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contained in a satisfactory manner without the the House under one of its rules, which authorized bill, and if any solitary speaker touched a clause necessary public documents. I made that report. the Committee on Printing to report at any time, || in it I am not aware of it.

If the honorable gentleman had been disposed and in that way making the report a privileged Mr. STEPHENS. I spoke of the resolution to accuse me of delinquency, then would have been question. After the reports were made, they were introduced to-day which was to stop debate in one the time for him to have done it; and it does seem generally (and I believe in every instance) debaled hour. I did not say that the gentleman from Alto me as singular that he has postponed the in the House, and for the time precluded action | abama moved it, but I say that he voted for it and performance of such a task until the close of the upon anything else. Gentlemen will remember that the House sustained it. Congress, when we are within a few days of sep the printing propositions created great warmth of Mr. HOUSTON. The gentleman understands arating. If the gentleman will take the trouble | feeling on all sides of the House--so much so that me and I do him. If his remark is worth anyto institute an examination, he will find that the the House would not pass from them to other thing, it will convey to the House and the counCommittee on Ways and Means, at the last session, things, even if it had been in order to make a try the idea, that there was only one hour's debate reported the appropriation bills within the usual motion for that purpose.

During all of the time allowed on this bill, when the fact is, the bill occutime, notwihtstanding the difficulties and delays to covered by special orders it was not in order to pied all day yesterday, except some business in the which I have already called the attention of this move the consideration of any other subject-it re morning. The gentleman made a speech upon it, committee. The fortification bill was reported as quired unanimous consent to pass from them. The and had an opportunity to discuss its features and late as July or August. During this session the reports from the Committee on Printing in many re provisions. Did he propose to ascertain the propublic printing has been more promptly executed, | spects are very similar in effect upon other business priety of appropriating the millions" of which and the Committee on Ways and Means have, to a special order. These were causes of delay at he speaks? Did he touch the question of these consequently, had better facilities for the investi the first session of this Congress, which, under the millions at all? Did he propose to call the attention gation of the subjects which have been committed circumstances, could not well be avoided. Those and consideration of the House to any provision io their charge. Hence, not only the four bills special orders were made at a time when, I take it of the bill? He did not. Then why should he comrequired by the rules to be reported within the for granted, it was not the expectation of the House plain? I did not intend to dispute with the genfirst thirty days, but every one for which esti that they would occupy so much of its time and ileman as to who offered the resolution closing mates had been submitted, were reported within | attention; but when made, they were fastened debate-I was not attempting to play upon words. that time.

upon us, and we could not relieve ourselves from I speak of the resolution offered by the gentleThe estimates for the Post Office appropriation the difficulty without obtaining a vote which, under man from Tennessee, (Mr. Jones) as a movebill, as well as those for the ocean mail steam ordinary circumstances, could not be obtained. ment of the House, and say that the gentleman is service, were not submitted to Congress until late The gentleman from Georgia in his remarks on mistaken in his understanding of the facts. It is in January, and within a few days after those yesterday drew a contrast between the condition a mistake to say that debate was stopped on this estimates were sent to the House of Representa of things now and the condition of things twenty bill in one hour. There were several hours altives, the Committee on Ways and Means re five years ago. He said that we ought to have lowed; and if gentlemen have shown a disposition ported those bills. The question then presents

such statesmen here now as we had then, My to debate anything and everything excepi the bill, itself, if the bills were thus reported, why were

friend should remember that it is not every dis then debate should be closed. But the gentleman they not acted upon? That brings up the whole trict which, in that particular, is equally blessed says I asked that the first reading should be disdifficulty--that is the matter of controversy which with his. When the people of a district do the pensed with. Does he not know that such is the has been occupying the attention of the House best they can, they should not be assailed either usual practice with appropriation bills? When for the last day or two. Early in March a special directly or through their representative for having did an appropriation bill come up in Committee of order was made, and, with the exception of a furnished members who do not happen to come the Whole that the first reading was not dispensed few days, special orders were continued, for a por- up to the high standard of statesmanship set by with by unanimous consent, and its second readtion of the day from that time until about the other gentlemen. I do not think, however, the ing proceeded with for amendments? close of the session. The homestead bill became gentleman's contrast is sustained by the record, Mr. STEPHENS. I dislike to interrupt the the special order of the day on the 21 of March, |, and if members of this committee will refer back gentleman, but I never knew the first reading disand it was continued until the 12th of May, at to the action of Congress, from a very early period pensed with. I recollect very well in the last Conwhich time it passed this House. I do not mean of the Government, they will find that at every gress that the honorable gentleman from South to say that the merits of the bill itself were dis- short session of Congress, the appropriation bills Carolina (Mr. Burt) held that it was out of order cussed every day, but that most of the time that became laws in the very last days of the session to make such a motion, and the whole bill was measure was ostensibly under consideration. in nineteen cases out of twenty-from 1795 up to read through in the House.

On the 24th of May, Congress made another | this time. So far, then, as the gentleman drew a Mr. HOUSTON, I will not speak of the last special order, appropriating the morning hour to contrast to the disadvantage of Congress at this Congress. I was not here. The gentleman from the reception of reports from committees, to the time, his comparison does not hold good, and is Georgia has certainly paid but little attention, in exclusion of all other business. Under that special not warranted by the history and facts of the case. Committee of the Whole, to the appropriation order the morning hour was mostly occupied for Mr. STEPHÉNS, of Georgia. Will the gentle bills. I assure him that so far as I am concerned, the residue of the session, and not only the morn man allow me one word ?

I have taken up no appropriation bill since I have ing hour was thus employed, but occasionally Mr. HOUSTON. Certainly.

been a member of the Committee on Ways and bills coming before the House under that order Mr. STEPHENS. I was not speaking yes Means, in which we have not, by unanimous conwould occupy the whole day.

terday particularly of the appropriation bills. I sent, dispensed with the first reading. This, howThe question may be asked, why the homestead was speaking of the vast accumulation of busi ever, is an unimportant matter, and I would not bill was so long under discussion, and especially ness upon the Speaker's table, which was block have noticed it but for the fact that the gentleman when the merits of the proposition were seldom | ing up everything, and which we all understand. alluded to it as if it were a new thing under the sun, examined in the course of debate? If that ques But the gentleman speaks particularly of the ap and for the purpose of creating the impression that tion be asked of me, I will turn the inquirer over propriation bills. I'think he will find himself in I am asking the House to do an unusual thing in to the gentleman from Georgia, (Mr. STEPHENS,] an error in regard to the statement he has made. the progress and dispatch of the public business. who (as he will remember) voted against and op It has been usual for those bills to pass the last But the gentleman says that the appropriation posed closing that debate, and thereby prevented | day of the session, I grant that; but it has not bills have usually passed before this time. In that the House from having an early vote upon the bill been usual that they should be so long delayed in he is also mistaken. I may not know what he and proposed amendments. I thought at the time, this House. They have usually passed this means by “usually." I am at a loss to know and the gentleman himself seems to think now, House at an early stage of the session, gone to whether he intends to apply it to the last Congress, judging from the course of remark in which he the Senate, come back, and remained over for to the Congress before that, or to all preceding on yesterday indulged, that much the largest por amendment. It is usual, and it is not improper, Congresses. I have not had an opportunity of tion of that discussion was irrelevant, and there as the gentleman stated this morning, that they examining very carefully upon that point; but I fore useless for any legislative purpose. Upon the should pass the last days of the session, but they know that at this period of the last Congress, the occasion when an effort was made to close debate ought to have been discussed in this House before bills were not so far advanced as they are now, on that bill, so late as the 20th of April, the gen- and investigated. We are within a few days of the and at the Thirtieth Congress they were but little tleman voted against it-thereby aiding in a de- | adjournment, and the civil and diplomatic bill is to if any in advance of those bills at a correspondfeat of a proposition looking to the dispatch of | be forced upon us. A resolution was passed this ing period of this. It is true that some of the business. The gentleman interrupts me now, and morning to close debate in one hour upon a bill bills that are now unacted upon by the House, says it was a very good discussion, and that he appropriating millions of dollars. Two months were in that Congress disposed of earlier in the did not vote to stop it at last. Let that be so; 1 of the session gone, and there has been no inves session than this; but some of the bills that have propose to show that he has generally been with tigation of the bill, which is not even read by sec been acted upon by the House at this session those who have opposed efforts to close debate, tions at the Clerk's desk. The chairman of the were unacted upon at the same period of that Conand in that way has himself been instrumental in Committee on Ways and Means asked to take it gress. It is iherefore difficult to say what is the delay and obstruction of business. I am in | up without a first reading, and voted for a prop usual in regard to the time at which the appropriafavor of free and full debates. Oike to hear prop osition to close debate upon it in one hour. That tion bills pass the House. ositions connected with our duties here thoroughly | is his system of legislation, of which I complain. The gentleman says "everything is pell-mell;" investigated, but I have generally been for closing Mr. HOUSTON. The gentleman is mistaken that there is great confusion; that the Speaker fails the debate when it wandered from the issues legit- in his facts again. I did not propose to close de to do his duty; there is a want of confidence in the imately arising from the proposition under consid bate in one hour.

heads of committees; the organization of the House eration. My recollection is that the gentleman Mr. STEPHENS. I do not say the gentleman is defective; and he gives these things as the cause has usually pursued a different course. did. I say the House did.

of the obstruction of business in the House. Mr. Aside from the special orders to which I have Mr. JONES, of Tennessee. I proposed the Chairman, I would like any gentleman to tell me already referred, there were various questions con

resolution to close this debate. There were some how the Speaker, or any committee or member of nected with the public printing which came before two or three hours yesterday consumed upon this the House, could have cleared the Speaker's table?

Delay of Public BusinessMr. Houston, of Alabama.

320 CONG.....20 Sess.



Was it possible? Is it possible now? If so, ceeding and the consequent delay of business, by bers to do the same thing? There are various point out the course. Could it have been done in attending every morning at the hour of meeting, other propositions to which other gentlemen obany other way than by the coöperation of a ma- and remaining at our posts until the period of ad- ject, and their objections being presented and jority of the members of this body? Sir, the re- journment. But I suppose the Speaker is to blame pressed, create delay. During the summer-1sponsibility is upon that majority who have cast because the gentleman from Georgia was not in ihink in the month of July-I made several atthe votes, and not upon the speaker, or upon any his seat yesterday morning? And the Speaker is tempts to report that bill, but met with objection particular committee or member. My friend from also to be unceremoniously arraigned and censured until the occasion on which I did report it, when Georgia understands this as well as any one else, because that gentleman did not stay here yester- || those who had objected were absent. and his failure to present it constitutes my main day afternoon to and us in passing the Post Office Mr. STEPHENS. My recoilection is that the objection to the course of remark in which he has appropriation bill. Or perhaps his absence is charge- gentleman presented that bill in the latter part of indulged. I think he has failed to present a full able to the heads of committees, or the organiza- | the month of July. statement of our condition, and the causes which tion of the House. I should like to know what Mr. HOUSTON. Well, I suppose the latter led to it. If he had felt it his duty to present more control the Speaker has over the outgoings and in i part of July is in the month of July, as well as fully the working of our rules, as well as the re- comings of gentlemen.

ihe early part. sponsibility of the Presiding Officer, the heads of Mr. Chairman, in my opinion another great Mr. STEPHENS. I do not wish to get into committees, and the members constituting the cause of the delay of business is what the gentle- a discussion with the chairman of the Committee

man from Mississippi (Mr. NABERS) very prop; l on Ways and Means as to his efficiency in dishave been content to let it pass without comment erly calls “ Buncumbe speeches," presidential charging his duties. That was not my object. or reply. I feel that he has not done that; hence harangues-party speeches--such debate as was Nor did I design especially to arraign hím or the I have to commit this trespass upon the time and had upon the homestead bill, (except a few of the head of any other committee before the House. But patience of the House.

speeches on that bill,) which the gentleman now the gentleman seems to be going into a defense of The gentleman said the chairmen of the com- says was a very proper one. It was eminently himself personally. Well, if he wishes to do that, mittees ought to have influence enough to get the proper, in the estimation of the gentleman, to con- I will say, that if the Committee on Ways and business before the House. Sir, the appropriation sume time upon that measure in debating whether Means intended to report a fortification bill last bills are all before the House, and were reported in General Scott was in the keeping of Seward, or session, it was their duty to have reported it long due time; no one questions that. My own duty, as the Democratic aspirants were true to their consti- before they did. When they brought forward the well as that of the committee over which I have the tutional duties!

measure, out of order, and at the heel of the ses. honor to preside, has been punctually discharged, I understand the gentleman as calling that a sion, I did avail myself of my right to defeat it in as well as I or the committee could perform it. proper discussion upon a bill proposing to give that way. The Committee on Wáys and Means have gone * land to the landless," as some of the friends of Mr. HOUSTON. Then the gentleman from through a vast deal of labor and investigation in the homestead bill speak of it. Suppose General Georgia will certainly not complain that other preparing its bills for the action of the House. The Scoit was under the influence of Seward, was that members avail themeelves of the same right that bills now upon the Speaker's table are not measures any reason why you should or should not give he exercised on that occasion, and object to clearwhich have proceeded from that committee. They the poor man a piece of land? And yet the gen- ing the Speaker's table, or doing any other legislaare not bills over which I or that committee have theman maintains that such was a proper and de. tion out of order, if by so doing they can defeat a control beyond that which may be exercised by | sirable debate, and that it ought not to have been bill to which they are opposed. other members; and the Speaker's table cannot be arrested. Sir, I have made no speech wander- Mr. STEPHENS. Of course I do not. cleared, unless a majority determine that it shall ing from the subject under consideration, further Mr. HOUSTON. That is one reason why be done, by proceeding in order. If a majority than may have resulted from my want of ability business is delayed, and such action on his part of the House think proper to go to that business, to confine myselt within the proper scope. I have does not seem to be consistent with his complaints they can do so each day after the morning hour; | made no presidential speeches during this Con of the tardiness of legislation. It is certainly not and if that majority decide to transact other busi- | gress. The House will sustain me in that asser

very proper in him io complain of the delay in ness, with them rests the responsibility, and it is

reporting a measure, while he, in the exercise of idle to attempt to charge it upon the Speaker, or

A MEMBER. How will you apply your pres. a right conferred upon him by the rules of the upon the committees, or individual members. ent speech to the subject under consideration ? House, interposed ol'stacles to prevent the bill

Mr. Chairman, there are other causes which Mr. HOUSTON. 'Sir, 1, together with other being reported at an earlier day. operate to obstruct and defeat legislation beside members, have been assailed as being responsible Mr. McLANAHAN. I have a word of perthose to which allusion has been made. It is not for the accumulation of bills on the Speaker's table, sonal explanation which I desire to make. Yesalways that even a majority of those who may be and I am endeavoring to show thai the charge is terday, during the debate in this committee, enterpresent are able to dispatch business. We very not well founded. I presume that under these cir- taining proper respect for myself, and I am sure frequently find ourselves without a quorum, and cumstances I will be excused for attempting to set with proper courtesy towards the gentleman from have to resort to calls of the House for the purpose the facts truly before the country. I am present- Georgia, (Mr. Stephens,) 1 rose for the purpose of securing the attendance of the number neces- | ing facts which, in my judgment, conclusively | of asking a question of him during the time he sary to transact business. And in this connection, || show that the Committee on Ways and Means was addressing the committee. In justice to my. I propose to call the attention of gentlemen to a have at least labored faithfully in the discharge of self I must state, that when I rose to ask that quesfact, which not only illustrates the view I am en- its duties. But the gentleman from Georgia says tion I had no intention of exciting any ill-feeling deavoring to present, but also furnishes a very that one reason the business has not been ad

upon the part of the gentleman from Georgia, strong commentary which may be useful to my vanced is, that there has been a want or influence nor can I believe he so understood me. I rose to friend from Georgia.

in the heads of committees. I believe that is the | ask a question which I supposed, considering the The gentleman from Georgia, on yesterday substance of his remarks. Well, sir, it may be tenor of the remarks he was making, he might read some of us a lecture for not discharging our true that they are wanting in influence; but I wish properly undertake to answer; but to my surprise duty, and afterwards, while

we were endeavoring to prove to him that he mistakes the House and the gentleman saw fit to make a personal allusion to transact business, he absented himself, so that mistakes himself. He will recollect that he object to myself, which I see reported in the Republic. when the committee rose, we found ourselves ined during the last session to my reporting from The only objection I have to that report is the the House without a quorum, and consequently the Committee on Ways and Means the fortifica- manner in which it stands before the country. The unable to pass the Post Office appropriation bill, in tion bill, and the objection rendered it impossible gentleman has just stated that he meant no disrepart for want of the attendance of that gentleman. for me to bring the bill before the House. I had spect to the heads of any of the committees of He lectures us, and then retires, leaving the House a conversation with him upon the subject at the this House, and I am happy to hear him make without a quorum, and rendering it unable to take time, and I suppose he will say now, what he That statement. But I will read that portion of a single step in legislation. Nor is this all. Upon frankly said then, that he made that objection be

the report to which I allude: reference to the Journal of yesterday, it will be cause he did not want that bill to pass. Am I

“Mr McLANALAN inquired how a chairman of a comfound that we were occupied for three quarters of right?

mittee could make a report unless under the rules. The an hour, probably longer, in the morning in call- Mr. STEPHENS: Yes, sir.

Committee on the Judiciary had not been called. ing the House, endeavoring to get a quorum.

Mr. HOUSTON. Then does not that furnish

“Mr. STEPHENS replied, that if the chairmen of commitWag the honorable gentleman from Georgia at an argument against his statement? He objected their reports.

tees had the confidence of the House, they could make his post? Where was he? Where was he in the because of his opposition to the bill, and not be- "Mr. McLANAHAN said it was to be regretted the heads evening? I was here, endeavoring to act upon the cause he had objection to me. His objection of committees could not command that confidence. Let measures before us; my friend was not; and al- was founded upon principle. He thought the

the gentleman point them out.

"Mr. STEPHENS replied, that perhaps he might begin at a though my efforts may be unavailing, and have country needed no more fortifications, and his op

point which would not be agreeable to the gentleman. He been too much so to secure the dispatch of busi- | position arising from principle, I hardly suppose further argued that the neglect of business was owing to the ness as I desired, yet I am generally here when he would have surrendered or relaxed it for any members, and not to the rules." the House is in session, ready to do what little I one. Another member objects, upon principle, to I remember then to have remarked to the gen. can; and if we could only secure the attendance of some other bill, and so on until you pass over the tleman from Georgia, after he uttered the first the gentleman from Georgia, with his ability and entire catalogue of members--all upon principle, sentence in the last paragraph, that I did not inhis disposition to expedite business; if he would and of course not to be yielded up until their | terpose any objection to a full and free expresfully act out what we have a right to infer from judgments are convinced of the utility and propri- sion of his opinions upon tl at subject. The gen. his remarks, I Aatter myself that we should be ety of the bill objected to. The purpose of the tleman from Georgia then said that he was replying able to clear the Speaker's table before the end of objection was to defeat the bill, and would not be to the gentleman from North Carolina, (Mr. Venthe session, and accomplish for the good of the withdrawn until the opposition to the measure, in alle. I rose simply for the purpose of saying country much other necessary legislation. Let us the mind of the member objecting, should have the report in the Republic was not correct, and in future, then, have no occasion for a call of the ' been overcome. Now, if the gentleman will pur- | having made that statement, I have nothing further House. Let us obviate the necessity of such a pro- ! sue that course, why will he not allow other mem- to say on the subject.

320 CONG....20 Sess.

Reciprocal Trade-Mr. Tuck.

Ho. OF REPs.


Mr. HOUSTON. I shall not occupy the time || not, however. I do not mean to charge a corrupt || honorable friend from Georgia, that while I enterof the committee much longer. I wish, however, I combination. On the contrary, it results from the | tain not in the slightest degree a feeling of un. to say a word or two in relation to another point | fact that those particular interests, growing out of kindness growing out of his strictures, (which I which has been presented in the course of this de- measures upon the Speaker's table, induce their regarded at the time as not entirely necessary to bate. The gentleman from Georgia says he ob- respective friends to exert themselves to take those the business then before us,) yet I think he placed jected to my reporting the fortification bill out of measures up for action; and when a motion to that me, as well as the Speaker and other members, in order; will he allow me to tell him that it never effect has been carried, and the House takes up a a position which was somewhat unfair. I do not was in order, after a very early period of the ses- railroad bill, or some other measure, a contest suppose that he se intended, but such was the sion-probably March or April--for the Commit- | arises, in which interests that commanded the effect of his remarks. Had he made what I tee on Ways and Means to report at all?

strength to proceed to that business, separate ac- deemed a proper statement of the facts of the Mr. STEPHENS. The gentleman ought to cording to the views of members upon the par- case, I should have refrained from saying any. have reported it long before that.

ticular proposition taken up. The struggle which thing upon the subject. I am willing to share, Mr. HOUSTON. In the opinion, then, of the then springs up may continue through several with other gentlemen, in whatever of censure may gentleman, 1 ought to have reported it before the days, and at last result in no definite action, and be due to the action or inaction of this body; but estimates and explanatory documents were print- | all the time thus occupied is of course lost. I am unwilling to have the sins of other men (if ed, and before the committee could know what Again: some very intelligent and experienced sins they be) charged exclusively to my account; the Gvernment required for this branch of the members think that the appropriation bills should I fear I shall have quite enough to do in answering

If my honorable friend can report bills not pass until the close of ihe session, as was to- for those for which I am properly responsible. upon what he deems a proper sense of duty, be- | day avowed by the gentleman from Virginia, (Mr. Each gentleman should meet his own responsi. fore he has the necessary data furnished by the Bayly.] Estimates are coming in continually. || bilities. I am ready to bear those which legitiproper officers of the Government, 1 yield to him. This day I have received estimates of appropria- | mately fall to my lot, but am entirely unwilling to I confess I cannot. The gentleman makes an ar- tions for the bill now under consideration; and if assume those which should justly rest upon any gument founded upon the hypothesis that mem- the objects for which these appropriations are other gentleman, or upon this House as a body. bers vote upon public measures in accordance with sought be proper and worthy, they should be their likes or dislikes to the committee or member incorporated in the bills. reporting the bill. Can he be serious in such an

RECIPROCAL TRADE. Again: every member who has a bill in which argument? If that position be true, I regret it, for his constituents are immediately interested, is deit shows a great want of a proper appreciation of sirous of passing it; and for the purpose of obtain

SPEECH OF HON. AMOS TUCK, the duties and responsibilities of sworn represento | ing action upon it, they will use every proper

OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, atives of the people. Under any circumstances, effort. They will vote to postpone all other bills IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 'it is not a statement which I should expect a mem- to get at those in which their constituents have a ber of this body to make. I take it, there can be more immediate interest. Gentlemen have fre

February 22 and 23, 1853, no one who would so far stultify himself as to quently said to me that they regretted to vote On the bill“ establishing Reciprocal Trade with the vote for or against a measure, because he might against my efforts to get up the appropriation British North American Colonies upon certain entertain prejudices for or against the member bills, but they felt bound to get theirs passed if conditions." having it in charge. I must think that such an they could; and if they could only get some par

Mr. TUCK said: argument does the members of the House, as well ticular bill through, they would vote with me the Mr. SPEAKER: I had more than one reason to be as the gentleman himself, great injustice.

remainder of the session whenever I attempted to interested in the remarks of the gentleman from Mr. Chairman, as our country expands and press forward the general measures. I have had | Maine, (Mr. FULLER.) I wished to see how well, enlarges, and our population increases, private in- such statements made to me by many members and in what manner, a free-trade Democrat would terests will multiply in number and expand in during this session.

argue the question of restriction; and I must conmagnitude, and as they so multiply you will find But there is still another argument with which fess, though I do not sympathize with the gentlegreater numbers of them submitted for the legis- I am frequently met. When I have been urging man in the conclusions to which he has arrived, that lative action of the Government; and as this accu- gentlemen to assist me in taking up the appropria- | he has discussed the question quite ably, considmulation takes place, the various and important tion bills, they have told me not to be uneasy; ering the materials from which his argument has private claims will delay, and sometimes defeat that those bills would be sure to pass; that they been constructed. I wanted to see in what man. public measures. It is inevitable; and no Speaker, never pass until within the few last days of the ner a Representative from Maine, with such a long whatever might be his talents as a statesman, or session; that it has invariably been so. They line of border on the neighboring British Prov. his skill as a parliamentarian, can prevent' it. ask if I have ever known an appropriation bill inces, and a gentleman with all the interests imShould the Speaker propose to present to the House | which really should pass fail for want of time; pressed upon his mind which necessarily must be, the bills on his table when not in order, the mere that such measures are bound to pass; that every || would attempt to convince this House that restricobjection of any one member could defeat his pro- l member wishes and intends that they shall; but tion was for the benefit of the country. That is posal; and suppose you were legitimately at the || that they wish to get bills through for this, that, | the proposition which he has been attempting to table, and a majority of the House determine or the other purpose. Such reasoning and feel-establish. that they will go to some other business, could | ings as these operate to retard the progress of Mr. FULLER, of Maine. I wish to correct the Speaker, by the exercise of his authority, business, and especially to prevent early action the gentleman. My position was against partial prevent that majority from carrying their deter- | upon the appropriation bills.

legislation. I divided the proposition, and I wish mination into effect' Should the Presiding Officer I regret, Mr. Chairman, that I have had occa- the gentleman so to understand. of this body desire to go to the table and a major- | sion to occupy any of the time of the House upon Mr. TUCK. The House will understand both ity of the members feel opposed to his views, | a subject which is not particularly pleasant to me, the gentleman and myself. Now, I want to give could he compel them to conform to his wish is not pertinent to business, and which, therefore, the gentleman a history of this effort for reciproI can see no force, no propriety, no justice in the cannot be very interesting to the members of this city, as I contend it is properly called, and some position of the gentleman. There are now on the body. But having been arraigned, in common with authorities which are arrayed against him in reSpeaker's table bills combining interests, which the 'heads of the other committees, I felt it my gard to it. The first authority in relation to the together would ordinarily control the vote of this duty to say this much in reply:

subject to which I will call the attention of the House. I, of course, will not be understood as l'admit ihat if I could have had things as I de- gentleman, is James K. Polk, late President of the meaning personal interests of the members. There sired them, business would have been in advance | United States. The next one, James Buchanan, are the alternate section railroad bills, there are of where it is now; but I deny that the appropria. | who recommended reciprocity in respect to the many private bills, together with the French spo- tion bills have heretofore, for the last fifty years, Canadas. liation bill; and when the friends of these various become laws until near the close of the session, as Mr. FULLER. And only the Canadas. measures, having a common interest, leading them is the case now. The gentleman says that great Mr. TUCK. I so stated. This recommendaall to the same point, combine, they can go to the changes have come upon the country: Sir, tion came to the Thirtieth Congress, was referred business on the Speaker's table, and can, by a changes have been made everywhere and in al- to the Committee on Commerce, over which the vote, carry the House in opposition to the wishes most everything. Changes have been made in this Hon. Joseph Grinnell presided, received the unanof any committee. And one great cause of the House. Mr. Calhoun is not here, Mr. Webster is i imous approbation of the committee, and a bill was delay in the transaction of business is because all not here, Mr. Clay is not here, Silas Wright is reported to the House, which bill passed the are animated with a desire to get at the bills in i not here, John Forsyth, the former representative House. It failed in the Senate for want of time. which their constituents are so deeply interested; l of the gentleman's present district, is not here; Mr. FULLER. It included only half of the members who are anxious to get at the alternate hundreds of other good and great men, who in articles embraced within this bill. section land bills, at the French spoliation bill, time past honored and adorned this House by Mr. TUCK. In the last Congress the subject together wih the private bills in which the constit- their presence, are not here. Truly, Mr. Chair- | again came up. It was referred to the Committee uents of so many are interested.

man, changes have taken place. In that the gentle | on Commerce, over which presided the Hon. RobSir, I desire that the House should understand man and myself are perfectly agreed; but, sir, \ ert M. McLane. It received the sanction of that the embarrassments under which I have, to a large changes are inevitable, and it is not for us to com- committee, and a bill was reported to the House. extent, labored. I cannot think gentlemen are plain of the decrees of fate, or of evils over which It was not acted on by the House, because of the aware of the extent to which these things are car- we have no control. We must make the best we | perplexing territorial questions which we all know ried. Some gentlemen who have charge of, or feel can of our present condition; while our hopes, our blocked up the ordinary course of legislation. It interested in bills upon the Speaker's table, have aspirations, and our efforts, should be directed to is now recommended again, but doubly fortified by told me frankly that the appropriation bills could not the amelioration of the ills that surround us, and considerations growing out of our fishery difficul. be passed through the House until the table should the removal of the obstacles that lie in the way of ties. With this reference to the past favor which be cleared, thus setting up those private bills to our usefulness. Such is the teaching of philoso- the main features of the bill have received, I beseech deloy others. It may be right to do so. I thinks physuch the dictate of justice. I assure my gentlemen on both sides of the House not to vote

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against the proposition before examining it. The || by arguments applicable to the whole country, and from Maine will desert his avowed principles of only favor I ask of any gentleman on this floor | appreciable by every friend of general development Democracy, as I have always understood them to is not to be misled, either by the arguments of the and prosperity: Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, be, for the sake of the plaster of Paris and thelumgentleman from Maine or any other individual, a journal' which all know stands deservedly high ber. Here is an amendment which the gentleman but to examine this question before he condemns in every part of the country, has also argued the has introduced so as to give the go-by to reciproit. It has been sanctioned by the authority of same question with great earnestness and ability. city, and to maintain restriction. Its object is to previous Congresses, and of men standing deserv- | De Bow's Southern and Western Review, printed prevent action. I wish it to be understood disedly high in the confidence not only of their at New Orleans, has contained very able articles iinctly, that the gentleman must know as well as party, but the people of this country; and I only of the same tenor on this subject; and the Charles others, that the only purpose which his proposiask that it be examined before being condemned. ton Mercury has lately, as l'ain told, promulgated tion can accomplish is to defeat any reciprocity It now comes before us with double claims to those similar views, and joined the general approbation bill, and any and every settlement of the fishery which it has ever had heretofore, and I will tell you in favor of reciprocal trade.

troubles. His amendment has an aspect of reciwhy: We have now the opportunity of securing With these proofs that this measure is regarded procity, but it does not mean anything, except reciprocal trade not only with the Canadas, but as national in its character, and as likely to be opposition to reciprocity. Restriction for the benwith the other British Provinces. We have also the generally beneficial, I am sorry to witness the ef efii of lumber and plaster of Paris is its whole purimportant incentive to accept of the terms which fort of the gentleman from Maine to brand it as a port and object. are generously offered to us by Great Britain sectional proposition, and to prejudice the House I wish to refer, in a few words, to the amendand her Provinces, because, by the proposed ar against it by calling it a railroad and manufactur ment which my friend from Massachusetts (Mr. rangement, we obtain a most desirable settlementing scheme.

SABINE) proposes to offer to this bill. He had the of the difficulties which have taken place on the I admire the gentleman's art in attempting to kindness to show it to me. If I understand it corfishing grounds. Our fishermen cannot go through give it a character at the outset of his argument, rectly, it is substantially like the bill proposed by another summer without involving themselves in which should arouse the prejudice of some parts the honorable Senator from Massachusetts (Mr. serious difficulties with the people of the Provinces. of the country. But I condemn his object much Davis) in the Senate. The main proposition seems I am not going to use any threatening argument, more than I admire his skill. Let every ques

to be this: if Great Britain and the Provinces will by saying that war will ensue unless the fisher tion stand on its own merits. Let this measure give us the same rights of fishery they themselves men are quieted, but I believe that there is danger | stand or fall by the judgment of the representa enjoy, we will give them the right to go upon our of bloodshed. There will be no war; for, although tives of the American people, without any resort fishing grounds, and the right to import their the sympathies of our people are as intimately con to efforts of that sort to give it a bad name. If fish into our market. I trust that Congress will nected with the fishermen as with any other class it were in fact a railroad proposition, I should ex not make such an unreasonable proposition to the of our inhabitants, yet our people will not tolerate pect to find the gentleman from Maine advocating | Provinces as this. It is a matter of surprise to any war except for causes which will arouse the The great thoroughfare from the city of Port me that such a thing has been seriously contemwhole country, and the fishermen will endure as land to Montreal—the Atlantic and St. Lawrence plated. What! a proposition to be made to these long as endurance is a virtue.

railroad—will be more benefited than any other Provinces, that we will admit them to our fishing The advantage in respect to the fisheries which railroad by any increase of commerce with the grounds, where we cannot catch good fares of fish is offered to us is this: In the convention with Provinces. If, therefore, reciprocity be a railroad ourselves, provided they will admit us to their Great Britain in 1818, there was a provision by scheme, the State of Maine is most interested, and fishing grounds, where we can catch good fares, which we relinquished the right to fish within the gentleman ought to advocate it, instead of at and where we must go if we make the mackerel three miles of the shore of the British Provinces, tempting to defeat it.

fishery a profitable or saving business! To admit with a few trifling exceptions. Now the mackerel Neither is there any justice in the attempt to their fish into our markets is a consideration enfishing cannot be successfully pursued without convince the House that it is to be mainly advan- tirely inadequate to the advantages we shall gain. going within three miles of the shore. At that tageous to manufacturers. I am sure it will bene I have repeatedly referred, Mr. Speaker, to the time the mackerel fishery was not an interest fit our manufacturers materially, because it will report and bill which is before this House. In relawhich required to be considered in that convention, give us new customers, and open to those custom tion to the report, I will relieve my own mind, by because mackerel were as abundant on the coast ers the way of bringing to us something with expressing the obligations which I feel as a memof New England as any other portion of the which to make their purchases. But it is no ber of this House, to the gentleman from New world. But in 1828, or 1830, mackerel began to scheme to benefit manufacturers, except by the York, (Mr. Seymour,) for the able manner in disappear from our coast, and our fishermen fol- | additional prosperity which it is to give to the which this proposition of reciprocity and fisheries lowed them down to the coast of the British Prov whole community. The representatives of some has been examined and set forth in his report. inces. They have been pursuing that trade since; of the manufacturing districts have doubts, I am The subject is ably presented, as a national measbut there have been difficulties attending its pur- sorry to say, about the scheme; yet I am confident, | ure, and its connection with the agricultural, mansuit for the last twenty years. These difficulties those doubts will be removed when they have ufacturing, and the general interests of the counhave been adjusted from time to time, by the found time to examine more carefully the bill and | try, is successfully, shown by statistics, details, earnest endeavors of the authorities of both Gov- | report under consideration.

and conclusions, which cannot be resisted. It is ernments to preserve peace, and to settle all diffi The gentleman from Maine (Mr. Fuller) has only necessary to read his report in order fully culties in a spirit of liberality which has charac- | signally failed in giving any proof to this House to understand the general importance of the subterized both parties. It is impossible to pursue which can satisfy them that this is a sectional ject, and that all interests may well unite in its the mackerel fishery without occasionally going | measure, or that it is to be exclusively beneficial

support. Ti

report is a document of signal abilwithin three miles from the shore. Unless we to railroads or manufactures. He has, however, ity, and if the gentleman from New York, in rehave this privilege, to enjoy the shore fishery demonstrated to this House the character and the tiring from Congress at the close of this session, without annoyance-which we do not now have sole cause of his opposition to it. The lumber (which I hope he will not do,) should leave no the mackerel fishery will be broken up, and that interest, and the plaster of Paris interest, embrace other monument, this report would be an honorimportant nursery for American seamen will be the alpha and omega of his argument. Yes, sir, able and an enduring evidence of his statesmandestroyed.

in order to maintain a monopoly of lumber in the ship, ability, and expanded views. The British Government proposes to give us the State of Maine, in which there are not more than In this connection, permit me to refer to another privileges of the shore fishery, and also the right | five hundred men interested, he would shape the document on the subject under consideration, to cure on shore the fish caught, provided this reci- legislation of the entire country, and abandon which has attracted my attention, and which I procity proposition is acceded to by our Govern- his favorite doctrines of free trade.

have examined to some extent with great profit ment. The offer that is now made, comes with ten Mr. FULLER. I would like to have the gentle- and pleasure. It is a report made to the Secretary fold the encouragement, and tenfold the reason for man's authority for that. I say that there are more of the Treasury, by Mr. J. D. Andrews, who has its acceptance, which existed when the first overture than forty thousand men interested in that trade. given the last two or three years solely to the received the sanction of the House of Representa Mr. TUCK. If you count the day laborers, business of collecting statistics, and of laying them tives of the Thirtieth Congress, or the sanction of there may be thousands interested in the lumber before the Treasury Department, relative to trade the Committee on Commerce of the last session. business; but the wages of such will not be di. with the British Provinces, from the extreme We can obtain important rights by accepting this minished or increased by the passage of this bill. | northwest to the Atlantic ocean, and to facts and reciprocity proposition. I believe it will accord If you count the holders of land only, I have good statistics relating to the fisheries. Mr. Andrews's with the judgment of each and every member of reason to say, and I challenge contradiction, that || last report constitutes Senate document No. 112, the House who will examine it. If it does not re there are not more than five hundred in the whole and is a production evincing great industry, great ceive the support of every one who thoroughly country who are interested in the Maine lumber | ability, and great success in mastering the subject examines it, I am confident it will be in conse- monopoly;—in that restriction and anti-free trade committed to his investigation. The Secretary quence of some supposed local hardship, and not which the gentleman argues so zealously. He sees was fortunate in employing so competent a person from a doubt of the general interests of the whole his own citizens engaged in building railroads in to make these investigations, and to collect the country.

order to have that intercourse which is desirable facts set forth in this document. I have it in my I desire to put this question on the broadest na- || between the Provinces and the sea-board; and yet hand, and I commend it to the perusal of gentletional grounds. And I wish now, for the benefic | he comes here and argues for the lumber inier men, assuring them that it is a production of no of the gentleman from Maine, and the information est and the $100,000 invested in plaster of Paris, ordinary interest and value. of the whole House, as evidence of the nationality against intercourse and in favor of restriction. Í The gentleman from Maine (Mr. Fuller) has of the proposition, to refer to a few authorities of am not disappointed to find the gentleman arguing stated that the bill under consideration will not a different character to those_to which I have what he thinks to be the interests of his constitu secure actual reciprocity. By reading the bill its already called your attention. The North Ameri- ency with earnesıness and zeal, although those character can be correctly understood: can Review has contained one or more articles, interests are, in my opinion, adverse to the general written with signal ability, urging this matter upon good.

A BILL establishing reciprocal trade with the British North

American Colonies upon certain conditions. the attention of Congress, and sustaining the same But I am astonished to see that the gentloman Be it enacted, &c., That whenever the Governmont of

320 Cong.....20 Sess.

The Homestead Bill-Mr. Adams.


Great Britain shall agree with the Government of the Uni- I have heard an objection made to this bill, re- tleman's constituentsthose lumber dealers-will ted States that the people of the United states shall enjoyported by the Committee on Commerce, because be better off by the passage of this bill. And, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, on the coasts and shores of New.

of its supposed injurious effects upon the agricul- ! after the lapse of a few years, when this lumber foundland, Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton, New Brunswick tural interests of the North and West; particularly will have been cut off from the Maine lands, the and Prince Edward's Island, and of any and all other the with regard to the article of four. Now, upon gentleman's constituents will empower him, or his British possessions in North America, and in all the bays,

this subject I invite the attention of the House constituents will come here and contend as ably gulls, creeks, and waters, or places of the sea, bordering on and adjacent to the British possessions in North Amer

for one minute. Sir, I will state one fact, which for reciprocity as he now does against it. It is ica, and to dress, cure, and dry the same on the coasts and I think will inevitably remove the objections that true that this bill is not as perfect as I should like shores of any part of the British possessions in North any of the friends of the flour interest can possibly it in some particulars, and I have been almost America, as are or shall, from time to time, hereafter be en

entertain to this bill. It is supposed, that if we joyed by subjects of Great Britain, subject, however, to the

tempted to offer an amendment to the bill providing rights of the proprietors or possessors of the ground where

have reciprocal trade with the British Provinces, that coal and iron castings shall be included. It said fish may be dressed, cured, or dried; and whenever they will raise a surplus of wheat, and send it to would be decidedly benencial to my constituents, the Government of Great Britain shall agree with the Gov- the United States overland. Now, sir, is this and to New England generally, if such provisions ernment of the United States that all leases of tishing rights or privileges, and lands necessary for the enjoyment of the

fact covered by the statistics of the country, and were incorporated into the bill. samne, made by British subjects to any of the people of the

from the reports of the Treasury Department? But I wish to call the attention of the wakeful United States, shall have the same force and effect as ifmade We find in ihe report of the Committee on Com- | Representatives from the State of Pennsylvania, tu to British subjects; and whenever the Government of

merce, upon this matter of reciprocity, the state- the fact, that if in following out the indefinite fears Great Britain, with the consent of the Government of the Provinces of Canada and New Brunswick, sball agree with

ment " that the lower colonies, Nova Scotia,

New which haunt their imagination, they, by their opthe Government of the United States that the people of the • Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and New- position, defeat this bill, probably another Consame, in American bottoms, and with boats, rafts, and ves- • foundland, have been among the best customers gress will not pass by without having a reciprocity sels of every description, inay use and navigate the river St.

of American breadstuffs. The market which adopted, including coal and iron free. If sir, this Lawrence, and the river St. John, in New Brunswick, from their sources to the ocean, together with all canals and waters

they have afforded is equal to that of Brazil. || bill should now fail, and it should be my fortune connecting the great northern lakes with the Auantic ocean Our exports of breadstuffs to these colonies in again to occupy a place upon this floor, I should through the river St. Lawrence, as the saine now are or here- * 1852 amounted to $1,659,285, and to Brazil sustain a bill which provides for a more compreafter may be enjoyed by the subjects of Great Britain, subject $1,655,558." only to ihe charges and regulations which now exist, or

hensive reciprocity. shall hereafter be prescribed, for the use and navigation of

I state the further fact, that we pay a duty upon I wish to make one remark in reference to my the same by the inhabitants of the British provinces in this flour which we have exported to these Prov- own views upon the subject of protection. I believe North America or other British subjects; and whenever the inces, varying from twenty-five to seventy-fivecents that protection is a temporary policy. I have never Government of New Brunswick, with the consent of the Government of Great Britain, shall abolish all export duties

per barrel. Now I would ask gentlemen if it can pos- | believed that it would be a permanent policy. on lumber cut on lands within the territory of the United

sibly prejudice the interest of the wheat-growing But there is no need of protection between two counStates, and transported down the river St. John and ex- portion of this country to have reciprocal free trade tries lying side by side, in which the labor of one ported thence; and whenever the President of the United

with these Provinces, when we now, in spite of is equally expensive as the labor of the other, and States shall issue his proclamation declaring that the articles hereinafter enumerated, being of the growth, production: All fear on this subject must be removed by the the other. There is no need of our protecting our.

the duty, export so largely to these Provinces in which money in one is equally abundant as in or manufacture of the United States, are admitted into the British North American provinces by law free of duty ;- statement of this one fact, that Brazil is a very im- | selves against Canada. There is no need of our that on and after that day the like articles being of the portant consumer of our four, and yet we export, | protecting ourselves against any country that lies growth, production, or manufacture of the said British North American provinces, shall be admitted into the Uni

as I have before mentioned, more flour to these coterminous to us upon this continent. And sir, I ted States free of duty, when imported directly from such

Provinces annually than we do to the whole of would give my support to-day for a great system provinces, so long as the said enumerated articles are ad- Brazil.

which should deserve the name of an American mitted into such British North American provinces when Thegentleman from North Carolina (Mr. Cling- || system of free trade in respect to countries that until otherwise directed by the Government of the United Man) has proposed an amendment to this bill, the lie adjacent to us. But we cannot adopt that policy States, to wit: Grains, flour, and breadstuffs of all kinds, || design of which is, as I understand it, to open the in reference to the countries of Europe where labor seeds, unmanufactured hemp, unmanufactured flax and coasting trade of the whole country to British com- and money is cheap, and I am happy to know tow, animals of all kinds, undried fruits, fish of all kinds| petition. I do not understand the amendment ex- that there are no gentlemen in the country who fresh'

; hides, sheep pelts, wool, butter, cheese, tallow, lard, actly, but I suppose that to be the purport of his argue, with any great appearance of seriousness, horns, manures, ores of all kinds stone and inarble in its proposition. Now. I would ask the gentleman for such a policy. crude or worked state, gypsum, ground or unground, ashes, from North Carolina if he would favor such a firewood, agricultural implements, including axes; fish oil proposition as this, unless Great Britain will admit broom-corn, bark, unwrought burr-stones, dyestuffs, rice, cotton, unmanufactured tobacco, unrefined sugar. us to a free competition in her coasting trade?

THE HOMESTEAD BILL. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That whenever the

Mr. CLINGAN. Such are the terms of my President of the United States shall issue his proclamation amendment.

SPEECH OF HON. SPEPHEN ADAMS, declaring that the Government of Great Britain has agreed Mr. TUCK. The gentleman would not, and

OF MISSISSIPPI, with the Government of the United States that round, hewed, and sawed timber of all kinds, and all lumber of no man who sympathizes with the interests of his

In the Senate, February 24, 1853, every description, the growth and production of the United country, would hazard his reputation by making | Against an amendment proposed by Mr. WALKER States when exported directly therefrom to the British West India islands, shall, during the continuance of the recip- gentleman has no reason to believe that England and supporting such a proposition here. But the

to the Pacific Railroad bili, as containing all the rocal trade provided for by this act, be admitted into the ports of said islands at no higher duty than shall be imwould admit us to a competition in their coasting

principles of the Homestead bill. posed in such ports on similar articles when imported into trade on the coast of England. We have no prop

Mr. ADAMS said: Mr. President, the amendsaid islands from the British North American provinces, that osition of that kind from the British Govern.

ment under consideration, proposing, as it does, a on and after that day, round, hewed, or sawed timber of all

ment. This matter of reciprocal trade is one thing, disposition of the public lands, I shall avail mykinds, and all sawed lumber of every description, undressed and unmanufactured in any way, the growth and produc

and the opening of the coasting trade is another self of the liberty it affords to give my views on tion of the British North American provinces, when they When it is necessary to consider this latter sub

the various propositions pending before the Senshall by law admit into their ports free of duty the articles ject, let the gentleman be heard upon it; let him ate, for the disposition of the public domain. I named in the first section of this act as therein provided, shall be admitted into the United States, when imported then bring forward his proposition and argue it

shall first consider the bill which has acquired the directly from said provinces, free of duty, so long as similar with his usual ability, and let the judgment of the title,, by common consent, of the homestead articles, the growth and production of the United States, House be taken upon it; but I ask the gentleman bill;" a term which gives it a popularity throughshall, when exported from the United States, be admitted

out the land that no other could confer. Perhaps free of duty into the ports of the United Kingdom of Great Now, I wish to say one word in relation to the friends, that is hallowed by so many endearing

there is no name, save that of wise, children, or Britain and Ireland, or until otherwise directed by the Government of the United States ; and when any duty is or shall

sumber trade. I beg leave to differ with the be charged in the ports of the United Kingdom of Great Brim tleman from Maine in regard to the prejudicial associations as that of the family homestead. It ain and Ireland upon such articles so as aforesaid impled

effects which this bill may have upon the lumber forms a common platform on which the affections directly from the United States, the same dutyall be charged upon round, hewed, or sawed timberdressed and

interest: The lumber interests are amply provided of all-the rich and the poor, the old and the and all sawed lumber of every description.

for in this bill. How? The head waters of'the river | young, meet as upon a level. Every Senator in unmanufactured in any way, when im Sted from said

St. Johannishestand belonging to Maine,

and heart

, will testify to the truth of the poet's decla

this Chamber, yielding to the impulses of his own provinces directly into the ports of the United States. interest. The lumber cannot now betare l'umber

+ IDEIC 18 Tv February 13, 1853.

that river through the Provinces, without paying Mr. TUCK resumad: Mr. Speaker, I had nearly a duty: There is a provision in that bill that the Every cottager's heart in this broad land beats concluded my remarks, when I was arrested by the duty shall be abolished. That is one of the ad- responsively to its truth; and as we all take delight expiration of phe morning, hour on yesterday. At vantages which this bill affords to the lumber inter- | in conferring benefits upon the necessitous, I feel the close of the last session of Congress, in ac- est; and the gentleman from Maine will observe confident that every Senator on this floor is discordance with my convictions of duty, I published that in the second section of the bill there are other posed to vote for the bill when it shall be taken

provisions for the security of that interest, among up, or for some proposition that will embody suba speech upon the subject of the fisheries and reciprocity with the British Provinces. In that which is one that provides that lumber shall be stantially the great object sought to be attained speech I set forth at length my views upon this admitted into the ports of the West Indies duty by it, if he can do so consistently with his duty

to the Constitution and the country. free. subject, and I do not, therefore, feel inclined to

Now, I contend that it is demonstrable satisfac- I propose, sir, to enter upon a brief examination occupy the whole of the hour to which I am entitled under the rule, but knowing the feeling of torily to the mind of every man from every part of our powers over the public domain, and our the House, and their indisposition at this late of the country, that this bill cannot operate to duty upon the importani question of its proper period of the session to listen to any discussion their prejudice, but will be as generally useful to disposition. I assume the position as a postulate, at length upon any subject, I will conclude with a all interests as any bill that can be brought before that the public lands have been acquired by the few additional remarks.

the country; and iake it in the long run, the gen- Il common blood and treasure of all the States of the

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