places for soul and body; Nay, Ne Pe S H. is the word in Levit. and Deut. for dead body or carcase. It is a sufficient answer to remark, it is a common figure of speech to put a part for the whole. When we visit the tombs, we commonly say, here lies my, departed friend. "Our Lord himself speaks to a dead body as though it had a living soul," Lazarus come forth. From the intimate union of soul and body, the properties of both were frequently predicated of either. As the word Ne Pe S H signifies the human frame, it is used for either of man's integral parts, or the whole united.' And Mr. Ainsworth observed, that it commonly stands for person, or man, as an individuum vagum. Upon the whole then, we must be determined by the context and leading meaning of the passage, where the word occurs, to fix whether its collective, or a distinctive sense should


there. But in the text, upon which this article is principally built, let us try whether a sense worthy of an inspired writer can be made out, if we render sheol the grave: for then the version must be “ thou shalt not leave my Ne Pe S H in the grave,” i.e. to be corrupted ; neither shalt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. Wliat believer can suppose that such a way of writing could be the work of the Holy Ghost, or that

Vol. V. Churchm. Mag. July 1803.


there are two clauses put together without any words or thing intervene ing to express only the same idea ? This would be a tautology, a prolixity unworthy of the pen of the meanest human writer. But what Ġussetius observes here, sets every thing right, and restores the passage to a due propriety. Distinguit id quod partem utramque spectare potest; Braw spectat animam, corruptio carnein. Had this word remained in our bitles, without any translation, the Hebrew letters only being put into those we commonly use, as hath been practised with success in some other words, much of that confusion might have been prevented; which has been owing to wrong constructions ; the two repositories for the material and immaterial parts of man would have been kept as distinct, as they are in themselves, and the mistakes respecting the nature of souls' and a future existence could less easily have occurred.

There are two words in the original Hebrer, which are rendered by our translators the grave, and seem to be used promiscuously as synonimous expressions, though they are by no means such ; these are sheol and keber. It is our intention to consider chiefly the former, and settle its meaning, by a few proper Scripture proofs. We will first give the meaning of keber, and then proceed to produce such proofs. The sense of this word is fixed so early as Gen. xxxv. 20, where, it is said, that Jacob set a pillar upon Rachels gruve, keber, that is, the place to which her body was committed, for its state of dissolution And here an ancient sect of idolaters, who borrow their name from this word, fall so directly in our way, as to render an apology in this instance unnecessary, for a digression, if a short account of them may be so called. They were called Cabiri, and existed in the most early times. They were probably the Necromancers of their respective ages, who pretended to divination by some extraordinary observations upon dead bodies. Their pernicious practices and opinions were spread far and near, and well known, when our Saviour was upon the earth, since the man possessed, whose habitation was among the tombs, seems to have been a conquest of theirs. Such scenes and places, one would suppose, would be the most agreeable residence for the devil and his angels, where they could feast their eyes with the trophies of so many victories over mankind, and the dreadful spoils of their conquests and cruel lies. These Cabiri, therefore, who seem to be initiated in the worst rites of Pagan idolatry and superstition, allowed of, if not commanded, human sacrifices: Cronus, therefore, their supposed founder, was said to sacrifice his own son, Touwpois Acouool, and we find that these idolaters were frequent enough to deserve the notice and disapprobation of prophets and inspired writers. The following passage in Isaiah, Ixv. 4, alludes to these people, " which remain among the graves, and lodge in the monuments, which eat swine's flesh, and -broth of abominable things is in their vessels,” if the Cabiri were here pointed out by the prophet, it will be a strong attestation of the supposed antiquity, and continuance, of this sect through different ages, and during a long series of years. In short, nothing but Christianity could, perhaps, ever have destroyed a religion so ancient, and established, however abominable and impious in itself.

These idolaters are described, Deut. xviii. 11, by the words “ or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necro. mancer.” Whether chober, the Hebrew word, translated by us charmer, be pretty near of the same signification, differing only in the first letter, which is a letter of the same organ, though not the same character, is submitted. The name Cabiri is plainly of Phænician, or He brew extract. The latter we think most evidently true, since the very letters of the two names, signifying grave, and these infernal idolaters, are the same, ap Hebrew, Cabiri Lalin, xo@et for Greek; and their religious tenets by no means contradict their etymology. Their deities were the dii inferi, or sepulchrules, and their rites equally impure and abominable. Ceres, supposed to be the same with Isis, Proserpina, and Pluto, were the deities they adored. They had temples in Egypt, Greece and Italy, at Memphis, Thebes, Dodona and Ephesus. It is supposed the Cubiri and Corybantes are su called from the same, word. Venus was held in great honour by the Cabiri, insomuch that she was called in the east Cubar, the name of their goddess. We shall proceed in our next to the full import and meaning of the word sheol, which we presume will prove no small treat to the Scholar and the Christian.





GENTLEMEN, I BEG leave to return my most sincere thanks to Mr. Pearson for

his letter, p. 353-5. I am afraid I have already occupied too many of your pages in giving my opinion, which was asked for by one of your Correspondents, concerning the intermediate state. Doubtless there are a few passages, five or six at most, where the receptacle of the dead is spoken of in such general terms as may scem “ to signify the repository of the body, rather than the mansion of the departed spirit ;" yet on an attentive view, the distinction will manifest itfelf, and the doctrine to which ladhere will be found to be that of Holy Writ. I beg leave to disclaim all pretences to give judgment in a nice case of this kind ; and therefore I shall refer Mr. P. to p. 200—3 of the Appendix to Bishop Horsely's invaluable Notes on Hosea. Respondebit pro me Aristoteles.

With regard to the latter part of Mr. P.'s Letter, I hold myself obliged to him for pointing out the distinction between Punishment and Suffering in the case of our Lord's Passion.—I do not like to pronounce dogmatically myself upon points involving some of the greatest mysteries of our Redemption ; and when I see any bold affirmation on these subjects, I own I am alarmed, and am always excited to use the more caution. I wish Mr. P. would favour me with a few more ideas on the question before us. If the sin of man, original or actuai, be not punished, how is the Justice of Gori satisfied, and how are those sins expiated : How are we to understand these texts; “ the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all ;"-" he hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin;”. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a

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so very

curse for us? Now surely these texts place the Redeemet in a predica, ment which may make him the object of punishment; and if so, is it

clear that the sufferings of Christ are not to be deemed punish: ments? --That they are not so denominated in scripture I admit. If they were, there could be no room for doubt, nor could any matter be furnished for dispute.

I am, Gentlemen, Yours, &c. July 11, 1803.


I subjoin the following corrections of Errata in your last magazine.

“ For relieve, p. 332, 1. 9, read receive." 1. 24, for " offertory -offatory." P. 337--40, running title, for " French Revolution Concordat- French Revolution. Concordat.” P. 339, 1. 16, for Good, ARE-GOOD, THEY ARE. L. 18, for Principle,--Principles. P. 340, 1. 23, remove the marks of quotation from " Subjects,and place them after “ else hus." P. 347, 1. 6 from bottom, for Lacus-Cacus. P. 356, 1. 10, for Topography-Typography. P. 360, dele “ to the Editors; &c.” P. 369, 1. 27, for suppresses-oppresses. L. 37, for Doctrines -Doctrine.




I CANNOT help thinking the following extract, from

Mr. Holloway's originals, upon the word cabur, will be considered, by your readers, # welcome contribution towards the farther illustration of a subject, which, from its importance, is intitled to a full and copious discussion, a sub ject which appears to me 'capable of being placed in the clearest light, and explained to the fullest satisfaction of every honest and dispassionate enquirer after religious truth.

T. Gen. xxxv. 8.9ap Cabar. To bury. Whence are several nouns signifying burial-places, sepulchres---- Ist. map, Cabah, a Vault, or Cave; a Stew; these being usually in cells or caves. The belly of an animal from its cavity. 2dly. 1p), Nacab, to 'make hollow, tó bore, to pierce, to name names, generally to cụrse and blaspheme the Divine name, specially. 3dly 23, Cabab, to curse. 4thly, 113, Bôr, a Cistern, Pit, or Lake, with mud rather than water, understood to be in it. A Prison or Dungeon. Upon the whole, to bury a body in this (as in other languages) is but to put it into a pit. After explaining the reasons why the same word came to stand for ideas, apparently so unconnected with each other as digging or boring, with giving or calling rilmes generally; or with cursing and blaspheming, specially, he thus proceeds: The Heathens of the east, sent into the west, a set of idols, called by the Greeks xc eufos, whịch coming from the root before us 128, Cabur, to bury; and so imported, that these abominations were gods of the definci,


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