Obrazy na stronie

the angle of a pilaster, not affected by this operation, with for a while) continued to shed its mild lustre orer the dark those of the central cupola, I think I can perceive that such ness of a cloudy night. The next day Rome appeared a an effect has taken place. Nor has the movement entirely desert, and the universal silence was only disturbed by the ceased, since a dovetailed piece of marble, inserted to aseer distant raitling of travelling carriages posting away to the tain the fact in 1870, was found broken in 1825. Perhaps north and to the south." there never was any just ground of alarm ; yet, as one of

CHURCIIES OF MODERN ROME. the iron circles, intendod to contain the thrust had given way, there probably had been a considerable settlement, but It would far exceed our limits to describe even the principal not more than might have been expected, from the different of the many magnificent churches which, besides St. periods in which the work had been carrierl up, and the i Peter's, are to be found in Rome; the whole number is repeated strengthenings which the solids had received. | said to be 365. We shall content ourselves with some reNevertheless it was determine:d to insert five bands of iron, marks on their general style and appearance. One of the which were all let into the masonry, and made tight and most remarkable of their characteristics is of a negative sound under the direction of Vanvitelli. The broken chain kind,--the almost total absence of the Gothic or pointed was restored; but the other chain had been originally style of architecture; with the exception of a few fragments inserted in the thickness of the wall; this there was no and a few ornaments in this style, nothing of it is to be seen. opportunity for examining: in order to be perfectly secure, The Roman architects," says Dr. Burton, “have invaa sixth band was inserted in its neighbourhood, so that, in riably studied the Grecian models, and whatever fault may all probability, the dome and its drum are now secured by be found in separate parts, it must be allowed that the eight iron bands, five of which are in the drum, one at the churches of this city present some of the most splendid springing of the arch, and two on the surface of the dome specimens of architeciure which can be found in modern itself. It is doubted among the Italian architects whether times." the insertion of all these bands did not do more harm than Forsyth says that they are admirable only in detail. any strength they could afford to the building can compen. “Their materials are rich, the workmanship exquisite, the sate." Dr. Burton says that the cupola of the Duomo, at orders all Greek. Every entablature is adjusted to the Florence, has cracked even worse than that of St. Peter's; / axis of each column, with a mathematical scrupulosity yet no iron bands have been inserted into that.

which is lost to the eye. One visionary line runs upward, The ascent to the roof of St. Peter's is very easy. "You bisecting, superstitiously, every shaft, triglyph, ovolo bead will stare," says a modern writer, " when I tell you that a denticle, mutile modillon, or lion's mouth, that lies in its broad paved road leads up to the top of St. Peter's, not, way. But how are those orders employed ? In false fronts perhaps, practicable for carriages from its winding nature, which, rising into two stages of columns, promise two but so excellent a bridle-road, that there is a continual stories within-in pediments under pediments, and in passage of horses and mules upon it, which go up laden segments of pediments—in cornices, for ever broken by ivith stone and lime; and the ascent is so gentle, and the projections projecting from projections—in columns, and road so good, that any borly might ridle up and down with pilasters, and fractions of pilasters, grouped round one perfect safety." When the visiter reaches the leads on the pillar. Thus Grecian beauties are clustered by Goths: thus roof, the immensity of the building appears very striking; capitals and bases are coupled, or crushed, or confounded, “small houses and ranges of workshops for the labourers on each other; and shafts rise from the same level to diffeemployed in the never ending repairs are built liere, and

rent heights, some to the architrave, and some only to the are lost upon this immense learlen plain, as well as the imposts. Omaments for crer interrupt or conceal ornaeighteen cupolas of the side chapels which are not distin ments: accessories are multiplied till they absorb the guishable from below." From this roof staircases lead to principal: the universal fault is the too many and the too the ball, which is twenty-four feet in circumference, and is much. Few churches in the city show more than their said to be capable of containing cighteen persons. From fronts externally. Their rude sides are generally screened the balustrade on the outside of the bail, the adventurous | by contiguous buildings, and their tiled roof by a false pedisometimes mount to the bottom of the cross by an iron ment, which, rising to an immoderate height above the ladder, which is in part quite perpendicular.

ridge, leads you to certain disappointment when you enter.

Every front should be true to the interior. Such was the ILLUMINATIONS OF ST. PETER'S.

front of the ancient temples, a pediment resting on a periIt is the custom upon some occasions, and particularly on style and forming a fine pentagon: but such a figure would the eve of the festival of St. Peter, in the month of June, be too flat for those vaulted churches, and incompatible with to light up the exterior of this enormous edilice. Simond their aisles................ The Romans seem fondest of those gives a lively description of the scene and the preparations. fronts where most columns can be stuck and most angles “ Soon after sunset the whole outside of St. Peter's was projected. Some, as Santa Maria in Portico, the Propaoccupied, I might say, hung, with workmen, who were seen ganda Fide, &c., are bent out and in like brackets. Quadclimbing in all directions, along the ribs of the dome, the rangular fronts, like those of St. Peter's, the Lateran, &c., lantern above it, the gilt globe, and the very cross at the are fitter for a palace than for a church. How specifically top of all. The pediment in front, the architecture, the truer is the old Gothic front, which admits but one large colossal statues, the very acanthus-leaves of the Corinthian win-low, similar in form to the front itself!". capitals, swarmed with adventurous men, carrying lights, “The principal churches of Rome," says the same writer, who, by means of ropes, slided and swung with great rapidity “however diferent their style of building and ornament and ease from one point to another of the edifice, forcibly may be, are distributed in the same manner. Their aisles recalling to my mind the fireflies of America, on a hot are generally formed by arcades: over these are sometimes Summer's evening. We understood that these men hear | grated recesses, but never open galleries. The choir termass, confess, and receive the absolution before they begin, minates in a curve, which is the grand field of decoration, on account of the great risk they run of breaking their and loaded with curiosities and glories in brass and marble. necks. The business being well organized, the whole sur The high altar stands in the middle of the cross. The face of St. Peter's and the colonnade before it, soon shone with chapels of the Holy Sacrament and of the Virgin are usually the mild effulgence of fifty thousand paper lanterns; but in the transepts. Those of the sairits are ranged on the in less than an hour, and at a particular signal, a great sides ; and each being raised by a different family, has an change of scene took place; the whole edifice burst at once, architecture of its own, at variance with the church, which as by magic, into absolute flames. This is done by means thus loses its unity amid nests of polytheism." of pans full of pitch and pine sharings set on fire, and Among the churches of modern Rome there are seven simultaneously thrust out from all parts of the edifice: the which are called basilicas, and are supposed to possess a effect is quite wonderful, but of short duration. It was peculiar sanctity. The name basilica is derived from the scarcely over before the crowd moved off towards the river, circumstance of their being generally formed out of the crossing the bridge, in order to occupy a situation in front basilicu of ancient Rome, which have been already menof the castle of St. Angelo, and we did not without difficulty, tioned. These seren are St. Peter's, Sta. Maria Maggiore, reacli the house on the top of which we had provided places. St. John Laieran, and Sta. Croce in Gerusalemme, I certainly never saw fire-works at all comparable wiili which are within the walls,--and St. Paul's, S. Lorenzo, these, for their inexhaustible variety,--their force, loudness, and St. Sebastian's, which are without them. The reason and duration. The huge mass of the castle seemed a vols assigned for the preference is the following. Upon a certain cano, pouring its ceaseless deluge of fire above, below, and occasion the four patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch, Jeruall around; and the Tiber in front seemed itself a sheet of salem, and Constantinople, came to Rome; and four fire. Long after all this had ended, St. Peter's (forgotten principal churches were assigned to them during their

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residence. These were St. Paul's, Sta. Maria Maggiore, “In some of the principal churches, where you have S. Lorenzo, and St. Peter's. The pope, who was supe-before you in one view, a great number of altars, and all rior to them all, reserved for himself St. John Lateran, of them smoking at once with steams of incense, how which was then, and is still, higher in rank than St. natural is it to imagine oneself transported into the temple Peter's, being in fact, the metropolitan church of Rome, of some heathen divinity, or that of the Paphian Venus and “the principal temple of the Catholic world," as Vasi described by Virgil ? says. This circumstance imparted a peculiar sanctity to

Her hundred altars there with garlands crown'd, the five churches, and the people frequented them more

And richest incense smoking, breathe around than any others. St. Sebastian and Sta. Croce were subse

Sweet odours,” &c. quently added to the number, because in going from St. Under the pagan emperors, the use of incense for the Paul's to the Lateran, it was necessary to pass by St. Sebas- purpose of religion was thought so contrary to the obligatian, and in continuing the visitation from the Lateran to tions of Christianity, that in their persecutions the very S. Lorenzo, Sta. Croce had the like good fortune to be in method of trying and convicting a Christian was by rethe way. “Such," says Dr. Burton, “is the reason assigned quiring him only to throw the least grain of it into the by an antiquary and dignitary of the Romish church, censer, or on the altar. which, perhaps will not seem very satisfactory."

Under the Christian emperors, on the other hand, it was looked upon as a rite so peculiarly heathenish, that the

very places or houses where it could be proved to have been RELICS OF PAGANISM IN MODERN ROME.

done, were by a law of Theodosius confiscated to the MIDDLETON, in his celebrated Letter from Rome, after government. expressing the resolution which he had taken to employ The Rev. Mr. Blunt, in his Vestiges of Ancient Manhimself, during his stay in the capital, chietly in observing ners and Customs, &c., points out several marks of resem its antiquities, and to lose as little time as possible in blance between the ancient and the modern superstition. taking notice of the fopperies and ridiculous ceremonies of Not the least curious is the analogy which may be observed the present religion of the place, goes on to say, “ But between the names of the pagan temples of Ancient Rome, I soon found myself mistaken; for the whole form and out and the Catholic churches of Modern Rome. Of temples, ward dress of their worship seemed so grossly idolatrous there are said to have been formerly in Rome four hunand extravagant peyond what I had imagined, and made so dred and twenty sacred to the pagan gods; of churches strong an impression on me, that I could not help consider there are now in the modern city and its suburbs, upwards ing it with a particular regard; especially when the very of a hundred and fifty sacred to Christian saints. reason which I thought would have hindered me from as heretofore many temples," to use the words of Mr. Blunt, taking any notice of it at all, was the chief cause which en were consecrated to the same deity under different titles, gaged me to pay so much attention to it: for nothing, I so now are there many churches devoted to the same saint, found, concurred so much with my original intention of or to the Madonna, distinguished only by a diversity of conversing with the ancients; or so much helped my ima- epithets." Thus in Ancient Rome, there was a temple of gination, to fancy myself wandering about in old heathen Jupiter Castor, of Jupiter Feretrius, of Jupiter Sponsor, of Rome, as to observe and attend to their religious worship; Jupiter Stator, of Jupiter Tonans, of Jupiter Victor, &c. , all whose ceremonies appeared plainly to have been copied of Venus Calva, Venus Capitolina, Venus Erycina, Venus from the rituals of primitive paganism; as if handed down Cloacina, Venus Victrix. So in Modern Rome we find a by an uninterrupted succession from the priests of old to church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Santa Maria di Arathe priests of new Rome ; whilst each of them readily ex celi, Santa Maria Imperatrice, Santa Maria Liberatrice, plained and called to my mind some passage of a classic Santa Maria della Consolazione, Santa Maria Egyptiaca, author, where the same ceremony was described as trans Santa Maria dell' Anima, &c.; S. Pietro in Vaticano, S. acted in the same form and manner, and in the same place Pietro in Montorio, S. Pietro in Vincoli, S. Pietro in Carwhere I now saw it executed before my eyes : so that as oft cere, &c. Again, the heathen temples were often dedicated as I was present at any religious exercise in their churches, to two divinities, as to Castor and Pollux, to Venus and it was more natural to fancy myself looking on at some Cupid, to Venus and Rome, to Honour and Virtue, to Isis solemn act of idolatry in old Rome, than assisting at a wor and Serapis, &c. In like manner, there are now churches ship instituted on the principles and framed upon the plan to SS. Marcellinus and Peter, to Jesus and Maria, to of Christianity."

Dominicus and Sistus, to Celsus and Julianus, to SS. Vin“Many of our divines,” he adds, “have, I know, with centius and Anastasius. Upon this same point we refer the much learning and solid reasoning charged and effectually reader to the remarks which we quoted from Middleton's proved the Crime of Idolatry on the Church of Rome; but Letter, in our description of the Pantheon, which from their controversies, (in which there is still something being formerly dedicated to all the gods of pagan Rome, plausible to be said on the other side, and when the charge is no dedicated to all the saints of Catholic Rome. is constantly denied, and with much subtilty evaded,) are Mr. Matthews remarks, that some traces of the old not capable of giving that conviction which I immediately heathen superstitions are constantly peeping out from under received from my senses; the surest witnesses of fact in all their Catholic disguises. What is the modern worshipcases; and which no man can fail to be furnished with ping of saints and images but a revival of the old adoration who sees popery as it is exercised in Italy, in the full paid to heroes and demi-gods ; -or what the nuns, with pomp and display of its pageantry; and practising all its their vows of celibacy, but a new edition of the restal arts and powers without caution or reserve. The similitude virgins ? Wherever we turn, indeed, all is old, and of the popish and pagan religion seemed so evident and nothing new.' Instead of tutelary gods, we find patron clear, and struck my imagination so forcibly, that I soon saints and guardian angels, and the canonization of a resolved to give myself the trouble of searching to the bot- saint, is but another term for the apotheosis of a hero...... tom; and to explain and demonstrate the certainty of it, by The very same piece of brass which the old Romans adored, comparing together the principal and most obvious parts of now with a new head on its shoulders,-like an old friend each worship. He then expresses an opinion that he shall with a new face,-is worshipped with equal devotion by have matter enough to tire both himself and his correspon- | the modern Italian. dent, “in showing the source and origin of the popish "It is really surprising to see with what apparent ferrour ceremonies, and the exact conformity of them with those of of devotion, all ranks, and ages, and sexes, kneel to, and their pagan ancestors."

We select his remarks on the use kiss, the toe of this brazen image. They rub it against their of incense :

foreheads, and press it against their lips, with the most The very first thing that a stranger must necessarily reverential piety. I have sat by the hour to see the crowds take notice of, as soon as he enters their churches, is the of people who flock in to perform this ceremony, -waiting use of incense or perfumes in their religious offices; the for their turn to kiss ;-and yet the Catholic would laugh first step which he takes within the door will be sure to at the pious Mussulman who performs a pilgrimage to make him sensible of it, by the offence that he will imme- Mecca to wash the holy pavement, and kiss the black stone diately receive from the smell as well as smoke of this of the Caaba;—which, like his own St. Peter, is also a relic incense, with which the whole church continues to be filled of heathenism." for some time after every solemn service,-a custom received directly from paganism; and which presently called to my

LONDON mind the old descriptions of the heathen temples and altar's JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. which are seldom or never mentioned by the antients without


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arch at the south end; and by another, now closed, it In the old edition of Britain, by Camden, of the date formerly opened to a passage leading to the great of 1610, is the following spirited passage relative to square of conventual buildings. Another doorway, this Cathedral :

opposite to the south walk, closed by a pillar placed About the year of our Redemption, 1094, when, as in a

before it to support the present vaulting, led to an devout and religious emulation, princes strove that cathe.

arched passage, forming the abbot's way to the church. dral churches and minsters should be erected in a more Along the rest of this walk extends a kind of crypt, decent and seemly form; and when Christendom roused, consisting of a double row of circular arches. The as it were, herself, and casting away her old habiliments, north walk contained the chief entrance into the did put on everywhere the bright and white robe of the refectory of the convent, under a rich semicircular churches, Hugh, the first of the Norman blood that was

arch ; and at the east end was a doorway leading to Earl of Chester, repaired the church which Earl Leofric

the kitchen and its offices, and to the staircase of the had formerly founded in honour of the Virgin, St. Werburga ; and, by the advice of Anselm, whom he had pro dormitory. Along the greater part of the north side cured to come out of Normandy, granted the same unto ran the refectory, a noble apartment, ninety-eight monks. And now it is notorious for the tomb of Henry feet in length and thirty-four in height, with a roof of the Fourth, emperor of Almaine", who, as they say, gave oak, resting on brackets, which was removed in 1804. over his empire, and lived here an eremite's life, and for

The Chapter-house, the entrance to which is from the the Bishop's See therein established; which See, immediately after the Norman Conquest, Peter, Bishop of Lich-east side of the cloister, extends eastward, parallel field, translated from Lichfield hither; but when it was

with the choir of the church. Some portions of this brought to Coventry, and from thence into the ancient seat interesting cathedral are assigned to the eleventh again, West Chestert lay a long time bereft of this epis-century. The north aisle of the choir, the chaptercopal dignity, until, in our father's days, King Henry the house, and the ancient refectory, are said to belong to Eighth, having thrust out the monks, ordained prebend the early part of the thirteenth century. The central aries and restored a bishop again, under whom, for his diocese, he appointed this county, Lancashire, Richmond, tower is stated to have been finished in 1210. &c., and appointed the same to be within the province of

The length of the Cathedral from east to west, is York. At its first foundation it was in the province of three hundred and forty-eight feet; the width of the Canterbury.

Choir and Nave is seventy-four feet six inches. Camden having supplied us with this concise his Chester Cathedral suffered great injury during the tory of the See of Chester, we may proceed to give civil wars, and continued in a very dilapidated state some description of the fabric. The Cathedral con till 1656. At the time the unfortunate Duke of sists of the following parts; a nave and choir, se Monmouth was in the city, the mob forced the doors, parated from their respective aisles by clustered and destroyed most of the painted glass : they also columns; a central tower, resting on four massive injured the font, and some of the monuments, and piers; transepts; and a lady-chapel to the east. committed several other outrages. The western entrance is by a pointed doorway, from

Before the Reformation this church was governed which two descents by steps lead into the nave. On by abbots, of whom John Clarke, elected about 1537, one side is the Bishop's consistory court, on the other may be reckoned the twenty-seventh abbot. Little an entrance to the Bishop's palace. These were

more is known of him, than that he readily complied intended to have formed the bases of two western with the wishes of King Henry the Eighth in sur-' towers, and the foundation of them was laid with rendering the monastery at the dissolution, in conmuch ceremony by Abbot Birchenshaw in 1508. The sideration of which he was suffered to retain the south porch of the church is in the style of the same government of the dissolved abbey, under the chaperiod. The transepts are of very unequal propor- racter of dean of the new cathedral. tions, being uniform neither in size nor appearance.

The diocese of Chester is of great extent; but, in The north transept has an ornamented oak roof, sup- pursuance of the regulations recommended by the ported by angels, bearing emblems of the crucifixion. Ecclesiastical Commissioners, it will be relieved of At the south-east angle of this transept is an ancient a large portion of territory. The deaneries of Richvestry. The south transept, which is by far the larger mond, Catterick, and Boroughbridge, and part of the of the two, is used as the parish-church of St. Oswald. deanery of Kirkby Lonsdale, have been taken out of In the Choir, opposite to the pulpit, is the stone case it, to constitute the greater part of the see of Ripon. which formerly surrounded the shrine of St. Wer- It is also to lose the whole of the county of Lanburgh, now shortened, and used as the bishop's throne. caster, which, with the exception of the deanery of It exhibits a rich specimen of Gothic architecture, in Furness, will go to form the see of Manchester; this the style of the early part of the fourteenth century. latter deanery being assigned to the diocese of Carlisle. Under the east window of the Choir is an arch, open- The archdeaconry of Salop, from the diocese of Liching to the Lady-chapel.

field, is, however, to be added to Chester. The Cloisters, the general style of which is that of Among the most eminent of the bishops of Chester, the fifteenth century, are situated on the north side since the foundation of the episcopate by King Henry of the nave, and form a quadrangle of about 110| the Eighth, may be mentioned the following. feet square ; the centre formerly contained a cistern BRIAN WALTON, D.D., Cambridge, the editor of for water, which was brought in pipes from Christle the great Polyglott Bible, was born at Cleveland, in ton. These cloisters originally consisted of four Yorkshire, in 1600. He became rector of St. Martin vaulted walks, of which the south walk is destroyed. Orgars, in the city of London, and in 1635 was In the church-wall, in the south walk, are six semi- appointed to the living of St. Giles'-in-the-Fields. circular arches, resting on short pillars; the three He was a learned divine and an excellent lawyer; eastern ones have ornamented pillars; these mark but, being true to the church and king, he was the places of burial of the Norman abbots. The obliged, on the breaking out of the civil war, to quit west walk opens to the nave by an early Norman lis preferment for fear of being murdered. Having Germany. + Hermit's, from a Greek word signifying a desert.

fied to Oxford, he was incorporated of that Univer# Chester received its name from Castra, the Latin word for a sity, and soon formed his noble project of precamp; the Romau legions having frequently encamped in this neigh- paring the Polyglott Bible, which, however, was bourhood, and particularly the famous twentieth legion, called ihe victorious, which was placed here by Galba. Chester was often

finished during the Commonwealth, at the house called Ilesi Chester, from its western situation in the county. of Dr. Fuller, his father-in-law, in London.


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splendid work, which, while it reflected honour upon SIR WILLIAM DAwes, Bart., D.D., Oxford and Camits learned editor and his coadjutors, was also a bridge, a most excellent person, was born in 1671, and credit to the English press, was published in 1657, in received his early instruction at Merchant Tailors' six volumes folio, the sacred text being printed in the School, from whence he obtained a Scholarship, and Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, Samaritan, Arabic, Æthiopic, afterwards a Fellowship, at St. John's College, Oxford. Persian, Greek, and Latin languages. The preface, But his father's title and estate descending to him, which was originally intended for Cromwell, and con. he settled at Catherine Hall, Cambridge, of which tained allusions to the Protector, was altered to college, after taking orders, and obtaining his Doctor's suit the new reign. The republican copies are far Degree, he was appointed Master. Through his more scarce than the royal; but the possessor of either interest with Queen Anne, he obtained an act of paredition may be proud of owning such a treasure. liament for annexing a Prebend of Norwich to In September, 1661, Walton was presented to the the Mastership of Catherine Hall for ever. As Rector bishopric of Chester, and on the 11th of that month and Dean of Bocking he discharged his duties in a was installed with great ceremony; “A day,” says very exemplary manner. He was afterwards appointed Wood, “not to be forgotten by all the true sons of the Bishop of Chester, and translated to the ArchbishopChurch of England.” But his honours were short-lived; ric of York. He died in 1724, at the age of 53, he died in Aldersgate-street, London, in the Novem respected and beloved by persons of all parties. In ber following, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. addition to more sterling qualities, he is described

JOHN WILKINS, D.D., Oxford, was the son of a as having been a man of peculiarly fine person, and goldsmith, and was born in 1614, at Fawsley, near mild, agreeable manners, to whom honour came, as it Daventry. Having taken orders, he became chaplain to were, naturally, and on whom it sat admirably well. Lord Say, and then to Charles, Count Palatine of the FRANCIS GASTRELL, D.D., Oxford, was born in Rhine. Upon the breaking out of the civil war he joined Northamptonshire, about 1662, and having been the parliament, and took the oath of the solemn League brought up at Westminster school, was elected on the and Covenant. The committee of parliament for re foundation of Christchurch, Oxford. In 1694 he beforming the University made him warden of Wadham. came preacher at Lincoln's Inn, and on being chosen He afterwards married Mrs. French, a widow, sister to preach the Boyle's lecture in 1697, powerfully of Oliver Cromwell; and though ejected at the Resto- maintained the truths of Christianity against the ration from the mastership of Trinity College, Cam-cavils of the deists. In 1707 he preached an admibridge, to which he had been appointed in 1659 by rable sermon in the church of St. Sepulchre, on Richard Cromwell, he soon became preacher at Gray's the occasion of the grand Anniversary Meeting Inn, and rector of St. Lawrence, Jewry. About this of the Charity Schools, before the Society for Protime he was chosen one of the council of the Royal moting Christian Knowledge; and in the same year, Society, and, in consequence of his great matbema- he put forth his excellent work, entitled The Christical and scientific attainments, proved a highly valu-tian Institutes, or the sincere word of God digested able member of that distinguished body. He soon under proper heads, and delivered in the words of rose to be Dean of Ripon, and subsequently Bishop Scripture.' On his promotion to the Bishopric of of Chester, the latter elevation being secured for him Chester, he resigned the preachership of Lincoln's by the interest of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, Inn. Bishop Gastrell died in 1725, and was buried whose patronage was not considered creditable to him. in the Cathedral of Christchurch, Oxford. He died at the house of Dr. Tillotson, in Chancery BEILBY PORTEUS, D.D., Cambridge, may be cited as lane, London, in 1672. Wilkins's works are very inge- another ornament of the see of Chester. He was one nious, and some of them more entertaining than useful. of nineteen children, and born at York, in 1731, of When twenty-five years of age he published a whimsical American parents, who had settled in this country. little book, entitled “ The Discovery of a New World; He was placed at a school at Ripon, and entered at or a discourse tending to prove, that there may be

Christ's College, Cambridge, at an early age. Having another habitable world in the moon, with a discourse distinguished himself by his degree, and other acadeconcerning the possibility of a passage thither.” He mical honours, he became fellow of his college, and, was the inventor of the Perambulator, or Measuring for a short time, held the office of esquire Bedell. Wheel. Of his theological works the principal was He was twenty-six years old on taking orders, and his Discourse on Natural Religion, published after his thirty-one when he was appointed domestic Chaplain death by Tillotson.

to Archbishop Secker. The posts which he succesJohn Pearson, D.D., Cambridge, “ in all respects sively occupied in the church were well and ably filled the greatest divine of his day *," celebrated for his by him. These were, the rectory of Lambeth, the admirable Exposition of the Creed, was born at Snor-bishopric of Chester, and, lastly, the bishopric of ing, in Norfolk, in 1612. From Eton school, he London. He was a persuasive and energetic preacher, proceeded to King's College, Cambridge, and took his sermons being so attractive as to occasion great orders in 1639. Having been chaplain to Finch, crowds of persons of all classes to attend the church Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, he was presented where it was understood he would preach. He died to the living of Torrington, Suffolk. In 1650 he in 1809, in the 79th year of his age, and was buried was made minister of St. Clement's, Eastcheap, in a vault in the churchyard of Sundridge, Kent, where London, where he preached the substance of his

a neat monument has been erected to his memory. Exposition of the Creed. This noble work has gone We may justly insert in this distinguished list the through many editions : it is in itself a body of name of Dr. C. J. BLOMFIELD, Cambridge, who, after divinity, deep, clear, and accurate, and may well be having been for some years the rector of an important consulted by the general reader, as well as by the parish in the metropolis, succeeded to the laborious student of theology; to the latter it is indispensable. charge of the diocese of Chester, and is now Bishop Having passed through various stages of preferment, of London. Pearson succeeded Dr. Wilkins in the see of Chester The see of Chester is at present filled by Dr. J. B. in 1673. He died at Chester in 1686. Dr. Bentley, SUMNER, also of Cambridge, a prelate, whose high the famous scholar and critic, used to say, that character entitles him to a respectful mention in this Bishop Pearson's “ very dross was gold.”

short notice. * Bishop Burnet

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