Obrazy na stronie

somewhat more masterly than any of my former Informers and promoters oppress and ruin the estragedies.

Id. tates of many of his best subjects. Drummond. Fear’s a large promiser; who subject live

Never yet was honest man, To that base passion, know not what they give. Id.

That ever drove the tale of love; More than wise men, when the war began, could

It is impossible, nor can promise to themselves in their most sanguine hopes.

Integrity our ends promove. Suckling.

Davenant. Nothing lovelier can be found, The promissory lyes of great men are known by Than good works in her husband to promote. shouldering, hugging, squeezing, smiling, and bow

Milton. ing.


Did I solicit thee Let any man consider how many sorrows he would From darkness to promote me?

Id. have escaped had God called him to his rest, and

My rising is thy fall, then say whether the promise to deliver the just from And my promotion will be thy destruction. Id. the evils to come, ought not to be made our daily Knowledge hath received little improvement froin prayer.

Wake. the endeavours of many pretended promoters. All the pleasure we can take, when we met these

Glantille. promising sparks, is in the disappointment. Felton. Making useless offers, but promoving nothing. She bribed my stay, with more than human charms;

Fell. Nay promised, vainly promised, to bestow

Thou youngest virgin-daughter of the skies, Immortal life.

Pope's Odyssey. Made in the last promotion of the blest ; Thy maidens, grieved themselves at my concern, Whose palms, new plucked from paradise, Oft gave ine promise of a quick return;

In spreading branches more sublimely rise. What ardently I wished, I long believed,

Dryden. And, disappointed still, was still deceived. Cowper. He that talks deceitfully for truth, must hurt it

And round the new discoverer quick they flocked more by his example than he promotes it by his arguIn multitudes, and plucked, and with great haste ments.

Atterbury. Devoured ; and sometimes in the lips 'twas sweet, Our Saviour makes this return, fit to be engraven And promised well ; but, in the belly, gall. Pollok.

in the hearts of all promoters of charity : Verily, I Promissory Notes are entirely on a par with say unto you, inasmuch as you have done it unto one bills, equally negotiable, and subject to the same of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it duties.

unto me.

Id. PROʻMONT, n. s. / Fr. promontoire ; Lat. Frictions of the extreme parts promote the flux of PROM'Ontory. I promontorium. ‘Promont, the juices in the joints.

Arbuthnot. I have observed,' says Johnson, ‘only in Suck

PROMPT, adj. & v. a. Fr. prompt ; Ital. ling.' A headland; cape; high peninsula; or PROMP’TER, n. s. ,

pronto; Latin, part of a peninsula.


promptus. Quick; Like one that stands upon a promontory,

PROMPT'LY, adv. ready; acute; easy; And spies a far off shore where he would tread.


unobstructed; pert: Shakspeare. PROMPT'ure.

assist; make The land did shoot out with a great promontory.


ready or perfect; instigate; incite: a prompter The waving sea can with each flood

is a suggester; admonisher; reminder : prompBathe some high promont.


titude and prompter, readiness ; quickness; apThey, on their heads,

titude; prompture, suggestion ; obsolete. Main promontories flung, which in the air

Sitting in some place, where no man shall prompt Came shadowing, and opprest whole legions armed. him, let the child translate his lesson. Ascham..


Tell him, I'm prompt
Every gust of rugged winds,

To lay my crown at's feet, and there to kneel. That blows from off each beaked promontory. Id.

Shakspeare. If you drink tea upon a promontory that overhangs

My voice shall sound as you do prompt mine ear, the sea, it is preferable to an assembly. Pope. .

And I will stoop and humble my intents PROMOTE', v. a. Fr. promouvoir ; Lat. To your well practised wise directions.

Id. PROMOʻTER, n. s. promoveo, promotus. To

Were it my cue to fight, I should have known it PROMO'TION, forward ; to advance; Without a prompter.

Id. Othello. PROMOVE', v. a.

elevate; prefer: pro Though he hath fallen by prompture of the blood; moter is used in an obsolete sense for informer; Yet hath he in him such a mind of honour, approver : promotion is advancement; prefer- That had he twenty heads to tender down ment: promove, an obsolete synonyme of

On twenty bloody blocks he'd yield them up.

Shakspeare. mote.

None could hold the book so well to prompt and I will promote thee unto very great honour.

instruct this stage play, as she could. Bacon.

Numbers. Shall I leave my fatness wherewith they honour The reception of light into the body of the building God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees ? was very prompt, both from without and from within. Judges ix. 9.

IV otton. Many fair promotions

If they prompt us to anger, their design makes use Are daily given to enroble those,

of it to a further end, that the mind, being thus disThat scarce, some two days since, were worth a noble. quietcd, may not be easily composed to prayer. Shakspeare.

Duppa. The high promotion of his grace of Canterbury

He that does his merchandise chearfully, promp!Who holds his state at door 'mongst pursuivants. Id.

ly, and readily, and the works of religion slowly, it His eies be promoters, some tresspass to spie. is a sign that his heart is not right with God. Tusser.

Taylo. Next to religion, let your care be to promote jus Very discerning and prompt in giving orders, as tice. Bacon occasions required.





Prompt eloquence

The promulgers of our religion, Jesus Christ and Flowed from their lips in prose or numerous verse. his apostles, raised men and women from the dead, Milton. not once only, but often.

Id. Rage prompted them at length and found them

PRONAOS, in the ancient architecture, a

Id. The inconcealable imperfections of ourselves will

porch to a church, a palace, or other spacious hourly prompt us of our corruption, and loudly tell building. See Porcu. us we are sons of earth.

Browne. PRONAPIDES, an ancient Greek poet of He needed not one to prompt him, because he Athens, who was preceptor to Homer. He also, could say the prayers by heart. Stilling fleet. it is said, first taught the Greeks to write from I was too hasty to condemn unheard ;

the left to the right; as they formerly wrote in And you, perhaps, too prompt in your replies. the Oriental manner from right to left.

Dryden. PRONATION, among anatomists. The raWe understand our duty without a teacher, and

dius of the arm has two kinds of motion, the acquit ourselves as we ought to do without a prompter.


one called pronation, the other supination. ProHad not this stop been given him by that acci

nation is that whereby the palm of the hand is dental sickness, his great courage and promptness of turned downwards; and supination, the opposite mind would have carried him directly forward to the motion thereto, is that whereby the back of the enemy, till he had met him in the open plains of hand is turned downwards. Persia.

South. PRONE', adj. 2


Bending Every one some time or other dreams he is rea

PRONE'NESS, n. s. downwards;

erect; ing books, in which case the invention prompts so PRON'ITY.


precipitous; headlong; readily that the mind is imposed on. Addison.

propense; inclined : proneness and pronity, Still arose some rebel slave,

state of being prone. Prompter to sink the state than he to save. Prior.

Firm and rigid muscles, strong pulse, activity, and The Holy Spirit saw that mankind is unto virtue promptness in animal actions, are signs of strong

hardly drawn, and that righteousness is the less acfibres.

Arbuthnot. counted of by reason of the proneness of our affecTo the stern sanction of the offended sky,

tions to that which delighteth.

"Hooker. My prompt obedience bows.


The soul being first from nothing brought, Kind occasion prompts their warm desires. Id. When God's grace fails her, doth to nothing fall; The priestly brotherhood, devout, sincere,

And this declining proneness unto nought, From mean self-interest, and ambition clear,

Is e'en that sin that we are born withal. Davies. Their hope in heaven, servility their scorn,

Of this mechanic pronity, I do not see any good Prompt to persuade, expostulate, and warn.


More's Divine Dialogues. Cowper.

There wanted yet a creature not prone,
PROMPTUARY, n. s. Fr. promptuaire;

And brute as other creatures, but endued
Lat. promptuarium.
A storehouse; repository;

With sanctity of reason, might erect magazine.

His stature, and upright, with front serene
Govern the rest.

Milton's Paradise Lost, This stratum is still expanded at top, serving as

Down thither prone in flight the seminary or promptuary, that furnisheth forth matter for the formation of animal and vegetable bo

He speeds.

Id. dies.


Upon these three positions in man, wherein the PROMULGATE, or

spine can only be at right lines with the thigh,

Lat. promulgo. To arise those postures, prone, supine, and erect. PROMULGE', v. a. publish; make known

Broune. PROMULGATION, n. s. <by open declaration :

He instituted this worship, because of the carnality PROMULGATOR, promulgation, the de- of their hearts, and the proneness of the people to PROMULGER. claration made ; pro- idolatry.

Tillotson. mulgator and promulger, he who makes it. Those who are ready to confess him in judgment Those albeit' I know he nothing so much hateth and profession, are very prone to deny him in their

South. as to promulgate, yet I hope that this will occasion doings. him to put forth divers other goodly works.

If we are prone to sedition, and delight in change,

Spenser. there is no cure more proper than trade, which supThe stream and current of this rule hath gone as plies business to the active, and wealth to the indifar, it hath continued as long as the very promulga- gent.

Addison. tion of the gospel.

Hooker. How great is the proneness of our nature to comThose to whom he entrusted the promulgating of ply with this temptation !

Rogers. the gospel, had far different instructions.

Since the floods demand,

Decay of Piety. For their descent a prone and sinking land: External promulgation, or speaking thereof, did not Does not this due declivity declare, alter the same, in respect of the inward form or qua A wise director's providential care ? lity. White.

Blackmore. It is certain laws, by virtue of any sanction they The proneness of good men to commiserate want in receive from the promulgated will of the legislature, whatsoever shape it appears.

Atterbury. reach not a stranger, if by the law of nature every Still prone to change, though still the slaves of man hath not a power to punish offences against it. state.

Pope. Locke. While stornis remote but murmur on thy ear, The very promulgation of the punishment will be Nor waves in ruinous uproar round thee roll, part of the punishment, and anticipate the execution. Yet, yet a moment check thy prone career,

South. And curb the keen resolve that prompts thy soul. The chief design of them is, to establish the truth

Beattie. of a new revelation in those countries, where it is first All else was prone, irrational, and mute, promulged and propagated. Atterbury. And unaccountable, by instinct led. Pollok.



PRONG, 11. s. Belg. pronghen, to squeeze. important part of a living language. It is that Minsheu.--Goth. prionn. A fork.

part of it, however, we apprehend, upon which The cooks make no more ado, but, slicing it into instruction is least communicable by books; and little gobbets, prick it on a prong of iron, and hang what constitutes elegant or even correct pronunit in a furnace.

Sanuys. ciation is so much matter of fashion, and everWhacum his sea-coal prong threw by,

changing modifications, that “Pronouncing DicAnd basely turned his back to fly.

Hudibras.' tionaries' have, we confess, long given place in Be mindtul,

our library to many less laborious performances. With iron teeth of rakes and prongs to move Dr. Watts is said to have proposed in badinage, The crusted earth. 'Dryden's Virgil's Georgicks. as a rule of English spelling and pronunciation, PRONOUN, n. s. Fr. pronom; Lat.


that the one should be as unlike the other as posA part of speech; see the extract.

sible. I, thou, he ; we, ye, they, are names given to per Mr. Walker, however, is clearly entitled to sons, and used instead of their proper names, from praise for his researches into this subject : yet he whence they had the name of pronouns, as though confesses that he was afraid to attempt all that they were not nouns themselves, but used instead of he considered necessary, and in general contented Clarke's Latin Grammar.

himself with ascertaining, and exhibiting, exPRONOUNCE, v. a. & v. n. French pro- isting, and what has been called polite asage. Pronouncer, n. s. noncer; Latin Nothing more than this, perhaps, can ever be PRONUNCIA'Tion.

pronuncio. To accomplished; and in this he was certainly sucspeak; utter; utter solemnly or confidently; cessful; so that bis Dictionary is regarded as speak with confidence or authority : pronuncia the standard of English pronunciation. But he tion is the act, art, or mode of utterance. has evidently, after all, attempted too much.

He pronounced all these words unto me with his For it cannot surely be necessary to mark the mouth.

Jer, xxxvi. 18. sound of every word in the English language: I have pronounced the word, saith the Lord. it must be quite sufficient to mark those in which

Jeremiah. pronunciation is likely to err. Such words only She

should be marked by a different spelling, which So good a lady, that no tongue could ever deviate in any respect from the analogy of the Pronounce dishonour of her.

language: the pronunciation of all the rest Shakspeare. Henry VIII.

may be sufficiently indicated by the accent, with How confidently soever men pronounce of them- the assistance, occasionally, of the marks and", selves, and believe that they are then most pious, the first denoting that a vowel is long—the sewhen they are most eager and unquiet ; yet ’tis sure

cond, that it is short : as, contemplāte, alb. The this is far removed from the true genius of religion.

reader will find the following particulars respecte

Decay of Piety.
Language of man pronounced

ing English pronunciation and its marks worth By tongue of brute, and human sense expressed.

consideration. Milton.

1. The accent should be understood as falling Sternly he pronounced the rigid interdiction. Id. on the letter immediately preceding the mark

The design of speaking being to communicate our or sign: as, ac'cent, n. accen't, v. a.; fa'vor, enthoughts by ready, easy, and graceful pronunciation, deav’or. all kind of letters have been searched out, that were 2. When the letter immediately preceding the serviceable for the purpose.


accentual mark is a vowel, it is long; but, if a Though diversity of tongues continue, this would

consonant immediately precede the mark, the render the pronouncing them easier.

Id. It were easy to produce thousands of his verses,

preceding vowel is short : thus, fa'vor, fab'rie, which are lame for want of half a foot, sometimes a

which is equivalent to fāvor, fábric. whole one, and which no pronunciation can make

3. Final e renders the preceding vowel long, ctherwise.


except when it is followed by a double consoAbsalom pronounced a sentence of death against nani : as, mate, mete, mite, mote, mute, na'ture, his brother.

Locke. rēmo'te, &c., pronounced as if marked, māte, Every fool may believe and pronounce confidently: mēte, mite, mõte, māte, nā'tūre, rēmõ'te. But, but wise men will, in matters of discourse, conclude when two or more consonants come between the firmly, and in matters of fact, act surely.

final e and the preceding vowel, it is short: as,

South's Sermons. battle, babble, badge, &c. pronounced as if The pronouncer thereof shall be condemned in ex

marked băttle, băbble, bådge. In such words penses.

Ayliffe. We do not believe the character which a man

as intes'tine, fu'tile, &c., the vowel preceding the gives us of another, unless we have a good opinion

final e is made short by Mr. Walker; but in the of his own : so neither should we believe the verdict opinion of the writer it is better to make all such which the mind pronounces, till we first examine instances conform to the rule; and the long whether it be impartial and unbiassed. Mason,

vowel sound is an improvement in all such conAnd God, beholding, saw

nexions to the English language; for it is, in The fair design, that from eternity

general, both harsh to the ear and hard to the His mind conceived, accomplished'; and, well pleased, mouth, from having too few open and too many His six days finished work most good pronounced, shut vowel sounds. And man declared the sovereign prince of all.

4. When the accent is not placed on a vowel,

and when it is not followed by a final e in the PRONUNCIATION. Interweaving an English same syllable, the vowel is to be always conLexicon with the other portions of our alphabet, sidered short: as, fatt'en, hab'it, &c., pronourced we may be expected to say something on this as if marked fåttěn, håbit.


3. In monosyllables terminating with all, a 18. Before Im, a has the broad German has the same sound as aw or au: as, all, ball, sound, and I is silent; as in calm, balm, &c. call, &c., pronounced awl, bawl, caul. In ali 19. Before II and ld, o is always long : as, cases, when the accent is placed before the l, a poll, old, fold, cold, &c., pronounced pole, old, is to be pronounced aw; when the accent is put föld, &c. after h, a is to be pronounced short: as, fa’lse, 20. Before single r, a has uniformly what is ma'lt, fa’lter; alb, al'titude, cal’umny, cal'let; termed the broad German sound, except in unpronounced as if marked-fawls, mawlt, fawl- accented syllables, where it has the common short ter; alb, al'titude, &c.

sound : as, far, part, partial ; ram'părt, &c.; and 6. The following diphthongs have uniformly before double r, a has uniformly the short sound; the long sound of a (except when one of the as in carry, tarry, &c. Fowels is in the italic character), ay, ai, ei, ey : 21. Before a, 0, U, C is always pronounced as, Maid, pail, say, rein, they, &c., pronounced like K; but before e, i, y, it is pronounced like like made, pale, &c. But, when one of the S: as, card, cord, curd, pronounced kard, kord, vowels is silent, the other vowel is short: as, kurd; cement, city, cynic, pronounced sement, plaid, raillery, mountain, &c., pronounced plad', sitty, cinnic. When i ends a word or syllable, rallery, mountin.

it always sounds the same as k; as, mu'sic, 7. Au, aw, are to be uniformly considered as flaccid, siccity, pronounced mu'sik, Hak'sed, sounding the same as in caul, awl, except when sik'sity : k after c is now very properly disthe pronunciation of the words containmg them carded, except in such words as back, pack : as, is particularly indicated. For au before n is music, physic, &c., not musick, physick. It pronounced like a in far, and in the colloquial, would be well to discontinue the k in every case, words ca'nt and sha'nt, except when a different (i. e. in connexion with c), or to substitute it for sound is particularly indicated : thus, aunt, c, which last letter is wholly superfluous in the askaunce, askaunt, haunt, &c., are pronounced English alphabet; and, if k and's were made to like † an't, t can't.

supersede this double-sounding character, much 8. Ea, ee, are generally pronounced like e inconvenience would be obviated. long: as, annea'l, peel, fear, feed. The excep 22. Ch has three sounds, viz. tsh, as in chair, tions, however, are numerous, and are thus child, chin, &c.; sh, as in chaise, chagrin, mamarked in some pronouncing dictionaries: bread', chine, &c.; k, as in chaos, character, chorus, head', earl, pronounced bred, hed, erl.

anchor, mechanic, epoch, &c. When ci, ti, si, 9. Ew, eu, ue, are always pronounced like u come before a, e, o, they are to be considered long, except when a difference is particularly as sounding like sh, with some exceptions, as, indicated : as, few, feud, due. But after r, ue, special, occasion, diction, petition, captinus, &c. cu', are generally pronounced like oo: as, true, pronounced speshal, okazhún, petishun, capshus : screw, pronounced troo, scroo.

tious, cious, are always pronounced shus; cion, 10. Da and oe always sound like long o, ex- sion, tion-shun; but short, as if put shn. cept when a difference is particularly indicated 23, G, like C, has two sounds ; before 0, 0, U, in the dictionary; as, moat, sloe, pronounced l, r, or when terminating a syllable, it is hard; mote, slo.

as in game, go, gun, fig, fag, &c.; before e, i, y, 11. Oy, oi, have uniformly the compound G is pronounced like J; as in gem, genus, gin, sound of o and i, except where a departure from gibe or gybe, gymnastic, age, eulogy, &c.; exrule is indicated : thus, joy, spoil, &c.

ceptions, however, occur, such as get, geld, &c. 12. Vo has generally the same sound as in Such words as the following are not exceptions, food, soon, fool, &c.

because the g is properly the last letter of a syl13. Before l, u has uniformly the sound of oo lable, and therefore has the hard sound, viz. shortened, except when a difference is particularly shaggy, shagged, ragged, rugged, dagger, anger, indicated : as, bull, full, handful; the sole dif- finger, &c. The intention in doubling the 8

in ference between full and fool is, that the diph- shaggy, beggar, &c., was to indicate the hard thong in the last is longer than in the first. sound. When gn begins or terminates a word,

14. Ow, ou, uniformly sound as in our, now, & is silent; as gnaw, gnat, condign, malign, feign, except when w or u is marked as silent, in which deign, sign-pronounced naw, nat, condine, macase the pronunciation is the same as long o: line, fain, dain, sine. The vowel preceding the thus, flow, source, mould, pronounced, mõld, silent g or gh is uniformly long; as impugn, sõrce, fo. When ow terminates a word of more right, blight, &c.-pronounced impune rite, than one syllable, it is uniformly pronounced like blite. Except in ghost, ghast, and their derivalong o: as in hollow, sorrow, &c., pronounced tives (pronounced gost, gast), gh is to be consihol'lo, sor'ro.

dered as uniformly silent: there are a few in15. In monosyllables y and ie are always pro- stances in which it is pronounced f, as in congh, nounced like long i; but in words of more than , &c.-and k, as in lough—and g hard, as in one syllable they are pronounced like short e: burgh. as, try, tries, pronounced tri, tries, &c.; carry, 24. When kn begins a word, k is silent; as, carries, pronounced carry, carries, &c.

knab, knack, knee, know, &c.—pronounced nab, 16. Before nd, i has uniformly the long sound; nak, nee, no. as in mind, kind, &c.: but every other vowel 25. H is always sounded at the beginning before nd is uniformly short; as in hand, end, of words, except in heir, heiress, honest, hofond, fund.

nesty, honor, honorable, hospital, hostler, hour, 17. Before lk, a sounds aw, and I is lent; humble, humor, humorous, humorsome. It is as in balk, talk, pronounced bawk, tawk. always silent after r; as in rhetoric, rhubarb,

myrrh. When the final letter, and preceded by confessed, pronounced feard, confessd; but in a vowel, it is always silent; as in ah! oh! sir- such words as branded, commanded, &c., it is a rah! When wh begins words, it is pronounced distinct syllable. hoo; as in whale, wheel-pronounced hooale, The irregular character of English pronunciahooeel, in one syllable. In the Saxon vocabu- tion has been (like that of English spelling), too lary, such words are more properly spelled hu or often noticed, and is too manifest to require any hw.

comment : whether it be more or less anomalous 26. The affix or, our, is uniformly pronounced 'han that of other languages is a question of no ur ; as in candor or candour, favor or favour importance; but there is evidently much importpronounced candur, favur. The shut or shortance, i. e. utility, in rendering it as simple and vowel sounds in unaccented syllables cannot be regular as possible. Influential speakers (who distinguished as having any difference; and have always least reason to dread petty criticism) therefore it seems unnecessary to mark er as if it should set the example of bringing English prowere pronounced ur in such words as lover, mo- nunciation to English spelling. The latter might ther, father, &c.

be materially reformed (see our article Gram27. The affix some is uniformly pronounced Mar) without much trouble; and the great desisum ; as in han'dsome, deli'ghtsome-pronounced deratum is coincidence between the one and the han'sum, deli’ghtsum. This affix is spelled in other. It is in general, however, safer to make Saxon, som, sam, sum : and it would be well to the pronunciation conform to the spelling, than return to sum, or at least to discard the final e ; to make the spelling conform to the pronunciafor, as we have so frequently intimated, spelling tion; and to make the one correspond to the and pronunciation should coincide.

other ought evidently to be a rule with every 28. The affix ous is uniformly pronounced us ; sensible speaker and writer. as in covetous, righteous-pronounced cuv'etus, In all those words which are differently prori’ghtyus ; ous (like our for or) is the French nounced by respectable speakers, that mode is mode of expressing the Latin affix os.

worthy of preference which is most agreeable to 29. When w begins the word, it has the sound analogy and most conformable to orthography; as, of oo; as in ware, wet, wile, &c.-pronounced yea, pronounced ye and yay; wound, pronounced ooare, ooet, ovile, in one syllable : u before e, i, o, like found and woond ; break, pronounced breek has generally the same sound; as, languish, ban- and brake; oblige, pronounced oblige and quet, languor, language; pronounced lan'gwish, obleege; knowledge, pronounced nõledge and or langooish, ban kwet, langwur, langwage. nólledge, &c., &c. The first of these modes of

30. S has two sounds, the one sharp and his- pronunciation is evidently that which should be sing, as in us, this; the other precisely like z; universally adopted. Influential speakers should as in his, was, as, &c. Double s has uniformly endeavour to bring the general practice to anathe sharp hissing sound.

logy in all cases. It is unworthy of persons 31. Th has two sounds; the one as in thin, who have any respect for utility, to follow the &c.; the other as in thine. When not particu- blind guidance of mere custom, or to comply larly indicated, th is always to be considered as with the anomalous caprices of fashion. The having the first sound ; but, when followed by final only chance for simplicity, uniformity, and ime in the same syllable, th has uniformly the second mutable stability to a living language, is to folsound; as in breathe, writhe, &c. When th is low the guidance of reason. When learned or pronounced as t, the h is marked as silent; thus, foreign words are adopted, they should be made thyme, asthma, pronounced time, ast'ma.

to conform the Engli

idiom or manner of 32. F and ph have the same sound ; and f spelling and pronouncing. This plain sensible sometimes that of v; double f has uniformly the rule is surely better than pedantry or affectation : sound of f, or ph, as in off, staff, &c.

and in this we might profit by the example of the 33. Before on and ous, i generally sounds like French, in imitating whose language we have y, at the beginning of a word or syllable ; as in given such a motley character to our own. minion, million, tedious, &c., pronounced mi

From PROVE, which nyun, milyun, tedeyus.


Experiment; 34. When final é comes after I and r, it is to evidence ; testimony; hence firm temper; imbe pronounced as if put before them; as in fickle, penetrability; armour hardened in a high demingle, theatre, nitre, pronounced fikkel, mingul, gree; the rough draught, or copy of a printed theater, niter. This prononciation is quite fami- sheet: as an adjective, impenetrable; capable of liar to the French (from whom the mode of

firm resistance; taking to or against before the spelling and pronouncing such words was object : proofless is, not to be proved, or destiadopted), and other foreigners must remember tute of proof. that final e is never pronounced as a distinct syllable in the English language.

Though the manner of their trial should be al35. T is always silent between s and en or le; the testimony of such persons as the parties shall

tered, yet the proof of every thing must needs be by as in hasten, listen, castle, &c., pronounced hay- produce.

Spenser. sen, lissen, kassel.

This has neither evidence of truth, nor proof suffi36. X has two sounds, viz. ks and gs, except cient to give it warrant.

Hooker. when particularly marked, it is to be understood That which I shall report will bear no credit, as having the first sound.

Were not the proof so high.

Shakspeare. 37. Qu has always the sound of koo.

He Bellona's bridegroom, lapt in proof, 38. The verbal affix ed, is seldom pronounced Confronted him.

Id. Macheth. as a distinct syllable except after d; as feared, Nothing can be more irrational than for a man to

PROOF, n. s. & adj.} see.

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