Obrazy na stronie

need no detail in this place. His me- marked with yellow and black bands, rits were avowed and felt on both hanging from the under-sides of the sides of the Atlantic ; and as they branches by slender threads. The proved the termination, so they will

they will smaller caterpillar is of a greenish cast, ever be felt as throwing the highest with a black head; it does not appear lustre on the whole train of his public till the end of April, or even the midservices. His constitution now ut. dle of May, according to the state of terly enfeebled by a disease which the weather : when about to enter the precluded all hope of recovery, he re pupa state, it descends from the bush turned to England in July 1811. and penetrates a short way into the Three weeks before his death he ground : here the chrysalid, of a dirty was promoted to the rank of General. appearance, remains till the following He looked forward with manly forti. April. tude to his approaching dissolution, Both of these sorts of caterpillars and, in January 1812, ended a most are exceedingly destructive where honourable and useful career by an they abound. In many places only easy death, at the age of sixty-two. the former is found; and in other

gardens the latter is most common.

They may both be called gooseberry Monthly Memoranda in Natural His- caterpillars; though the former is the tory.

sort more usually designated as the

gooseberry caterpillar, perhaps for March. The whole month has been no better reason than that it produces

most propitious, both for the magpie-moth, which naturalists the labours of the field and the gar- have chosen to call Phalaena grossuladen; forming a striking contrast with riata, or the moth of the gooseberrythe same month last year, which was remarkable for its severity, the snow In a very concise, but plain and having lain deep on the ground till. perspicuous letter, published in the the beginning of April.

first number of the Memoirs of the Gooseberry Caterpillars. Much has Caledonian Horticultural Society, of late been written, in books of agri- Mr Gib of East Linton recommends, culture, and in periodical journals, for the destruction of the larger and concerning gooseberry caterpillars. It early kind, the pouring of boiling is well known that the larvæ of a num- hot water on the stems and branches ber of different species of Phalana, of the bushes during winter, the aniPapilio, &c. occasionally feed on the mals lodging constantly about the buds

, leaves and flowers of gooseberry bush, and taking shelter in the crevices and currant bushes. Two kinds are of the bark, and being thereby des. frequently met with, and commit troyed, while the bush is not injured. great devastations. These are easily For exterminating the smaller and distinguished, both by their size and later kind, he recommends merely colour, and by the time of their ap- digging deep around the bushes in the pearance. The larger is of a blackish course of the winter, by which means hue, and begins to devour the leaves the greater part are destroyed, as as soon as they expand : it has this their pupæ remain in the soil during season already stripped bundreds of the winter months, as already menbushes in the neighbourhood of Edin- tioned, burgh: it undergoes the change into The President of the Board of the pupa state, still remaining upon Agriculture, in his Account of the the bush, in the course of June; and ,Husbandry of Scotland, mentions as every body bas seen the chrysalids, a“ most useful discovery” of a re



spectable gentleman in East-Lothian, ter ; yet this is the only remedy pro" that the gooseberry caterpillar lays posed for the common kind of gooseher eggs in the earth below the bush; berry caterpillar which has, this that these are ready to hatch at the very season, already destroyed innutime the young leaves are budding; merable bushes around Edinburgh. and that, by raking off the surface. It must therefore consist in the dig. mould and mixing it with hot lime, ging of the ground below the bushes the eggs are destroyed."

during winter, and so burying and This statement is evidently inac- destroying the chrysalids of the other curate in various respects. The com or smaller sort of caterpillar, which mon or large gooseberry caterpillar appears in May, and which is less comcannot be alluded to, for it ricver mon near this city. descends into the earth. The smaller, Mr Gib appears carefully to have or greenish kind of caterpillar, does watched the progress of this second indeed descend into the earth; nut kind of caterpillar through its difcertainly not for the purpose of laying ferent stages, till be found the shells eggs (which no caterpillar does,) but (chrysalids) in the ground: he thereof undergoing the change into the fore deserves the praise of being a pupa stale. There is still another patient observer of nature; but not of ditficulty; for this second kind is not being an original discoverer; for such hatched at the time the gooseberry bush observations had been made long ago, is "budding," but commonly in not only by naturalists (see among May, six weeks or two months after many others, Stewart's Elements of the leaves are expanded. That such Natural History, art. Papilio Rubi, mistakes should escape so voluminous &c.) but by country gentlemen and and multifarious a writer, engaged at practical men. I understand that the same time in important public the removing of the surface soil, unbusmes, is a thing not to be wonder- der the bushes, during winter, and ed at; the wonder being that he burying it in deep pits, has been should be able to write so much, so practised for twelve or fifteen years well. From a communication insert- past by Mr John Keir, factor to ed in a late number of the Farmer's Lord Hopeton in his garden at Magazine, it appears, that the “dis. Philipston; and for the same length covery” alluded to by the Right of time by Mr John Tweedie, garHon. Baronet resolves into the letter dener at Sundrum, who traced the of Mr Gib above mentioned. The progress of the animal through all its East Lothian gentleman disclaims the changes, many years before Mr Gib merit of the discovery; but at the had attended to the subject. same time affirms that it is one which

The public, however, are much in. deserves a reward of at least £.400 or debted, both to Mr Gib and to the £.500 Sterling ;" towards the raising Society which published his letter; of which he volunteers to contribute and they who remember to have oba fair proportion.

served that small green caterpillars The candour and generosity thus appeared on their bushes in April or displayed are doubtless very commend- May of former years, should lose no able; but before such a proposal is time, even this season, in removing formally made to the public, it may the surface soil, and burying it deep. be worth while to inquire whether any Where the chrysalids are common, “ discovery” has really been made. they are easily detected about an inch

The discovery cannot surely con or an inch and a half below the sursist in the pouring of boiling hot wa. face.

N. ter on gooseberry bushes during win

View of the present State of parliamen- the agent, often with great inconve

tary representation in all the counties nience; and is ordered to vote for the of Ireland.

object of his landlord's choice, with (From Wakefield's Account of Ireland, statis

as little ceremony as the Jamaica plantical and political.)

ter would direct his slave to the per

formance of the meanest offices. Of THE qualification of freeholder is this we have a striking and recent in

the same in Ireland as in Eng- stance, in the case of Mr Alcock, land, a clear forty shillings' interest member for the county of Wexford, for a life; but as it is customary in who challenged Mr Colclough. The Ireland to insert lives in all leases, cause of this unfortunate quarrel was, freeholders are created withoui the that the latter refused to relinquish actual possession of property being con- the votes of the tenantry of a Mrs sidered as necessary, and their votes Cholmondeley, who had written to her are considered as a right of the land- agent, to desire her tenants to vote ford. This system of creating votes for the former ; but, not withstanding is in Ireland carried to an extent, of this mandate, these poor people for which people in England can have no once insisted on giving their suffrages idea. The passion for acquiring po- to Sheridan and Colclough. Could litical influence prevails throughout Addison rise from his grave, what the whole country; and it has an would be his opinion of such freeoverwhelming influence upon the holders? I have alluded to the a. people : to divide and subdivide, for bove lamentable transaction, to shew the purpose of making freeholders, is what are the common feelings in Irethe great object of every owner of land on such occasions : and these land; and I consider it one of the ideas are not confined to the county most pernicious practices that has where the fatal event took place to ever been introduced into the opera- which I have alluded; they are univertions of political machinery. It re- sal throughout every part of the island, duces the elective franchise nearly to After this information, the reader universal suffrage, to a population who, will not be surprised to learn, that by the very instrument by which they many counties are overruled in their are made free, are reduced to the choice by the will of some great termost abject state of personal bondage. ritorial possessor; and there are few I have known freeholders registered in which a coalition of two or three among mountain tenantry, whose year- of the principal land owners will not ly head-rent did not exceed 2s. 6d.; settle the election according to their but living upon this half-crown ten

own views. ure, were enabled to swear to a deri ANTRIM County.—The marquises vative interest of forty shillings per of Hertford and Donegal, carl O'Neil, annum. This right, instead of being and the Antrim family, whose proan advantage to the freeholder, is an perty is now divided between two heirexcessive burden, as he is obliged to esses, engross nearly the whole land attend elections at the command of of the county ; and on their estates all

the freeholds originate. The influence * By an act passed in the reign of Queen of the marquis of Hertford, therefore, Anne, protestant weavers, who had served returns a member with as much ease five years' apprenticeship, and two years as as the owner of Old Sarum sends ong journeymen, and who kept one or more tothe House of Commons; and nothing loons employed, were declared freemen, and but an opposition on the part of the could vote for members of parliament; but they were afterwards deprived of this privi other three families can create a conlege by the 1st Geo. II. C. 11,

test. A present, lord O'Neil's inMarch 1813.


terest preponderates, and his brother proprietor, Mr Dease ; yet, in the porepresents the county.

pulation, the catholics bear to ibe Belfast has twelve self-elected bur. protestants the proportion of five to gesses, under the patronage of the one. The protestant land owner marquis of Donegal, who returns a directs the Roman catholic freeholders member of his own family.

at every election. Of the 3,000 reCarrickfergus is a corporate town, gistered freeholders, 700 are under but the number of burgesses is unlim- earl Farnham, and 300 under colonel ited, and, besides these, the freeholders Barry, his cousin ; it may, therefore, possess the right of suffrage. It may be remarked, that lord Farnham be considered an open place, although commands the return of the member. the marquises, of Donegal and Down. The other is independent, but the shire have great influence, which, if protestant interest prevails in the united, would probably return the election of one who is to vote against member.

the catholic claims. Lisburn belongs to the marquis of CLARE County.- Earl Conyngham Hertford. The right of election is and the O'Brien family have freehold. vested in such of the inhabitants as ers sufficient to return the members occupy a tenement of five pounds per for this county. A contest may arise, annum, and in freeholders of forty from the latter endeavouring to reshillings, all of whom derive from the turn both the members; but the elecmarquis, at whuse recommendation tive influence must always remain bethe member is returned.

tween the two families. ARMAGH County.--The earl of Ennis Borough has twelve self-elecGosford and Mr Brownlow have im- ted burgesses. Sir Edward O'Brien mense estates in this county; and al- and James Fitzgerald, Esq. alternatethough they do not possess a command- ly nominate the member. ing interest, will, probably, continue CORK County.-The popularity to exercise so much influence, that the of the earl of Shannon, and the promembers returned will be gentlemen perty he possesses, give himn influence of their choice. Earl Charlemont, sufficient to return one member. and Mr Cope, are the owners of large This county is so large, that it is not estates bere ; but they do not possess possible for the freeholders of any inpower equal to the proprietors above- dividual to command the election of mentioned.

a representative. It contains one ARMAGH City has twelve burgesses million of acres, and 20,000 persons elected by themselves. Patron, the entitled to vote. In so extensive a archbishop of the see.

district, there are many owners of very Carlow County.-Mr Cavannah, considerable estates, besides lord of Borris, has votes sufficient to re- Shannon, lady Kingston, and Mr turn one member; the election of the Hyde, Mr Aldworth, Mr Freeman, other will be contested between the Mr Newenham, Mr Anderson, and Latouche, Brewen, and Burton fami- several others, all of whom have a lies.

great number of tenants ; so that the Carlow Borough has twelve bur. independence, of one member at least, gesses, who elect each other. Lord is likely to be secured. Charleville is patron.

Cork City.—The successor of the Cavan County.-Were the free. late Lord Longueville, Mr Newenholders of this county registered, they ham, and Lord Donoughmore, have would amount, at least, to 6,000; but


prevailing interest in the election one half neglect to enroll their names. for this city; that of the two noble Here there is but one Roman catholic lords being co-existent with religious


parties; and as these parties, whether holders in the county; and lord in or out, have exercised the immense Southwell is the only Roman catholic patronage annexed to this great em proprietor in it. The chief landporium of Ireland, it may readily be owners are absentees; but under this conceived, that the state of politics head are comprehended persons, who, here is subject to considerable varia- although absentees from the county, tion. The members of the corpora

live in Ireland. tion are numerous, and among them Down County, contains 30,000 zre six or seven hundred who are un freeholders, who elect the friends of yielding protestants. The freehold. the marquis of Downshire without a ers within the precincts of the city contest. To ensure this object, the have the right of voting, but the ma marquis's estate has been divided, jority are catholics. Mr Newenham's subdivided, and again divided, until interest arises from his being owner of it has become a warren of freehold. a great part of the city; and when- ers, and the scheme has completely ever he exerts his influence, if united succeeded. The landed property of with that of the earl of Cork, who has this nobleman exhibits, perhaps the a large estate under similar circum best specimen of political agronomy* stances, it is sufficient to return a to be found in Ireland, and is a proof member. In the strong contests be of the ingenuity of those by whom it tween the two other interests, he has was plannedt. hitherto taken no part; and when the leases on his estate are expired, which As this word may not be understood, perwill soon be the case, it is probable haps, by every reader, I must remark, that' that his intimacy with the noble fami

it is derived from the Greck, in which it lies will induce him to remain neu

signifies a distribution, or division of land. ter.

+ A similar system of division was pur

sued, about thirty years ago, by some of the Toughal Borough. This is a close

Scotch peers, particularly in the north, for corporation; patron, the earl of Shan

the purpose of acquiring parliamentary in. non. An attempt has lately been fluence : they assigned over certain portions made to procure the right of voting

of their land, at its valued rent, to their for freeholders, in which case the

factors, to ciergymen, and other dependents,

sufficient to qualify them as freeholders, duke of Devonshire would return the

receiving security that the land should remember.

vert to its real owner, on their death, or at Bandon Bridge has twelve burges a specified period. This iniquitous practice, ses who elect each other. Lord in which grave ministers of the kirk condeBandon is the patron.

scended to become the instruments of corrup

tion, was carried to a most extraordinary Kinsale Borough has also twelve

height: but, if I am rightly informed, the burgesses elected in the same manner. votes of such freeholders were questioned as Lord de Clifford is the patron.

illegal, and in some cases brought be. Mallow Borougt.-The electors

fore the Court of Session at Edinburgh, and

the whole system overturned. Johnson, are the tenants of the manor, belong in answer to a letter of Boswell, who, allud. ing to Mr Jephson, the patron. ing to this practice, had consulted him, DONEGAL County.- Earl Conyng

“whether the unconstitutional intluence exham and the marquis of Abercorn

ercised by the peers of Scotland, in the elec have freeholders sufficient to return

tion of the representatives of the commons,

by means of fictitious qualifications, ought the members for this county ; but not to be resisted ;" says,

“ the usurp?the marquis of Donegal possesses an

tion of the nobility, for they apparently uestate, which, if managed, would give surp all the influence they gain by fraud him an influence sufficiently powerful

and misrepresentation, I think it certainly to enable him to succeed against ei

lawful, perhaps your duty, to resist. What

is not their own, they have only by robbery." thes of them. There are 9,000 free. Boswell's Life of Johnson, v. iv. p. 265, 266.


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