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hur, water, is also used in the sense of grey,
as in speaking of hair or horses. Heze, damp,
moist, sappy, gets the sense of green in speak-
ing of plants only because in them greenness
depends on their yearly youth. Is it con-
nected with wet?
E. S. DODGSON.

used elsewhere. But I remember being instead; while urdin, blue, evidently from ur, corrected at school some forty-five years ago for pronouncing wroth so. The latter must be obsolete, or obsolescent, but not the former. What is the orthodox theological pronunciation of the "Slough of Despond" I know not; but the word is more frequently used in surgery than in any other subject, and when used in this connexion is invariably pronounced to rime with rough. I have been told that y is always long and accented (as in papyrus) when it represents the Greek upsilon. But is it so? It is certainly not so in the first line of Virgil's 'Bucolics.'

J. FOSTER PALMER.

8, Royal Avenue, S. W. PARTY COLOURS (10th S. v. 65).-The time has come when definite colours should be adopted by each political party.

In Shropshire, during the last election, four out of the five divisions used blue for Conservatives and Unionists, and red for Radicals. The Wellington division reversed this-Gentlemen from the other divisions visiting Wellington to hear Mr. Chamberlain speak had to change their favours, and in some cases their neckties, on the journey.

I am an ardent Tory, and arrived in Liverpool, about the same date, to find that the blue tie worn by me was the mark of the Radical at that time. Why not fix blue ("True Blue") as the mark of the Conservative and Unionist, red for Liberals and Radicals (unless the former prefer the old colour of buff, yellow, or orange), and green for Nationalists? HERBERT SOUTHAM.

In Bassetlaw Tories were blue, Liberals yellow. In the neighbouring constituency of Gainsborough it is the reverse. It is Tory blue and Liberal yellow in Derbyshire; and I well remember how, many years ago, these colours were "flown" at Derbyshire elections on a very large scale, many men flaunting long streamers from their head wear, both blue and yellow, besides rosettes on their breasts. "Yaller for iver! was the cry of one party; "True blue for iver!" the cry on the other side, with, for a change. "Up with the Whigs, and down with the Tories," and "Blue's up, Yellow's down."

Worksop.

THOS. RATCLIFFE.

COLOUR TRANSITION (10th S. v. 86).-Do not the words glas and glass refer to Latin glacies, ice, which is green or blue according to the light? In Baskish there is no native word for green as a colour, the Castilian verde, pronounced berde, pherde, perde, being used

"THESE ARE THE BRITONS, A BARBAROUS RACE" (10th S. iv. 510; v. 31, 77).—A few years ago I got, through a bookseller in Derby, a copy of "Our Native England...... with 47 woodcuts." This, the twentieth edition, was published "London, Walter Smith & Innes, 31 & 32, Bedford Street, Strand, W.C. 1889," price sixpence. The preface is signed "G. J. C. Market Place Academy, Boston, 1838.' Then follows a 'Recommendation" :

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"An ingenious little work, written by Mr. Cuckow, of Boston, which we feel much pleasure in recommending to the notice of all managers of national, infant, and other elementary schools, and of children. In this little book a vast variety of indeed to every person engaged in the instruction information is conveyed in a pleasing form, so that children cannot fail to derive great advantage, as well as amusement, from the perusal of it.'Boston Herald, Dec. 11th, 1838."

It begins with "This is our native England," giving a map with the names of the county towns, and ends with a 'Summary of the Sovereigns' :

Seventeen Saxons, and three of the Danes,
Three Normans, one Blois the crown obtains.
Three Yorkists, and then the five Tudors we see,
Plantagenet eight, of Lancaster three,
Five Stuarts, one Orange. To finish, we join
The six of the Brunswick or Hanover line.
In about a thousand and seventy years.
Fifty-five as our total of sovereigns appears

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DEKKER'S 'SWEET CONTENT' (10th S. v. 106). 1870, the words "perplexed" and "vexed," -In my copy of Palgrave's 'Golden Treasury,' to which MR. BAYNE refers, are not only printed thus in full, but have the final ed accentuated, to show that any contraction mars the rhythm.

FRANCIS C. BUCHANAN. TWIZZLE-TWIGS (10th S. iv. 507; v. 53, 91) The Flemish for "road-indicator" is Wegwijzer, and "to change one's road" is 't Weg (het Weg) wisseln. Is this connected with the supposed meaning of twizzle- twigs?

JOHN A. RANDOLPH.

Wegwijzer is also used in Flanders as the cramp rings, and that Lady Clinton, in 1538 equivalent of our "directory." writes, "I received a cramp ring of gold.” In 1611 cramp rings were worn with agates Buckle adds, Respecting set in them. cramp rings, see Middleton's 'Works,' 1840,

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The prefix is a form of "twist," see Halliwell, a double fruit; that part of a tree where the branches dívide from the stock; to roll or twist." A. HALL.

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GUINEAS (10th S. v. 105). The following quotation from An Historical Account of English Money,' by Martin Leake, London, 1745, bears out the accepted derivation :"The Guineas took their name from the gold brought from Guinea by the African Company; who, as an encouragement to bring over gold to be coined, were permitted, by their Charter, to have their stamp of an Elephant upon the coin made of the African gold."

FRANCIS C. BUCHANAN.

NOVEL: TITLE WANTED (10th S. v. 109).Your Calcutta correspondent's description of a book wanting a title suggests Woman, the Sphinx,' by Fergus Hume.

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T. REEVES.

Is not the novel referred to by MR. R M. Ross Woman, the Mystery,' by Fergus Hume?

EDITOR OF BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REGISTER.'

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6. Melentjew.-Kriegshunde (aus dem Russischen übersetzt). Berlin, 1891.

7. Vorschrift für Behandlung und Verwendung von Kriegshunden. 1902.

8. Die Umschau (a periodical), herausgeg. von Dr. Bechthold. Frankfurt a/M., Neue Kräme, 19/20. Jahrgang viii., No. 11, p. 203, Der Kriegs: und Sanitätshund.-J. ix. No. 21, p. 407, Kriegs- und Postenhunde in Südwest-Afrika.

Berlin.

G. KRUEGER.

ii. 515."

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MR. MURCH states that he finds no exposition of the idea that a ring was useful in discovering enchantments. Elworthy, in his interesting work on 'The Evil Eye' (Murray, 1895), p. 35, refers to a remarkable book by Martin Delrio, of Louvain, 1603, in which the question is discussed at great length whether by characters, rings, or images there is power The discussion is to perform miracles. closed with the remark, "Respondeo stultorum esse numerum infinitum." Elworthy, from p. 442 to p. 446, treats of the arts practised by the ancient Greeks, and mentions divination by enchanted rings (daktvλoμavтeía), and rings used as countercharms, which were called by Aristophanes δακτυλίους φαρμακίτας. JAMES WATSON.

Folkestone.

JENKYN, LITTLE JOHN, &C. (10th S. v. 109, 155) —I thank LADY RUSSELL for her reply. The lines she quotes are almost identical with those of the Cornish version, except_that in the Cornish we send the offender to "Jamaica to make apple pies"-apple pies being presumably a traditional corruption.

With respect to the spelling of the name Meriasek, LADY RUSSELL has overlooked the fact that this is the Cornish form of the Breton Meriadec or Meriadoc. The 'Beunans Meriasek' contains both forms. The church of Camborne, in Cornwall was "ecclesia S. Meriadoci," but the frequenters of the holy well near by (for prevention of madness) were known till its recent destruction as "Merrasickers."

But the point is why Jenkin and Little John are used in preference to Peterkin, or Their prevaLittle Bob, or any other name. lence shows that there must be some good YGREC. reason for the practice.

If any one desires to read a graphic and particular account of the mumming as the parts BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER: FOLKLORE practised in Dorsetshire and MEDICINE (10th S. v. 129).-MR. HERBERT adjacent, let me refer him to 'The Return of MURCH gives some instances of folk-lore the Native,' by Thomas Hardy, and the medicine in Beaumont and Fletcher's 'Knight description of a Christmas party at Mrs. of the Burning Pestle,' and asks for further Yeobright's in honour of her son's return. instances in the literature of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Buckle, at p. 334, vol. ii., 'Miscellaneous Works,' states that our ancient Plantagenet kings claimed the gift of curing the cramp by means of

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

ARCHER OF UMBERSLADE (10th S. v. 148).There is a long account of the Archer family in Collins's Peerage of England,' 1768,

vii. 359-78. As no special reason is mentioned why Thomas Archer was raised to the peerage, one may assume that the honour was given to him for the reasons that he was the heir of an ancient and important family, that his great-grandfather, grandfather, and father had been members of Parliament, and that he himself had been a member for some thirteen years. Collins says that he was chosen member for the town of Warwick in the Parliament which was summoned to meet on 13 June, 1734. Apparently that Parliament sat first on business on 23 Jauuary, 1734/5. The coat of arms, &c., follow the letterpress. There are references to the Archers in other volumes of Collins.

The account of the family is reduced to very small proportions in Collins's Peerage' continued by Sir Egerton Brydges, 1812. The title was extinct in 1778. ROBERT PIERPOINT.

The reasons for creating a peer are frequently to be found in the patent of creation on the Patent Roll. GERALD FOTHERGILL. 11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth, S. W.

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character, not to speak of occasional flashes of grim humour, are notable features in the Contemplations' of this grand old Spanish friar. I shall copy here a few extracts which were overlooked in my former note:

It was much, that such a freshwater Souldier should on the sudden attaine to the highest of that knowledge.”—P. 37.

"From Idlenesse come Cowards, whiteliuerd
Souldiers, Faint-hearted, Soule-lesse, and Lazie
people."-P. 75.
"If the tempted will but cast his eyes towards
them, it is a thousand to one that he is not taken
with them."-P. 81.

fore I will here make an end."-P. 92.
"But I feare I haue b[ee]n too long, and there-

"We are like Martha's Chickens, we desire meat & they giue vs water."-P. 125.

"But our thoughts are euermore hammering of wickednesse, like the Smith, that giues a hundred blowes vpon his Anuill, and two vpon his yron; or like the Barbar, that makes more snips in the ayre, than on the haire."-P. 205.

"Gods chastisements are like Lightning, which kill one, but fright many."-P. 246. [This may be matched by the following couplet from the anonymous play of 'Swetnam the Woman - Hater Arraigu'd by Women,' 1620, and quoted by Collier in his Hist. of Eng. Dr. Poetry' (ed. 1879, vol. iii, p. 133):

FONSECA'S DEVOUT CONTEMPLATIONS,' 1629 (10th S. v. 101). In putting my notes together I find that I omitted to mention that Cervantes, in his preface to Don Quixote,' a makes reference to Fonseca's treatise of 'The Love of God.' Here are his words (Lockhart's ed., 1822) :

"But if you would keep nearer home, it is but examining Fonseca of divine love, which you have here in your study, and you need go no farther for all that can be said on that copious subject."

I find also among my notes that there was an edition of The Love of God' published in Salamanca in 1592, and a second part, in 2 vols. 8vo, in Valencia in 1608. The English translation of 1652 can scarcely represent, I think, the whole of the work. It is in 12mo, and contains only 268 pages. We are told in the title-page, "Done into English with much Variation and some Addition," from which we may infer that Sir George Strode, the translator, adapted it to suit himself. The knight dedicates the book to his "Dear Children," and if he intended it seriously for youthful reading, then all I can say is that the little people might well be pardoned if they soon wearied of it. The Devout Contemplations' is one of the very best books of its kind I have ever read. How much of its sparkle and raciness it owes to the translator I cannot tell; but this I can say, that there is not a page but will afford some passage of interest. Sound common sense and a profound insight into human

Justice, like lightning, ever should appear
To few men's ruin, but to all men's fear.]

"A Foole is readie to burst till he haue vnfolded

secret; it is a crooked pin in his throat, he must out with it before euer hee can be at quiet."

P. 343.

"If God doe not relieue them, they care not a pin for him."-P. 430.

"It goes against the haire with them, to spend so much as one poore Royall in Gods Seruice."P. 431.

A. S. MAIDLOW (10th S. iv. 508; v. 154). Surely the A.-S. mad is the modern English mead; so that it would only give a modern form Meadlow. It is undesirable to ignore vowelsounds.

We were asked if Maidlow was ever heard of before 1800-a very proper question, which has received no answer. We do not yet know if the name is genuine. If it is, we may as well remember that low means a burialmound; and that in many instances of names in -low, the former part represents the genitive case of the name of the person there buried.

Maid is sounded as made; and if one is to guess, one might suppose that Maidlow ought rather to be Madelow, i.e., "the burial-mound of Mada."

In Duignan's 'Place-names of Staffordshire' we are told that Madeley ought to mean "Mada's lea,' "but that the name Mada is not known. This is a mistake; for Kemble's index gives the very form Madan-lēah,

as required. The same name reappears in Madehurst, Sussex, i.e., "Mada's hurst," and in Madingley, Cambs, "the lea of the sons of Mada." But Maidford is "the ford of maids,' i.e., a ford that even girls could cross. WALTER W. SKEAT.

JERVIS FAMILY OF BIRMINGHAM (10th S. v. 149).—It may be of interest to MR. JERVISREAD to know that others of his name have lived in county Southampton, one Richard Jervys being on the manor jury of Bitterne in 1625 (Court Roll in P.RO, 95/7).

I have some references to old Jervis lawsuits. If they will be of any use, I will forward them direct. GERALD FOTHERGILL.

11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth, S W.

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"VENDIUM" (10th S. v. 148). This is a Tamil word. In Percival's Tamil Dictionary,' Madras, 1861, p. 305, I find it given as "Ventaiyam, a plant-Trigonella fænum græcum." It is the fenugreek, a vegetable cultivated in India as a pot-herb, considered very wholesome, and for its seeds, which are used medicinally. It imparts a strong odour and taste to curries. JAS. PLATT, Jun.

I offer the conjecture that vendium is Tamil vendayam, fenugreek, Trigonella fænum græcum, the aromatic and stimulant seeds of which are used in making curry. EMERITUS.

In military

CHARING AND CHARING CROSS (10th S. v. 146). The fact that there is another Charing in Kent has not been overlooked, and Mr. Holden MacMichael specifically mentions it at p. 3 of his recent book, The Story of Charing Cross and its Immediate Neighbourhood.' At 9th S. iii. 405 I gave reasons for "POGROM" (10th S. v. 149). This is the identifying the name with the Anglo-Saxon technical term for the attacking and looting cérrung or cérring, a turning, a signification of Russian Jewries by mobs. to which both the Kentish and the Middlesex use the verb pogromit means to sack a city. Charings topographically answer; and I The derivation is no doubt from grom, showed that in the earliest records the literally "lightning," but with the idea of definite article was used with the word, blasting or devastation. as in the instances of "St. Margaret atte JAS. PLATT, Jun. Cherring," "Le Chering," and "La Charring," which was cited by HERMENTRUDE at 7th S. Russian pogrom, with stress on the final viii. 507. The use of the word chare, which syllable, is a substantive meaning devastais employed in a somewhat similar sense in tion, destruction, desolation. A verb formed the north of England, was dealt with at from the same root means "to pillage." 7th S. viii. 307, 417, 455. On the other hand, Grom means thunder, noise, din. MR. PIERthe late Canon Isaac Taylor stated that the POINT may be interested to know that the name was derived from vowel in the first syllable of pogrom being the Cerrings, a widely spread Saxon family"; and unstressed, should be pronounced PROF. SKEAT asserts that "the Charings FRED. G. ACKERLEY. were alike named from the Cerringas Grindleton Vicarage, Clitheroe. or Ceorringas, the name of a tribe or family, LACONIC LETTERS (10th S. v. 108, 153, 171). lit. 'the sons of Ceorra.' In the course of-In Random Recollections of the Midland a somewhat extended reading I have never come across the family of the Cerrings or Ceorringas, nor do I know whence Canon Taylor derived the notion that they were widely spread." As for Ceorra, the supposed ancestor of the family, he seems to have been a worthy deacon in the diocese of Worcester, who may or may not have founded a family; but as he apparently lived about the year 802, the charter of 799, which is cited by PROF. SKEAT, and mentions Charing in Kent, can scarcely prove that that place was named after his descendants. Of course, there may have been some other Ceorra, but history contains no record of him. On the

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Circuit,' by Robert Walton, Second Series, 1873, p. 90, is the following:

"The shortest letter from an attorney on record." This saying in Lincolnshire had its origin from the following circumstances. An action was being tried at Lincoln for the recovery of a certain amount of money. Mr. Macaulay opened the case for the plaintiff, expressing his surprise that the on proceeding with his opening he thought fit to case should have found its way into court, &c. ; but read the letter of the plaintiff's attorney, demanding the payment of the alleged debt. This letter, instead of being one of those short notes generally written on such occasions, was extremely lengthy. his client to demand such and such a sum; that it It began by stating the writer was instructed by was a debt long standing, was lawfully due, and

ought to have been paid long since; that the undergone restoration, and the memorials instructions of his client were to demand payment (if any had existed) of the family had deforthwith, and he had to inform him that unless parted. The mansion was then occupied as a farmhouse, and the population of the parish was only 244. The family seats are now at Bryanston, near Blandford, and Orchard Portman, near Taunton.

the amount were sent by return of post be should be under the painful necessity of issuing a writ, so that the case might be tried at the ensuing assizes for the county of Lincoln, &c. Mr. Mellor (afterwards Mr. Justice Mellor), My friend will permit me to read the answer of Mr. Plaskitt, of Gainsborough,' to whom it was addressed:

DEAR SIR,-Even so. Yours truly,

W. PLASKITT."

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"VASTERN" (10th S. iii. 347, 413).-The following is from the Camden's Society's volume for 1860, p. 121, foot-note, 'Narrative of the Reformation':

"To the north of the town, at the back of Friars' Street, in the map given in Coates's History of Reading,' will be found fields called The Home Vastern, The Little Vastern, and the Farther Vasterns. There is now a short street called Vastern Street, Fasterne great park, near Wotton Basset, was subject to right of common for the inhabitants of that town (see The Topographer and Genealogist, vol. iii., 1858, p. 22), and perhaps the derivation of the name is from waste or common land, in the Latin vastum. Otherwise they might be old enclosures in which cattle were kept fast."

R. J. FYNMORE.

Let me refer to Burke's 'History of the Commoners,' vol. i. 62 (Colburn, 1836), for an account of the family in early days. The Berkeleys seem to have brought Pylle into the family, and then to have assumed the name of Portman. This work, in four volumes, though containing many errors, yet certainly possesses information not to be found elsewhere, and there are at the above reference pedigrees of Portman and Berkeley.

At some little distance from Pylle is the large village of Pilton, and in it is a most remarkable tithe barn, one of the finest in England, used by the abbots of Glastonbury for storing their tithes. There are many churches in England not so beautiful as Pilton tithe barn, and it testifies to the wealth and importance of Glastonbury Abbey, which is at no great distance.

Whether the Portmans and Berkeleys shared in the spoliation when King Henry's might turned church lands into lay, I do not know; but the old rime still exists:

Portman and Horner, Wyndham and Thynne,
When the abbot went out, they came in."

The Abbot of Glastonbury was hanged for
participating in the rebellion called the
Pilgrimage of Grace, which broke out on the
dissolution of the monasteries.

JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

KING'S MONEY (10th S. iv. 428).-None of your correspondents having answered my query, it may interest them to know that I have found the solution in the Treasury Books at the Record Office ;—

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By virtue of His Majesty's general letters of privy seal bearing date the 26 June, 1727, under his sign manual, the Lords of the Treasury were annually directed (until 1825) to issue 1,000l. to the Chamberlain of the City of London, to be distri buted by him within the City of London and liberties thereof as the king's charity and benevolence to the poor inhabiting therein, in such proportions and manner as the Bishop of London and the Lord Mayor of the said City should appoint and direct.

This, then, was the "king's letter money."
E. A. WEBB.

PORTMAN FAMILY (10th S. v. 48, 150, 178).— No doubt the Portman family were originally settled in Somersetshire, and their old man"KES" OR "KESE," TO KICK (10th S. v. 127). sion, containing some family portraits, yet remains in that county at Pylle, a small-This word is cognate with Castilian coz, village near Shepton Mallet. Some twenty kicking, kick, the verb of which is cocear, years ago, when acting as locum tenens for the from cóce, an old spelling of coz. then rector, I saw them. The church had

E. S. DODGSON.

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