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III. ii. p. 95. Skogan.-Two famous persons of this name lived in the fifteenth century: (1) Henry Scogan, the Court poet of Henry IV. and friend of Chaucer, described by Ben Jonson in The Fortunate Isles as :
"A fine gentleman, and master of arts,
Daintily well." and (2) John Scogan, the Court jester of Edward IV., and the subject of Scogin's Jests, an Elizabethan chapbook wrongly attributed to Andrew Borde, printed in 1565. Shakspere apparently refers to the jester, but assigns him to the period of the poet.
III. ii. p. 102. Two more called than your number. - Apparently an error, as Shallow reckons six men in all, and only five have appeared.
III. ii. p. 103. Harry ten shillings.—The ‘Harry' stands for either Henry VII. or Henry VIII., who first had the ten-shilling piece coined.
III. ii. p. 106. Mile End Green.-The chief ground for military drill and public archery competitions.
III. ii. p. 106. Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show.Sir Dagonet, King Arthur's Fool in the legend of Tristram de Lyonesse. Arthur's Show was an exhibition of Archery by a society of fifty-eight citizens known as 'The Auncient Order, Society, and Unitie Laudable of Prince Arthure and His Knightly Armoury of the Round Table.' The members took the names of knights in the old romance · La Morte d'Arthure.' The character of this society, and the context of the reference here, are interesting indications of the small respect felt for the Arthurian legends.
III. ii. p. 108. Sworn brother. The fratres jurati of chivalry ; knights sworn to share all one another's vicissitudes of good and evil fortune.
III. ii. p. 108. Philosopher's two stones.-One a universal panacea ; the other a transmuter of other metals into gold.
IV. i. p. 108. Gaultree Forest. - A large forest for. merly existing to the north of the city of York.
IV. i. p. 111. Turning your books to graves.--Tum. ing from your books to the dangers of war.
IV. i. p. 112. Our most quiet there.-' Our complete yielding to the course of that stream.' Warburton conjectured 'sphere,' which has been largely adopted ; but this introduces a sudden transition from the simile of a stream to that of the position of the stars in space.
IV. i. p. 113. My brother general, the Common. wealth, &c. - 'The grievances of .my general brother, the Commonwealth, and the home cruelty of my brotherborn, cause me to make this quarrel my own. York's brother, Lord Scroop, had been executed by Henry IV.'s orders (see 1 Henry IV. I. iii. p. 52).
IV. i. p. 116. A true substantial form. — A legally ratified pardon.
IV. ii. p. 121. This Hydra son of war.—This revolt has grown from your rejection of our grievances, as the heads of Hydra multiplied. Hydra, the monstrous serpent with many heads, each of which, when cut off, was succeeded by two, unless the wound was stopped by fire. It was destroyed by Hercules.
IV. ii. p. 127. The very extremest inch of possibility.-In the absolute minimum of time.
IV. ii. p. 131. Commences it and sets it in act and use. -Probably, as Tyrwhitt suggested, there is an allusion here to the Cambridge 'commencement' and the Oxford 'act.' Tbese are the two names of the ceremony whereat the respective Universities confer the degree by which the student acquires a complete authority to use his “hoards of learning.'
IV. iv. p. 135. 'Tis seldom when the bee doth leave her comb in the dead carrion. When the bee has once deposited her stores in the carrion, she commonly stays there.'
IV. iv. p. 138. Unfathered heirs.-- Children of supernatural origin, like Merlin in 'La Morte d'Arthure.' V. i. p. 150. By cock and pie. A trivial oath, by popular association of the words with cock' and 'magpie,', but originally a solemn conjuration constructed of cock'
God,' and ' pie' (pica) the Catholic breviary. V. i. p. 151. A friend i' the court, &c.-A proverb occurring in The Romaunt of the Rose :
“For frende in court aie better is
Than penny is in purse, certis." V. i. p. 152. William Visor of Wincot-against Clement Perkes of the hill.-Woncot (Woodmancote) a village in Gloucestershire. 'A family of Visor or Vizard has been associated with it since the sixteenth century, and a house on the adjoining Stinchcombe Hill was then occupied by the family of Perkes.' (Cf. Madden, T'he Diary of William Silence, p. 86, quoted by Herford.)
V. ii. p. 157. Amurath.-Sultan of Turkey; Amurath III. dying in 1596, left a son Amurath; who, on coming to the throne, had all his brothers strangled, lest his succession-he being the second son—should be disputed.
V. ii. p. 160. My father is gone wild into his grave. I have buried my wildness in my father's grave.'
V. ii. p. 160. With his spirit sadly I survive. 'His staid and sober spirit now wholly animates me.
V. iii. p. 162. You must bear—the heart's all. . You must excuse the poverty of the entertainment; goodwill's everything.'
V. ii. p. 164. Do me right, &c.-The refrain of an old drinking song, Do me right' was challenge to drink. * Dub me knight.'-One who drank a health to his mistress, kneeling, was dubbed a knight for the evening. Samingo is Silence's contraction of San Domingo, regarded as the patron saint of topers.
V. iii. p. 165. King Cophetua.-Referring to the ballad of King Cophetua and the Beggar-maid printed in Percy's Reliques.
V. iii. p. 166. As nail in door.-'Dead as a door nail.' The nail, or lump of iron on which the knocker strikes, which, being struck so often without resisting, became typical of deadness.
V. iii. p. 167. “Where is the life that late I led ?"The title of a song, quoted also by Grumio in The Taming of the Shrew.
V. iv. p. 168. Thin man in a censer.—The hammered or embossed figure in the middle of the pierced cover of a censer, used in burning perfumes for fumigating. V. V. p. 170.
'Semper idem' for 'obsque hoc nihil est.'—' Ever the same' for 'without this there is nothing’; rendered by Pistol: “All in all, and all in every part," an English proverb, of which he quotes the latter part. The later Folios substitute 'absque' for 'obsque,' but doubtless the blunder is intentional.
V. v. p. 171. Rouse up revenge, &c.—Probably alluding to the end of Act IV. of Kyd's Spanish Tragedy, where the ghost cries four times, Awake Revenge.' Alecto, one of the Furies, whose head was wreathed with serpents.
V. v. p. 174. Si fortuna, &c.—Pistol again quotes his motto with a variation in the errors. Farmer pointed out that his use of the phrase in the present situation may be suggested by the tale of Hannibal Gonzaga, 'who vaunted on yielding himself a prisoner, as you may read in an old collection of tales called Wits, Fits and Fancies :
“Si Fortuna me tormenta
Il Speranza me contenta." Epil. pp. 174-5. Promise you infinitely. - In the Quarto the concluding words, and so kneel,' &c., follow here, from which it is inferred that the intervening passage was introduced later, but before 1600, when the Quarto was published. The authorship is also doubted, but it is probably Shakspere's, the shorter version appearing in the original text, and the addition being made when • Falstaff'
was substituted for 'Sir John Oldcastle.'
Abated : reduced to low Apple-john: an apple that keeps
temper, ‘let down.' I. i. p. 31. well, but for the shrivelling of Abide: face, take the chances of. the skin. II. iv. p. 72. II. iii. p. 70.
Apprehensive: quick of comAbroach: afoot. IV. ii. p. 120. prehension. IV. iii. p. 130. Accite: summon, V. ii. p. 160. Approve: prove. I. ii. p. 44. Accites : induces. II. ii. P. 63. Argumenti subject, matter. V. Accommodated: supplied. III. ii. p. 155. ii. p. 97.
Armed : spurred. I. i. p. 28. Achitophel: Ahithophel, cursed Assemblance: appearance (in by David for his misguidance of the aggregate).
III. ii. p. Absalom. I. ii. p. 37.
105. Aconitum: aconite. IV. iv. p. 134. At a word: in a word. III. ii. Addressed: equipped, prepared. IV. iv. p. 132.
Atomy : Mistress Q.'s blunder Advised: aware, fully conscious. for 'anatomy,' skeleton. V. I. i. p. 34.
iv. p. 169. Affect: love. IV. v. p. 145. Atonement: reconciliation. IV. Affections: desires, inclinations. i. p. 118.
IV. iv. p. 135; unruly tenden- Attach: arrest. IV. ii, p. 125. cies. V. ii. p. 160.
Attached : arrested, taken posAgainst : in anticipation of. IV. session of. II. ii, p. 61. ii. p. 123.
Away with: abide, endure. III, Agate: an image cut in an agate. ii. p. 102.
stone, such as would be set in Awfül: awe inspiring. V, il. p. & ring (alluding to the smallness
158. of the page and his smooth Awful banks: bounds of loyal chin). I. ii. p. 86.
reverence. IV. i. p. 116. Aggravate : Mistress Q.’s blun- Balm: consecrated oil used for der for moderate.' II. iv. p. the anointing of the King at 94.
the coronation ceremony. IV. All: quite. IV. i. p. 115.
v. p. 144. Allow: approve of.
Band : bond. I, ii. p. 37. 121,
Barbary hen: a fowl with feaAnatomise : lay open, dissect. thers that grow in a natural Induct. p. 24.
ruffle and reversal. II. iv. p. Ancient: ensign. II. iv. p. 75. 76. Angel: quibbling allusion to the Barson : for Barston, in War.
coin, a gold piece worth ten wickshire. V. iii. p. 165. shillings. I. ii. p. 48.
Basingstoke : in the north of Notes.)
Hampshire. II. I. p. 59. Antiquity: age. I. ii. p. 48.
Basket - hilt stale juggler: Appertinent: appertaining, worn-out performer of fencing proper. I. ii. p. 48.
tricks. II. iv. p. 77.
IV. ii, p.