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served to rise, and by the 19th it had entirely filled the vacuity, and presented a level sheet of water. *21. 1762.-LADY M. W. MONTAGUE DIED, ÆT. 72.
To this justly celebrated lady we owesomething more than the entertainment we receive from her elegant · Letters, written during her Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa'; a benefit to all Europe, no less important than that of Inoculation for the Small Pox, having been conveyed by her from the Turkish dominions. She examined into this practice with such attention, during her residence at Constantinople, as to become perfectly satisfied of its efficacy, and gave the most intrepid and convincing proof of her belief, in 1717, by inoculating her son, then about three years old. In 1722, after her return to England, she repeated the experiment upon a daughter of the age of six years, who was afterwards Countess of Bute. The children of the Royal Family, that had not had the small-pox, shortly underwent the same operation with success; then followed some of the nobility; and the practice thus gradually prevailing among all ranks (notwithstanding it had to encounter very strong prejudices), was soon extended to Scotland, and to most parts of Europe.
Lady M. W. Montague was undoubtedly a woman of extraordinary talents, and acquired the honours of literary reputation at a time when they were not bestowed on the undeserving. It is, however, but right to add, that the moral tendency of her Letters may be justly questioned; many of the descriptions of Eastern luxuries and beauty are such as can scarcely be tolerated in an age of decency, and a prudent guardian will hesitate long before he can admit the Letters from Constantinople' among books fit for the perusal of the young
*22. 1571.-BISHOP JEWEL DIED.
Holy Learning, Sacred Arts,
Sweetness both in Tongue and Pen,
Worthies of Dedon, *23. 1628.-DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM ASSASSINATED,
Sir Simonds D'Ewes, in a manuscript life of himself, gives the following account of this remarkable transaction August the 23d, being Saturday, the duke having eaten his breakfast between eight and nine o'clock in the morning, in one Mr. Mason's house in Portsmouth, he was then hasting away to the king, who lay at Reswicke, about five miles distant, to have some speedy conference with him. Being come to the farther part of the entry leading out of the parlour into the hall of the house, he had there some conference with Sir Thomas Frier, a colonel ; and stooping down in taking his leave of him, John Felton, gentleman, having watched his opportunity, thrust a long knife, with a white helft, he had secretly about him, with great strength and violence, into his breast, under his left pap, cutting the diaphragma and lungs, and piercing the very hoart itself. The duke having received the stroke, and instantly clapping his right hand on his sword-hilt, cried out, “God's wounds! the villain bath killed me."
*Some report bis last words otherwise, little differing in substance from these; and it might have been wished that his end had not been so sudden, nor his last words mixed with so impious an expression. He was attended by many noblemen and leaders, yet none could see to prevent the stroke. His Duchess, and the Countess of Anglesey (the wife of Christopher Villiers, Earl of Anglesey, his younger brother), being in an upper room, and hearing a noise in the hall, into which they had carried the duke, ran presently into a gallery, that looked down into it, and there beholding the duke's blood gush out abundantly from his breast, nose, and mouth (with which his speech, after those his first words, had been immediately stopped), they brake into pitiful outcries, and raised great lamentation.
• He pulled out the knife himself; and being carried by his servants unto the table, that stood in the same hall, having struggled with death near upon a quarter of an hour, at length he gave up the ghost, about ten o'clock, and lay a long time after he was dead upon the table.'
24.-SAINT BARTHOLOMEW. The word Bartholomew means the son of Tolmai, or Tolomæus, the name of a family among the Jews, mentioned by Josephus. He preached the Gospel in Armenia, converted the Lycaonians, and afterwards visited India. Some authors assert that he was crucified, like St. Peter, with his head downwards; others, however, with more probability, say, that he was flayed alive, by order of Astyages, King of Armenia.
*25. 1760.--CITY GATES SOLD. The materials of the three following City Gates were sold on this day, before the committee of lands, to a Mr. Blagdon, a carpenter in Coleman-street: Aldgate for £157 10s; Cripplegate £91; Ludgate £148. The purchaser engaged to commence the removal of the two first on the 1st of September, and Ludgate on the 4th ; and to clear away all the rubbish, &c., in two months from those days.
28.-SAINT AUGUSTINE. Augustine was born at Thagaste, a town in Numidia, in the year 354. He early applied himself to the study of polite literature, and became a professor of philosophy and rhetoric, first at Rome, and afterwards at Milan. He next diligently studied theology, in which he was instructed by St. Ambrose, with whom he contracted an intimate acquaintance. In the year 388, he returned to his native country, and, three years afterwards, was chosen Bishop of Hippo. Augustine was a judicious divine, and the most voluminous writer of all the Fathers. He died in 430, at the age of 77.
29.-JOHN BAPTIST BEHEADED. This day was formerly denominated Festum Col. lectionis Sancti Johannis Baptiste; or the feast of gathering up St. John the Baptist's relics; but afterwards, by corruption, Festum Decollationis, the festival in remembrance of his being beheaded. His nativity is celebrated on the 24th of June, which see; and also T.T. for 1817, p. 164, for some lines on St. John, by Cottle. Astronomical Occurrences
In AUGUST 1819. The Sun enters Virgo at 15 m. after 1 in the moming of the 24th of this month; and he rises and sets as in the following Table, during the same period.
TABLE Of the Sun's Rising and Setting for every fifth Day. August 1, Sun rises 20 m. after 4. Sets 40 m. after 7 6, 27
5 58 12
5 48 Equation of Time. To the time as indicated by a good sun-dial, add the quantity in the following Table answering to the given day; and it will give the time that ought to be shown by a well regulated clock at the same moment.
16th, Saturday 21st,
3 10 Thursday 26th,
1 48 Tuesday 31st,
7 7 7 7 6 6
1 5 58 5 0
Phases of the Moon.
3 afternoon. Moon's Passage over the Meridian. If the weather be favourable, the Moon may be observed to pass the first meridian at the following times during this month: viz.
August 1st, at 53 m. after 7 in the evening.
11 22d, 24
4 in the morning. 23d, 12
7 in the evening.
8 Phase of Venus. Enlightened part
11-36727 digits. August 1st
0-63273 Eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites. The following are the eclipses of Jupiter's first and second satellites, which are visible at the Royal Observatory during this month: viz.
2d Satellite 10th day at 40 m. past 11 night.
2 morning Other Phenomena. Mercury will attain his greatest elongation on the 10th of this month, and appear stationary on the 24th. Jupiter will be in opposition at 15 m. past 2 in the afternoon of the 5th. The Moon will be in conjunction with Saturn at 47 m. after 2 in the morn