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ON THE DISPERSION OF SEEDS. its ship and its balloon : the tree is the inhabitant of This problem has been executed in six different rivers; and thus it is contrived that both the winds ways at least, more or less simple. These are, the and the water shall convey its posterity, even to disexaltation of the seeds of plants on elastic stems, tant regions. so as to be exposed to the action of the winds; a There is a rudeness of expedient, it may be said, power of floating through water till they meet a and equally 'an appearance of accident, in ordering point of attachment; their transportation by animals thắt the seeds of plants shall be dispersed through to which their receptacles or investments have served the coats and wanderings of animals. ás food; transportation by the coats of animals; a was this undesigned, when the provisions for that end provision in the form of wings, through which the in the structure of the seeds in question are so rewinds may act more effectually on them; and lastly, markable, and often so accurately mechanical. All an elastic power in their receptacle, through which know the hookis on the bur, and those on the seeds they are forcibly rejected by the parent plant. of the adhesive gålium and the geuin, as all can The first contrivance is so general
, and appears to equally see or infer the consequences : while the carbe so necessary a portion of the structure of the rot, and others of the umbelliferous plants, afford plant, that its design for the end in question is seldom further examples of an expedient, to which neither noticed. Yet he who examines the grasses will not intention nor mechanical contrivance can be denied. doubt of the consequences produced by the exalta If there is at first sight a similar appearance of tion and elasticity of the stem, though he should accident in dispersing the seeds of plants through the choose to doubt that the dispersion of seeds was at digestive organs of animals, the intention is here also least one end in view. In the mosses this intention rendered evident, by a still more complicated system can scarcely be questioned, since no other purpose of contrivance. can be assigned to the delicate and elastic foot-stems The fruit is the food of the animal ; but the seed is by which the seed-vessels are elevated above the protected from the action of the digestive powers by plant. In these the flower blows in the bosom of its investments; as it is also empowered to defy the the leaves; and almost everywhere else, throughout animal chemistry by its vitality, even appearing to be the vegetable world, where the flower blows, there thus quickened for its peculiar destination. Nor let does the seed also ripen, and thence is it dispersed. this mode of dispersing seeds be thought of small Here it is not so: the seed-vessel beconies raised far moment; since it is one of the roads through which beyond the place of the flower, through the subsequent the coral islands become clothed with that vegetation growth of a singularly elastic stem, there to ripen its which has rendered třem what they now are: contents, and to be exposed to those forces which But the following contrivances are so obviously may disperse widely as the winds themselves, those mechanical, that it is impossible to doubt the design, seeds which, light as the breeze that bears them, are or to avoid admiring the beauty and ingenuity of the of such high importance in the great economy of mechanisms. If, in the case of the winged seeds, vegetation:
aid is derived from the adventitious power of the If the fivating of seeds through water, is a con- winds, the variety of resởurce through which that is crivance which, like the action of the winds, appears brought into action is well deserving of attention. too much akin to what we carelessly term accident, The lime and the ash offer instances of wings, of to deserve notice : yet thus chiefly are the naked the simplest nature; and in the seeds of the fir tribe coral rocks of the great Pacific Ocean clothed with there is a similar contrivance, but of a more delicate vegetation, and rendered fit for the habitation of man. structure, But the får greater number of these me: Are we entitled to give the name of accident to that chanisms åre produced from down, various in dišpocause, or combination of causes, by which so great sition as in strength ; and often presenting arrangean end is produced, even though metaphysics, and ments of singular beauty and delicacy. There is no religion equally, did not show that there can be no one of those structures more beautiful than that accident to the Creator and Governor of all things? | which occurs in the dandelion. Let him who can The buoyancy of a cocoa-nut, the resisting invest- doubt that the most exquisite art designed and exe: ments, and the vitality of seeds, were not necessities; cuted this most common, but not less wonderful but there can be no accident when the end in question piece of mechanism, examine a single star with its is thus attained ; and when, without it, all those pre- attached seed, the lengths of the stems, the mode of vious and wonderful contrivances by which these their divergences from the receptacle, and that accu. islands are created in the ocean would have been racy in those divergences, which causes the edge of useless, while we can even believe that the impor- each star so to unite, that a continuous surface is taut cocoa-palm was created a maritime plant for this the consequence, and neither interval nor irregularity very purpose. As much is it accident, that the same exists. But that surface also forms a globe : while fluid which produces fire and maintains the life of this must result, not merely from the distribution of animals, is also the highway of a bird through the the seeds, but from a mode of expansion in the recepclouds, and the moving power of a ship across the tacle, on drying, which, if aught ever appears to be Ocean ; but this question will be set at rest, by pro casual and uncertain, would seem to be under the ducing a distinct provision for securing the end pro- guidance of chance alone. Nothing appears intended posed in the transportation of seeds through water. here, yet the end is ever gained : and far more re
And this is found in the seeds of the submarine markably still is it gained, when not one of these replants. These might have been carried any whither : ceptacles is globular, nor even of a spherical surface; but how were the seeds of the fuci to root themselves and when, beyond all this, few are in any manner amid the waves ? The contrivance is equally simple regular in their forms, while scarcely any two are and effectual. They are surrounded by a mucilage rigidly alike. Yet the result is ever the same. Be which water cannot dissolve, and which enables then the receptacle what it may, the downy surface is a to adhere to whatever solid body they touch.
globe : while we can ai least see that this was necesNor is this the only subsidiary contrivance to prove sary, since thus it is enabled to evade, till the seeds that the power of water is one of the agents which are ripe for dispersion, the winds which would other. the Creator has intentionally adopted for the disper-wise have carried them prematurely off, and defeated sion of seeds. The down of the willow-seed is both the Creator's intention. He who can look even at
this common and despised object, and not see in it | INVENTION OF THE MICROSCOPE AND THE a power which baffles all calculation, added to the
TELESCOPE. most consummate art, may cease to study the Crea It has been well observed that about the same time tor's works, for creation can teach him nothing. when the invention of the telescope showed us that Even he who rejects or disdains these higher thoughts, there might be myriads of other worlds claiming the should cease to pride himself on his talents for obser
Creator's care, the invention of the microscope proved vation apd reflection, if he is not struck by the efficacy of this most artificial and beautiful structure, creatures, before unknown, which this care was pre
to us that there were in our own world myriads of for the intended ends; seeing that the storm passes serving. While one discovery seemed to remove the over it unfelt, till the hour of its ultimate destiny is Divine Providence further from us, the other gave us arrived. The last provision of contrivances for dispersing our neighbourhood than we had supposed: while the
most striking examples that it was far more active in the seeds of plants is founded on that most inexpli- first extended the boundaries of God's known kingcable property of matter, elasticity, so largely used dom, the second made its known administration more throughout all creation : and it is the most purely minute and careful. mechanical, since it depends upon no extraneous aid.
It appeared that in the leaf and in the bud, in Under this principle the seed-vessel, or some part solids and in fluids, animals existed hitherto unsus. connected with it, is provided with a latent spring; pected: the apparently dead masses and blank spaces to be brought into action as soon as the seeds are fit
of the world were found to swarm with life. And for dispersion, and not before. It is either incomplete, yet, of the animals thus revealed, all, though unor dormant, under a detent or check, like the spring known to us before, had never been forgotten by of a gun-lock. This alone is an ample proof of de
Providence. Their structure, their vessels and limbs, sign; because it is a train long laid, and implying their adaptation to their situation, their food and foresight. And the action of the spring is prepared habitations, were regulated in as beautiful and comas gradually as the ripening of the seed, under an adaptation equally bespeaking the nicest care ; while plete a manner as those of the largest and apparently
most favoured animals. The smallest insects are as the detent, when present, is also formed in a special exactly finished, often as gaily ornamented, as the part of the seed-vessel, destined to give way when its
most graceful beasts, or the birds of brightest services are no longer wanted, or would be pre- plumage. And when we seem to go out of the judicial.
domain of the complex animal structure with which In the Cardamine impatiens, and hirsuta, the valves
we are familiar, and come to animals of apparently of the pod are detained at the point, and they dis
more scanty faculties, and less developed powers of charge the seeds with great force, by curling back enjoyment and action, we still find that their faculties when disengaged. In the Geraniums, the long beak of the seed forms the spring, and the detent is at the situation and circumstances; that the wants which
and their senses are in exact harmony with their seed-vessel, which is also contrived to be' but half a they have are provided for, and the powers which capsule, that its contents may escape. In the Broom, they possess called into action. So that Müller, the the crackling of which in a hot day is 'familiar, each valve recoils in a spiral direction when the de: patient and accurate observer of the smallest and
most obscure microscopical animalcula, declares that tent yields, as is the case with many of this tribe : | all classes alike, those which have manifest organs, coiling elasticity of a spring, under diferent modes
, and those which have not, offer a vast quantity of
new and striking views of the animal economy, every which produces the desired effect.
step of our discoveries leading us to admire the deThe peculiarity of circumstances under which a
sign and care of the Creator. We find, therefore, similar invention in the Mesembryanthemums acts, that the Divine Providence is, in fact, capable of exadds much to our impression of the wisdom and foresight that have been exerted on this subject. In of tribes of beings, surpassing what we can image or .
tending itself adequately to an immense succession all the preceding instances, it is through the drying could previously have anticipated ; and thus we may of the parts that the springs are brought into action :
feel secure, so far as analogy can secure us, that the but had this been the case with that plant of the desert, the seeds would have fallen on an arid sand, from the government and superintendence of the
mere multitude of created objects cannot remove us and have failed. It is therefore commanded that the
Creator.---WHEWELL. springs which have been constructed in the calyx, should close in dry weather, and open on the occurrence of moisture. Thus also is it with the rose of Jericho (Anastatica), where the seed-vessel is rolled In the garden of the Duke of Buckingham, at Stowe, on along the sands by the winds, until, meeting with a the evening of Friday, September 4th, 1835, during a
storm of thunder and lightning, accompanied by heavy moist spot, it opens and parts with its seeds in that only place amid the parched plain where provision rain, the leaves of the flower called Enothera macrocarpa, has been made for their vegetation. Can anything the windows of the manuscript library at Stowe, were ob
a bed of which is in the garden, immediately opposite have been neglected, where calculations so minute as served to be brilliantly illuminated by phosphoric light. this exist? And can this be aught but the result of During the intervals of the flashes of lightning, the night thought and design, as of universal knowledge and was exceedingly dárk, and nothing else could be distinperfect foresight?
guished in the gloomt 'except the bright light upon the leaves These are contrivances for a great and valuable end, of these flowers. ''The luminous appearance continued which we can especially appreciate, because we can uninterruptedly for a considerable length of time: it did
not appear to resemble any electric effect; and the opinion compare them with our own designs and as well
which seemed most probable was, that the plant, like many might the inventor of the catapult and the cross-bow
known instances, has a power of absorbing light, and giving doubt his own ingenuity and intentions as those of it out'ünder peculiar circumstances.- Magazine of Popular the Creator.
Science. [Abridged from MacCULLOCH S Proofs and sllustrations of the Attributes of God.
How difficult a thing it is to persuade a man to reason against his own interest, though he is convinced that equity is against him.-TRUSLER.
PHOSPHORIC LIGHT EMITTED BY FLOWERS,
NOTES ON FOREST TREES. No. XXIII. a solid mass. To purify this first preparation, they
procure some fine earth, which, when pounded and reduced to a very fine powder, they put into the bottom of a basin made of copper ; over this layer of earth they spread a layer of camphor, and continue thus until they have laid four strata. The last, which is of very fine earth, they cover up with the leaves of the penny-royal plant; and over the whole they place another basin, joining it very closely to the former by means of a kind of red earth that cements their brims together. The basin, thus prepared, is put over a fire, which must be managed so as to keep up an equal heat : experience teaches them to observe the proper degree. But above all they must be very attentive lest the plaster of earth which keeps the basins together should crack or fall off, as in that case the spirit would evaporate, and the whole process be spoiled. When the basins have been exposed to the necessary heat, they are taken off, and left to cool; after which they are separated, and the sublimated camphor is found adhering to the cover. If this ope
ration be repeated two or three times, the camphor The Camphor TREE, (Dryobalanops camphora.)
is found purer, and in larger pieces. Whenever it is The celebrated Camphor Tree of Sumatra is one of necessary to use any quantity of this substance, it is the largest trees of the forests of that island; it is put between two earthen vessels, the edges of which also found in Borneo, and several other eastern islands are surrounded with several bands of wet paper. of the East Indian Archipelago. The greatest part of These vessels are kept for about an hour over an equal the Camphor, however, which is brought to Europe, and moderate fire ; and when they are cool, the camis produced by a species of laurel (Laurus camphora). phor is found in its utmost perfection, and ready for That which is afforded by the tree now under notice, seldom reaches our market, being carried chiefly to The Greeks and the Romans appear to have been China, where it fetches a very high price. That which unacquainted with this valuable drug, and we are is received in England comes from Japan, in casks indebted to the Arabians for a knowledge of it. and chests.
The chemical properties of Camphor are thus deThe Camphor yielded by the Dryobalanops camphora, scribed.—" Camphor is a vegetable substance, of an is found occupying portions of about a foot, or a foot oily nature, combustible, odoriferous, volatile, conand a half, in the heart of the tree. The natives, in crete, and crystalline.” Its smell is strong and penesearching for the camphor, make a deep incision in trating ; its inflammable nature is so great, that it the trunk, about fourteen or eighteen feet from the will burn when floating on the surface of water.
A ground, with a billing, or Malay axe, and when it is curious rotatory movement takes place among small discovered, the tree is felled, and cut into junks a particles of Camphor when sprinkled on the surface fathom long. The same tree yields a liquid or oily of water; and if a cylindrical piece of Camphor is matter, which has nearly the same properties as the partly plunged in the liquid, it is dissolved, not equally camphor, and is supposed to be the first stage of its over the whole immersed portion, but with great formation. The precise age when this tree begins to rapidity at that part which is on a level with the suryield camphor has not yet been satisfactorily ascer face of the water. Camphor is much used in the tained, but the young trees are known to yield only preservation of subjects of natural history from oil, that is, camphor in a liquid state.
insects; its powerful odour destroys the more minute The method of extracting the oil, is by making a species, and deters the larger from approaching, and deep incision with a small aperture, into the body of it is also used in medicine as a sedative. the tree, and the oil, if any, immediately gushes out and is received in bamboos. The product of a midaling-sized tree is about eight China catties, or about the beautiful system of sun, planets, and comets, could eleven pounds, and a large tree will yield nearly double have its origin in no other way than by the purpose that quantity. It is said that trees which have been and command of an intelligent and powerful Being. He cut for the purpose of obtaining the oil, and left stand governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as the ing in that state, will often produce camphor eight or lord of the universe. He is not only God, but Lord or ten years after, but it is of an inferior quality.
Governor: we know him only by his properties and attriCamphor is also prepared, in China, from the leaves butes, by the wise and admirable structure of things around and branches of a tree, called by the Chinese tchang. of his perfections, we venerate and worship him on account
us, and by their final causes; we admire him on account They take some branches fresh from the tree, chop of his government.—Sir Isaac Newton. them very small, and lay them to steep in springwater for three days and three nights. After they Living in an age of extraordinary events and revolutions, have been soaked in this manner, they are put into a I have learned from thence this truth, which I desire might kettle, where they are boiled for a certain time, during thus be communicated to posterity; that all is vanity which which they are kept constantly stirred with a stick is not honest, and that there is no solid wisdom but in real made of willow. When they perceive that the sap of piety.—Evelyn's Epitaph by himself. these small chips adheres sufficiently to the stick in the form of a white frost, they strain the whole, taking care to throw away the dregs and refuse. This juice is after
LONDON: wards poured gently into an earthen basin, well var JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. nished, in which it is suffered to remain one night.
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS Next morning it is found coagulated and formed into Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdomans
ON WIGS AND HEAD-DRESSES. both sexes round the forehead, and in the males
round the chin, as sometimes tq resemble the cells
of a bee-hive, and at others waves and undulations, THE HEAD-Dresses or FEMALES.
executed in wirework. The arrangement of the hair, and the decoration of Ladies reckoned among the ornaments of the head the head, have, in all ages, been objects of great the tiara, or crescent-formed diadem, and ribands, attention among females, and the extravagance into rows of beads, wreaths of flowers, nettings, fillets, which they have been led, in decorating this part of skewers, and gew-gaws innumerable. Ear-rings the person, has often been a subject of severe reproof. of various shapes, necklaces in numerous rows, and We meet with many instances of this in the Sacred various other trinkets, were in great request. The volume, where the vanities of the Jewish women are Roman ladies followed, to a certain extent, the fashions particularly alluded to.
of the Greeks, but they seem rarely to have wom The Jews, originally a pastoral people, acquired a the tiara, or the net to support the hair; their mode taste for this method of ornamenting the person of dressing the hair was less elegant but more elabothrough their intercourse with the Egyptians, and rate, being frequently arranged in a vast number of with the Asiatic nations. There are no known Jewish small curls; for this purpose they made use of a hot monuments to which we can refer, but we may iron, called calamistrum, and this instrument appears gather much information on the subject from the to have been in use among the Grecian as well as the remains of Egyptian antiquity, for there is little Roman ladies. Tiaras, pins, and other articles for doubt the fashions of the Jews were mostly borrowed the decoration of the head, have been found among from the people of that nation. We have already the ruins of Pompeii. The Roman ladies, whose hair given a representation of an ancient Egyptian wig *, is generally black, were extremely fond of light and but this kind of head-dress was seldom worn without auburn hair, which was brought to Rome from Gera variety of ornaments being at the same time added; many and the northern parts of Europe. Ovid, and these consisted of fillets of gold, ribands of the other Latin poets, frequently allude to this practice, brightest colours, flowers, particularly the lotus, of and to the employment of a German nostrum to which they were extremely fond ; in some cases cause the hair to grow,feathers, together with enormous ear-rings, necklaces, Say that by age, or some great sickness had, elegantly painted collars, &c.
Thy head with wonted hair be thinly clad; The first three figures in the engraving are head Falling away like corn from ripened sheaves, dresses of Egyptian females. The figure to the left
As thick, as Boreas blows down Autumn leaves. shows the usual mode of wearing a wig, resembling
By German herbs thou may'st thy hair restore,
And hide the bare scalp that was bald before. that we have already figured; the only ornament
Women have known this art, and of their crew being a narrow fillet round the crown of the head.
Many false colours buy, to hide the true; The central figure is much more gaudily attired, and And multitudes, yea, more than can be told, was probably an assistant at some religious cere Walk in such hair as they have bought for gold. mony; in her hand she holds a musical instrument, Hlair is good merchandise, and grown a trade, called a sistrum. The feathers which surmount the
Markets and public traffic thereof made
Nor do they blush to cheapen it among head-dress are variegated with green and red, an
The thickest number, and the rudest throng. artificial lotus forms part of the ornament, fixed in a
The same poet also ventures to give the ladies in. golden support; a golden fillet binds the hair, which is black; the ornament which hangs over the shoulder struction as to the dressing of their hair.
A long and slender visage best allows is of blue and gold, and the collar is elegantly worked
To have the hair part, just above the brows; or painted. The right-hand figure has her head
So Laodameia, surnamed the fair, covered with a cap, of a delicate fabric, and of a Used, when she walked abroad, to truss her hair. bright-blue colour; the rosettes of the fillet are of A round plump face must have her trammels tied gold, and the ornament that depends from the top of
In a fast knot above, her front to hide; the head is black; the ornament is in the form of a
The wire supporting it, whilst either ear,
Bare and in sight, upon each side appear. serpent.
Some ladies' locks about their shoulders fall, The next nation of antiquity to which we can
And hanging loose, become them best of all. refer on this subject is the Greeks, and the good taste of the Grecian ladies is eminently conspicuous More leaves the forest yields not from the trees, in the adornment of the head. At first, as appears
More beasts the Alps breed not, nor Hybla bees, both from ancient sculpture and paintings, men
Than there be fashions of attire in view, and women alike wore their hair descending partly
For each succeeding day adds something new. before and partly behind, in a number of long separate locks, either of a flat and zig-zagged, or THE LIMITED POWER OF MAN. of a round and corkscrew shape. A little later it
Man can construct exquisite machines, can call in grew into fashion to collect the whole of the hair hanging down the back, by means of a riband, order to bring about results which he has in view.
vást powers, can form extensive combinations, in into a single broad stream, and only to leave in front, one, two, or three long narrow locks hang- nature which already exist; he is applying to his use
But in all this he is only taking advantage of laws of ing down separately; and this is the head-dress which Minerva, a maiden affecting old fashions qualities which matter already possesses. Nor can
he by any effort do more. He can establish no new and formality, never seems to have quitted.” Later still the queue depending down the back was taken
law of nature which is not a result of the existing up, and doubled into a club, and the side-locks only which are not modifications of its present attributes
He can invest matter with no new properties continued to reach in front as low down as the His greatest advances in skill and power are made bosom. But these also gradually shrunk away into when he calls to his aid forces which before existed a greater number of smaller tufts or ringlets, hanging unemployed, or when he discovers so much of the down about the ears, and leaving the neck quite habits of some of the elements as to be able to bend unconfined. So neatly was the hair arranged in them to his purpose. He navigates the ocean by the See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XII., p. 113.
assistance of the winds, which he cannot raise or still :