Obrazy na stronie

Hezekiah ; very likely by the “fying dragon,” | deem His people. In chap. xi. 14, which is so he means the Messiah. For what is said ver. 30 nearly allied to our passage, the Philistines are, of the happy circumstances of Israel, plainly re- in fact, expressly named among the nations out calls the representation of the Messianic salva- of whose power the LORD will deliver His tion xi. 4 sqq.. -But if the Prophet compares people. Therefore, the Prophet means here the the typical and anti-typical king of Judah to ser-final judgment on Philistia, though, of course, pents, we must consider that they must be ser- this does not exclude that this final judgment pents only for the hated enemies. God says of has its preliminary stages, and that one of these, Himself that He will be the plague and destruc-too, may be an Assyrian invasion, to which, in tion of death (Hos. xiii. 14).

fact," from the north” refers. The army of First-born of the lowly it says ver. 30; not the enemy will be a compact and powerful bothe first-born." I do not think that the nga dy-no one runs away, no one strays off (comp. Dibo here are the Jews. The Prophet lives quite

v. 27). in the sphere of the ideas of chap. xi. There

The Prophet having said to the Philistines in it is said® (ver. 4 sqq.), that the Messiah shall general, what the reality of the future will be in

contrast with the hopes of their malicious rejudge the lowly (0°57) with righteousness, and joicing, comes at last (ver. 32) to speak of the that wild and tame beasts shall pasture peace- special fact that prompted him to this prophetic fully together. In our passage the Prophet unites declaration. Ambassadors had come who ostenboth these thoughts, in that he draws from the sibly would manifest friendly sympathy, but, in one his subject and from the other his predicate. fact, spy out how matters stood in Jerusalem. But, according to xi. 4, he means the lowly and The Prophet knows that. It is important to poor in an individual sense. He is not thinking give them an answer that is worthy of the Theoof political lowliness of the nation.

It shall be cracy.

Whether or not the powers that were a sign of the glory and blessedness of His king- were competent and willing to do this we know dom, that people, that otherwise were poor and not. Any way the Prophet of Jehovah conwretched, shall move in rich pasture and rest sidered it as belonging to his office to express there securely: He means of course Jewish what, from the genuine theocratic point of view, poor, but not the Jews as the poorest people. It ought to be said to these ambassadors.--'985 appears to me, moreover, that Isaiah has before 1. messengers of a nation, stands significantly his mind a passage from Job (xviii. 12, 13) without article. , nation, designates here very where it says: “Be hunger his power, and destruction stand ready at his side; deyour the what sort of answer have messengers of a heathen

expressly a heathen people. He says therefore: members of his skin, devour his members the people to get, who come with such a purpose as first-born of death."

these Philistines now do? None other than the In contrast with the rich pasture that the poor curt: Jehovah founded Zion, (xxviii. 16) and of Israel shall find under their king, the Mes- therefore the wretched of His people (x. 2) can siah, and in contrast with the glorious fruit that hide themselves with confidence in this divine the root of the royal house of David shall pro-foundation. [" The very absence of the article duce, the Philistines shall be destroyed to the (i. e., with "22) implies that the expression (“mesroot of their existence by hunger and want, yea, sengers of a nation”) is indefinite, and that the the last remnant of them shall be strangled by whole sense meant to be conveyed is this, that this grim enemy.

such may be the answer given to the inquiries 3. Howl, o gate-trust in it.-Vers, 31, made from any quarter." --J. A. A. This judi32. The Prophet describes in ver. 31, how cious remark may suffice to call attention to the Philistia will suffer and feel the destruction, very slender foundation there is for the conjecwhich, according to 29 b and 30 b, is in pros- ture which yet gives much of the coloring to the pect.

The gates shall howl (comp. xiii. 6; Jer. foregoing comment. If no special Philistine xlviii. 20) and the entire population of the cities delegation is meant by Isaiah, then all that is shall cry (comp. Ezek. xxl. 17) the whole land said about pretended condolence, malicious satisshall dissolve in anguish and fear, i. e., shall be faction, spying, etc., is misplaced fancy. Much without courage, counsel, defence (comp. Exod. as we may desire to detect the historic facts conxv. 15; Josh. ii. 9, 24, and DD? x. 18; xiii. 7). nected with prophecy, we must be content without The reason for these utterances is assigned : for them if they are not supplied. The tendency of there shall come from the north a smoke. modern exposition is as much to license in con

- It is plain enough that neither clouds of dust nor jecturing the historical basis of prophecy, as fire borne in advance of troops can be intended here. formerly it was to license in detecting the fulfilFor neither of these would occasion terror like ment of it. On ver. 29, J. A. A., comments: the smoke of towns already set on fire. Most ex- “All interpreters agree that the Philistines are positors understand the Assyrian to be meant by here spoken of, as having recently escaped from the approaching enemy. Bui that is much too the ascendancy of some superior power, but at narrow a construction. According to ver. 29 b. the same time threatened with a more complete and 30 b. the LORD announces Himself, and His subjection.” Everything historically specific, beanointed as the enemy that will destroy Philistia. yond this obviously sure statement, is conjecture And if ver. 30 a. Messianic salvation is pro- with no broader foundation than that pointed out claimed to Israel, then the reverse of this for the above. Another commentater (DR. B. NETELER, Philistines is naturally Messianic destruction. Das Buch Isaias-mit Berücksichtigung-der auf But Philistia will have, too, its part to endure in seinen Inhalt sich bezieenden assyrischen Inschriften the great judgments that the Lord will bring on erklärt, Münster, 1876), who reads the text in the the world of nations, and by which He will re- I light of recent interpretations of Assyrian in

scriptions identifies the reference of the symbols / ledge that worldly-power comes to grief against as follows: “The staff that repeatedly smote the Zion. Sargon and Sennacherib had that experiPhilistines very seriously was. Sargon. The ba

ence.' BIRKs makes the rod = the serpent silisk proceeding out of the root of the serpent is Tiglath-Pileser, etc.—TR.). Sennacherib, who, in his third expedition, con

DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL. quered various Philistine cities. The flying dra 1. On xiv. 32. It is to be remarked here that gon is Esarhaddon, who, in the beginning of his Isaiah holds out as a shield, the truth that the reign, undertook an expedition toward the sea LORD has founded Zion. But when the Jews coasts, and whose war against Egypt was doubt-founded on this truth a wicked hope, in that they less a considerable burden for Philistia.” “The saw therein a passport for every sort of godlessmessengers of the nation (ver. 32) that came on ness, then it is said: “Trust ye not in lying like a devastating fire, and overcame the nation words, saying, The temple of the LORD, are of Philistines with little trouble, must acknow- I these.” Jer. vii. 4.

2. AGAINST MOAB. CHAPTERS XV., XVI. Concerning the relation of Moab to the Israel- partly the Prophet intentionally imitates Moabite ites, comp. the remarks prefixed to Jer. xlviii. forms of speech. At all events, the little peculiThe present prophecy is a double address. For arities, which in no case witness directly against it consists of an older discourse (xv. 1–xvi. 12), Isaiah, and which are natural to such originality which, as appears, was not published immediate- as his, are not to be considered in comparison ly on its origination, but was given publicity by with the great mass of decidedly Isaianic modes Isaiah only when he could announce definitely of expression which we shall prove in particular that the beginning of its fulfilment would occur below. I therefore hold decidedly that Isaiah is after three years. Some have therefore conceived the author. the notion that the older address is not Isaianic. As regards the time of the composition of xv. 1 KOPPE, AUGUSTI, BAUER, BERTHOLD, have re -xvi. 12, the text seems to me to present two garded Jeremiah as the Author, which is quite points of limitation. According to these chapters impossible. Hirzig (comp. his Des Propheten not only Dibon, but also Jahas, Heshbon, Elealeh, Jonas Orakel über Moab, Heidelberg, 1831,) even Sibmah, Medeba are in the hand of the Moabites. holds that Jonah is the author, and has found But according to 2 Kings xv. 29; 1 Chr. v. 26, followers (KNOBEL, MAURER, etc.,) in this singu- these regions were only depopulated by Tiglathlar view, whereas. HENDEWERK decidedly con- Pileser, and thus only afterward occupied by the troverts him. It is regarded as decisive for the Moabites. That expedition of Tiglath-Pileser, view that this is not Isaianic, that it betrays a according to universal opinion, occurred in the tender-hearted sympathy for an otherwise hated year 741, thus in the third year of the reign of foreign nation. But this sympathy is not as ten- Ahaz. From xvi. 1 it further appears that at der-hearted as it appears. It rather serves as a that time the Edomites were still subject to the measure by which to estimate the fearfulness of Jews. This relation was changed under Ahaz. the judgment. Further appeal is made to a num- For, according to 2 Chr. xxviii. 17, the Edomites ber of " peculiar, and in a measure, singular during his reign made an incursion into Judah. thoughts and turns.” Some of these are that it is not conceivable that after this time Isaiah mourning garments are put on in the street (xv. gave the Moabites counsel to send tribute from 3.)-yet Hezekiah went into the temple clothed Seba to Jerusalem. For the Edomites would not in sackcloth, and a deputation from him to allow that, and the Moabites who looked for reIsaiah went in sackcloth (2 Kings xix. 1, 2)—; fuge to Edom would never have dared to do so. further that crying encircled the land (comp. my Unfortunately we are not informed as to the time comment). Sibma's vine spread itself over whole when that incursion of the Edomites took place. regions-only a bold figure worthy of Isaiah (see But it occurred in the time of Ahaz, and thus this the comment-; its branches make drunk, prophecy xv. 1-xvi. 12 must be referred to the (which the Prophet does not say, see the com- period of this king's reign, and that between the ment on xvi. 8), the heart cries for Moab and two events 2 Kings xy. 29 (1 Chr. v. 26) and 2 sounds like a harp, the tears of the writer bedew Chr. xxviii. 17. Unfortunately we do not know Heshbon (also figures quite agreeing with Isaiah's which Assyrian king accomplished (or began to style). Moreover a number of unexampled accomplish) Isaiah's prophecy to the Moabites. phrases are pointed to with doubtful suspicion : Therefore we cannot know when he subjoined the '333 77',“ to weep bitterly" (but the expression two concluding verses and published the entire


), , "waters are deserts,” (it means rather: places of

The prophecy evidently subdivides into four

parts. Thus the old, first prophecy easily subsprings are loca arida), s nogo to set shadows," divides into three sections, of which the first (it means rather to make the shadow like the (xv. 1-9) announces Moab's terror and flight, the night), etc. ; further appeal is made to words, second (xvi. 1-5) the condition of deliverance, forms, meanings, and references that are peculiar the third (xvi. 6–12) Moab's haughty refusal to to the author of this passage.

fulfil these conditions and his consequent entire All these things rest on misunderstandings; ruin. Finally, the later supplement determines partly they are amaç heyóļeva, the like of which definitely the beginning period of the fulfilment are to be found in nearly every chapter of Isaiah; (xvi. 13, 14).

,מים משמות ,(means something quite different


a) Moab's Terror and Flight.


Because in the night Ar of Moab is laid waste, and 'brought to silence;

Because in the night Kir of Moab is laid waste, and 'brought to silence; 2 'He is gone up to Bajith, and to Dibon, the high places, to weep.

Moab shall howl over Nebo, and over Medeba :
On all their heads shall be baldness,

And every beard cut off.
3 'In their streets they shall gird themselves with sackcloth :

On the tops of their houses, and 'in their streets, every one shall howl,

*Weeping abundantly.
4 And Heshbon shall cry, and Elealeh:

Their voice shall be heard even unto Jahaz:
Therefore the armed soldiers of Moab shall cry out;

His 'life shall be grievous unto him.
5 My heart oshall cry out for Moab;
His fugitives shall flee unto Zoar, an heifer of three years

old : For by the mounting up of Luhith with weeping shall they go it up;

For in the way of Horonaim they bshall raise up a cry of destruction. 6 For the waters of Nimrim shall be desolate :

For the thay is withered away, the 'grass faileth,

There is no green thing. 7 Therefore the abundance they have gotten, and that which they have laid up,

'Shall they carry away to the brook of the willows. 8 For the cry is gone around about the borders of Moab;

The howling thereof unto Eglaim,

And the howling thereof unto Beer-elim.
9 For the waters of Dimon shall be full of blood :

For I will bring 'more upon Dimon,
Lions upon him that escapeth of Moab,
"And upon the remnant of the land.
1 Or, cut off.

? Heh. Descending into weeping, or, coming down with weeping. & Or, To the borders thereof, even as an heifer. 4 Heb. breaking. 5 Heb. desolations.

6 Or, valley of the Arabians. They go up to the house.

o they howl on Nebo and Medeba-Moab. . In his streets they gird. a their (public) squares.

the sward gone. i omit shall.

* And to the remnant the ground.

7 Heb. additions.

I soul.

I raise.

e cries.


TEXTUAL AND GRAMMATICAL. Ver. L 'I may of course be made to relate to 'S NUD, xxi. 11 Son occurs, and probably for the sake of variety and one may find in the latter phrase the sense that is in the parallelism, perhaps, too, as mimicking the diaelsewhere expressed by 'in or "IX (comp. vi. 5). But lect of Edom and as reminiscence of Exod. xii. 42. But this does not suffice. For'd xvn is everywhere else

xxx. 29, the form bus occurs as st. constr., and also with nothing but superscription, and is nowhere connected with the beginning of the discourse. As in chaps. XV.,

allusion to Exod. xii. 42. On the monument of king xvi. there is made a surprisingly frequent use of the Mesa, in line 15, the night is actually called 775 (comp. particle '3-it occurs nine times in xv., and five times SCHLOTTM, in Stud. and Krit. 1871, Heft. IV., p. 596) from in xvi-so, too, the 'g of ver. 1 is surely to be inter- which it appears that the pronunciation with e is Moab preted according to this usage. No where else is ssa. itic. It is needless, with DRECHSLER and others, to take wont to multiply this particle in a surprising way. It bob here as st. constr. 'This, as Delitzsch says, would szems to me that he had here a particular aim. Perhaps give an illogical thought, “in as much as you and he imitates Moabite language. The same is the case with boy It must occasion surprise that of the five -p7!, comp. Jer. xlvii. 5, nearly coincide as to ineantimes that Isaiah uses Soy (except these he uses 77 bab, ing." — 770, Pual, occurs again xxiii. 1, 14 (comp. xvi. three belong to the chapters on Moab (comp. xvi. 8). In 4; xxi. 2; visiii. 1).--2y is without doubt the Moab

-נבוֹ not as in Hebrew ,נבה Nebo also is written


. xxi . 8 and here) עָר מוֹאָב connection


-has the same mean נפשו ירעה לו Therefore .רעע

מידבא after מואב.(32 ,30


וְרָע לְמשֶׁה שנת הרביעית is construedlike עגלת שלישיה .5.ver

: T

itic word for 7'y (comp. SCHLOTTMANN, l. C., p. 607). For of speech. For in the inscription of Mesa is found the It is used only of the capital of Moab and of the terri suffix form 7- exclusively (about 12 times). The name tory immediately belonging to it. It is, indeed, used in

), the latter sense alone (Num. xxi. 15; Deut. ii. 9, 18, 29,

23 ni in the sense of " flowing down, dissolving in comp. SCHLOTT., p. 608); but in the former sepse in the (. . 8 )

tears" would be, as KNOBEL, too, confesses, without ex. is subjoined áovvoetws, with an emphasis that makes ample in the Old Testament. The simple Accusative

would be required for that as Jer. ix. 17 ; xiii. 17; Lam. an impression of shuddering, (comp. xxxiii. 9; Jer. ix. 9; 1. 3). The word occurs in Isaiah again vi. 5. The re

i, 16 ; iii. 48, and often. petition, too, of the phrase in the second clause (anadi Ver. 4. lyin' comp. xlii. 13; xliv. 23.—The Praet. plosis) is a rhetorical device that serves to make they occurs only here. Many expositors (GESEN., Knoimpression stronger. Isaiah often resorts to this : ver.

BEL, Delitzscu), on account of the word ?, tremulum, 8; viii. 9; xvii. 12 sq.; xxi. 11. Comp. on xl. 1. :- "curtain," take this word to mean “ to tremble, shake." means in Hebrew "the wall" (xxii. 5; Ps. Ixii. 4; Ezek. But it is not to be overlooked why the Perfect should zili. 12 sqq., and oft). But in Moabitic it stands for 07??: not be taken here in the same sense in which otherwise

the Imperfect is used, i. e., in the sense of malum., mniseIn the inscription of Mesa P occurs four times in the sense of "city": Line 11, 12, 24 bis. —'s P and 'o ?? word lynn', therefore he employs the otherwise un

rum., afflictum esse. The Prophet intends a play on the although names of cities, are construed as masculines. used perfect, without meaning to use it in any other The reason of this appears to me to be, that in the Pro

sense than that in which imperfect occurs, which has phet's representation the notion Moab predomioated, besides passed over to the service of the kindred root and the names of nations are prevalently used as mas

yyn. ) culine.

ing as Ver. 2. 75y is used impersonally, “there goes up,” or

1934 yı 1 Sam. i. 8; Deut. xv. 10; compare

Ps. coi. 32, one goes up (comp. , ). is genitive to the latter, and not nom. to bobyen. MedbaMoab is a combination tha: does not occur elsewhere, Jer. xlvi. 2; li. 59, i. e., annus quarti scil. numeri; VIU? but which the Prophet perhaps made because he thought ins Lev. xxiv. 22, TMN ing 2 Kings xii. 10. Bit is it he saw in x???, Moabitic x??rid, a kindred notion designative of a locality or appositive to such? Mau()

RER, EWALD, KNOBEL, DreCUSLER, DIETRICH (Zur bibl. nation (Gen. xix. 30 sqq.). --Soboy, comp. ver. 3; lii. 5; Geogr. in Merx’ Archiv I., p. 342 sqq.) see in it a “ third

Egla," —

," in proof of whose existence they appeal to Jose

PHUS Ant. XIV. 1, 4, where, beside Zoar, Oronai and from Amos viii. 10, where we read niņ??. vx4-99-5y other places, an 'Ayatda is mentioned. But how uncer (comp. Jer. xlviii. 37; Ezek. vii. 18; xxix. 18). The tain is this assumption of a “third Egla," since we do


not otherwise hear of a single one, not to speak of

three, for that'Ayadda of JOSEPHUS can just as well be dices read "Vjxen, vvx4, opn', is found only here. It

Diha (ver. 8)! DOEDERLEIN and KOSTER (Stud. and Krit. is possible that in the mind of the Prophet, citing from memory, the o sound, which the word has in the origi- 1862 I., p. 113 sqq.) take Zoar, Horonaim and Egla to

have been a Tripolis whose chief name was Egla. But nal passage, had its effect.oņp, does not elsewhere

of such a city, which must, too, have had a considerable occur as the name of a city. Isaiah uses it again as

circumference, there is to be found no trace. We must appellative, iii. 24; xxii. 12. There lies in it an allusion

therefore take Jy as appositive. It cannot be rewhich the inscription of Mesa suggests to us. For, ac

ferred to Moab on account of its position in the sencording to lines 21—26, this one built Korcha (1ņ???) tence. It must then be referred to nys, and that in a i.e., “a cleared place at or in Dibon (according to line

sense in which it may be joined also to the city Horo24) that had as yet no wall” (DIESTEL, Die Moabitische Ge

naim as predicate, as is done Jer. xlviii. 34.

But we denktafel, lahrb. f. deutsche Theol., 1871, Heft. II. p.

must take'v 'Jy as having the same meaning with 237), and transferred thither the royal residence (line 23).By quoting the words of Amos, the Prophet seems to rohung nguy Gen. xv. 9, along with which are nained intend derision: if all heads are bald, then, of course,

ry . baldness (non???? reigns over Moab. -7417] comp.

knowledged, are three years old, as it were beasts raised ix. 9; X. 33 ; xiv. 12; xxii. 25; xlv. 2.-Jer. xlviii. 37 to the third degree, viz., degree of years.--79 is acc. has 17997, as, according to GESENIUS and Delitzsch, the

loci –“ on the road.”—18? is Pilpel contracted from Masora and many Codd. and older editions read in the prezent passage, whereas in Jeremiah only 10 Codd. 17ppy? like opis from 37s. The expression

, -. irregular hewing or cutting off in haste (clipping). The Ver. 6. ninun only here in Isaiah. The '? here, as difference in the reading corresponds to the character

in ver. 8 sq. (comp. on ver. 1), makes the impression of of both prophets, whence in neither of the two passages perhaps, is the received reading to be altered.

being an intentional redundancy. Ver. 3. Notice here the interchange of gender and

Ver. 7. nuo y represents an impersonal relative phrase number according as Moab comes before the Prophet's

= "what are made, acquired," unless we assume a very mind as a nation or land, as a whole, or as a totality of abrupt change of person in the following onopo, iND". individuals.—ha, which occurs again in Isa. only the impersonal construction is comparatively frequent xvi. 7, seems likewise to be a mimicry of Moabitio form in our passage (vers. 2, 5).-D'in can mean only

-for which some Co ,ראשיו instead of רֹאשָׁיו pointing

-Now these , as is ac .איל מְשְׁלָּשׁ and a עֵז מְשׁלֹשֶׁת

.only here זעקת שבר | גדע ,designates regular shearing גיעגדועה have


"Arabians" or "willows." It cannot mean “deserts," an essential analogy.-obby occurs only here in Isa. : which is niany (Jer. v.6). As only the situation of the

elsewhere Jer. xxv. 36; Zeph. i. 10; Zech. xi. 3. brook, not the meaning of its name, is of importance

Ver. 9. In the first clause of this verse the Prophet here, it is no matter which one prefers. Still, as in the

accumulates the sound of m; hence Dimon for Dibon, Old Testament, the word in the plural, Din, never

which change might happen the more easily as JEROMB occurs meaning Arabians, whereas it is often used to

informs us that “usque hodie indifferenter et Dimon et Dimean “ willows" (xliv. 4; Lev. xxiii. 40; Job xl. 22; Ps.

bon hoc oppidum dicitur." So far as I can see,


expocxxxvii. 2), I prefer the meaning willow-brook,"


sitors refer 'di nox'? to what follows, which they Amos vi. 14 is identical with this. Comp. Herzog's R.

think justified especially by nibdij additamenta. But Encych. XI p. 14.

in that case ! and not 'I must stand before S'UX. By Fer. 8. 179*por does not mean here "outwardly en. ?? the phrase is connected with the foregoing. non circled;" but it is – “make the round,” as in Lev. xix. with Sy like Ruth iii. 15; Exod. xxi. 22; Num. xii. ii. 27; Job i. 5, where there is a difference as to form, but

) .

,נחל הערבה leaving undetermined whether or not

,Occurs only here in this sense נוספות

for to * לבכי

,עיר writers called

EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL. 1. The Prophet portrays the desolation of the cations. For on the desolation of Moab, the territory of Moab, pointing out the fate of many great theme, are rung manifold changes: by most particular localities, and what the inhabitants numerous facts the truth of it is exhibited. . In experience, say and' do (vers. 1-4). Therewith Jos. xiii. 17 Dibon and Bamoth-Baal (hya nina, he does not conceal his own sympathy (ver. 5 a), and signifies that the Moabites shall be driven the high places of Baal) are mentioned together, out of their land, and be crowded out over their and the latter is mentioned Num. xxii. 41. Jer. borders on every side (vers

. 5 6-8). But alas

, xlviii. 35 speaks of nipa bym, “the ascent of fight will not help them much, for a mournful the elevation;"' and in the inscription of Mesa, fate will overtake also those that escape, who will either become a prey to wild beasts, or lie un- line 27, it reads: N? 0? na na nji pjx. buried on the bare ground (ver. 9).

[I built Beth-Bamaih (a house on high) because 2. The burden silence.-Ver. 1. it was elevated.]. Therefore Dibon and another The superscription is like xiii. 1, which see. locality, which in full was called Beth-BamothIn the night : i. e., at an unfavorable hour. For Baal, appear to have been elevated places of wornight adds increased terrors to the storming of a ship. Dibon lay to the north of Arnon and not city. The city Ar-Moab, according to most re- very far distant. It was king Mesa's birth-place, cent investigations (comp. SchlotTMANN, I. c.p: for he calls himself in his inscription 370, the 608 and DIETRICH in MERX Archiv. III. 320 sqq.), lay close by, indeed (according to Num. xxii. Dibonite. The city is elsewhere mentioned 36; Jos. xiii. 9, 16) partly in Arnon. In the Num. xxi. 30; xxxii. 2, 34; Jos. xiii. 9, 17; last named passages it is also by the Hebrew Jer. xlviii. 18, 22; Neh. xi. 25.

, a city." From the Moabitic weep,” in order to lament to the gods with tears Ar comes the Greek name 'Apóroheç (JEROME, the distress of the land (xxii. 12).- hy before in loc., in the L. V. p. 184 sq. Ed. Vallars.). The name Rabbat-Moab does not occur in the Old Nebo and Medeba is to be construed locally, for Testament. It may be that this designation, before and after there is only the description how which was not a name but an official title, was each place gives expression to its grief. Moretransferred to the later Rabbah, which lies several over Nebo and Medeba are elevated spots. Of [German] miles south of Arnon, and was a Nebo this is in itself probable. For if it even bishop's residence in the 5th and 6th centuries does not mean the mountain, it does the city that (comp. RITTER, Erdk. XIV. p: 115 sq.; XV. p. was situated on top of, or on that mountain: as 1210 $99.?

- Kir-Moab (to distinguish it from in Num. xxxii. 3, 38; Jer. xlviii. 1, and in the the Assyrian Kir, xxii. 6) is mentioned by Isaiah inscription of Mesa line 14. That Medeba was under this name only here. Yet Kir-Häresh or situated on a hill is testified by the site of ruins Kir-Haresheth (xvi. 11, 7) are identical with it. which BURKHARDT (ii. 625) found a little disThe place was a strong fortress, on a high, steep

tance southeast of Heshbon. Medeba is also mountain, visible from Jerusalem. It lay about mentioned in the inscription of Mesa, line 8, three hours south of Rabbat-Moab, and about the under the name x?? 13, Mo-Debah, as a city same distance from the Dead sea. dee it is called JNID?x77), i. c., “ castle, wall conquered by Omri.

Ver. 3. Wearing sacks or sackcloth as a badge of Moab.” The Greeks callel the city Xapág (so of mourning and distress is often mentioned by probably 2 Macc. xii. 17), Sapákwua (PTOL. v; Isa. iii. 24; *xx. 2 ; xxii. 12; xxxvii. 1 sq.; 1. 3; 17,5), ŠapakļūBa, Xapaxrūßa (STEPH., Byz., and lviii. 5. It has been overlooked that '33 77, THEODORET in loc., who. moreover appears to descending with weeping (see in Text. and identify Ar-Moab and Kir-Moab). is preserved in the form Kerek until the present Gram.) should form an antithesis to 'yah oby, day.

“goeth up to weep,” ver. 2. They went up on 3. He is gone up -grievous unto him. the high places at Dibon and Beth-Bamoth to -Vers. 2-4. In ver. 1 Moab entire is indicated weep; they howled on the high places of Nebo in its two halves, represented by a northern and and" Medebah; but they came doun also from * southern city. From ver. 2 on follow specifi- I these high places with 'weeping; they weep be

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