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Alexandria also says, “ the Jews believed " that there was a God who was before all

things, and after him the creatures, but nothing intermediate between them *.”

Basil ranks the unitarians with Jews. If any one,” says he,“ suppose the Father, “ Son, and Holy Spirit to be one, one Being 6 under different names, and that they are “ but one hypostasis, under three denomina" tions, we rank him with the Jews f.”

“ The Hebrews,” says Leontius, " have « only one hypostasis, or person, and one “ nature of God; plainly admitting no tri

nity, nor saying that God is Father, Son, “ or Spirit, except that they call God Father, 6 as the father of all men. They prove this

one hypostasis from the words of Moses :

εναλια φροναύλες, οι φασι, εν ταις θειαις γραφαις, κυριος ειπε προς με, υος με ει συ, εγω σήμερον γεγεννήκα σε. Cat. 7. p. 102:

* Intellexerunt enim in his quæ credita sunt, deum quidem effe ante omnia, et poft illum creaturam, intermedium autem aliud omnino nihil. De Trinitate, lib. 3. Opera, vol. 2. p. 398.

ή Εις τον αυλον σαιερα λεγει, και υιον, κ' αγιον πνευμα· κ εν πραγμα πολυωνυμον υποτιθέναι, και μιαν υποτασιν υπο των τριων προσηγοριων εκφωνεμένην· τον τοιχίον ημεις εν τη μεριά. των Ιεδαιων τασσομεν. . Epift. 73. vol. 3- p. 123.

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46 Hear,

Hear, o Ifrael, the Lord thy God is one " Lord*.

Lastly, Theophylact says, « in the Old « Testament God was known to the Jews

only, but not as Father; he was after“ wards revealed by the gospel to all the “ world with the Son t."

This is a series of testimony, sufficiently extensive for my purpose, as it clearly shows what was the general opinion among christians concerning the ancient faith of the Jews; and it is uncontradicted by any other evidence whatever. Some writers of yerterday have maintained, that the Jews always believed in a trinity, and that they


* Igitur Hebræi unam dicunt hypoftasın (five personam) unamque naturam dei ; nullam plane trinitatem admittentes, ac neque patrem, neque filium, neque fpiritum fan&tum dicentes : nisi forte fic deum, inquiunt, adpellemus patrem ; ut qui omnium sit hominum pater. Unam ex eo probant effe hypoftasın dei, quia Moses dixerit : audi Ifraelitica natio, dominus deus tuus, dominus unus eft. De Sectis. Bib. Pat. App. p. 1849.

+ Ει γαρ και εν τη παλαια εγνωσο, αλλ' Ιεδαιοις μονοις· και εδε τείοις, ως παθηρ: υτερoνδε, δια τα ευαίγελια εξεκαλυφθη τη οικεμενη Warn, uila te vs. In Rom. Opera, vol. 2. p. 4. I


expected that their Messiah would be the second person in that trinity; but the christian Fathers, who say just the contrary, were as much interested as any men could be, in finding that doctrine among the Jews, and they were nearer the source of information.

It was, indeed, imagined, as I have observed, that Moses and the prophets were themselves acquainted with the mystery of the trinity ; but that they thought it was not a proper time to make a full discovery of that doctrine for the satisfaction of the body of the Jews. Eufebius says, that “ Isaiah knew that there was a God in " God *" “ The prophets,” says Chrysostom,“ who foretold concerning Christ, “ concealed their treasure in obscure “ words t;” which implies that, in his opinion, they knew it themselves. “ Adam,” says Epiphanius, being a prophet, knew

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* Ησαιας στροφήλων μεγισG- σαφως οιδε θεον εν θεω ειναι. De. monstratio, lib. 5. cap. 4. p. 225.

+ Ούλως και οι προφηβοι χρισον κηρυξανθες τη ασαφεια των λεξεων engutar tov Ino augov. De Sigillis, Opera, vol. 6. p. 169.

or the 3

is the Father, Son, and Spirit, and knew " that the Father fpake to the Son, when he “ said, Let us make man *

Pope Gregory likewise represents the people of the Jews as ignorant of the trinity, though the prophets might teach it f.

* Και ηδει σταθερα θεον και υιον και αγιον ανευμα, προφήτης γαρ ην. Lib. I. p. 6.

+ Ipfa enim dei cognitio quæ apud illam in spiritalibus patribus fuit, nota omni Hæbræorum populo non fuit. Nam omnipotentem deum, fanctam videlicet trinitatem cum prophetæ prædicarent, populus ignorabat: folum decalogum tenebat in fide, legem'trinitatis nesciens. Super Ezekiel, Hom. 16. Opera, vol. 2. p. 83. F

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S E C T I O N II. Of the Reasons why, according to the Christian

Fathers, the Doctrine of the Trinity was not discovered to the Jews. S the ignorance of the Jews, concerning

the doctrine of the trinity, was an objection to the truth of it, which the christian Fathers, who defended it, could not be quite easy under, and they were often urged with it, as we shall see, by the unitarians ; it may be amusing to know more particularly in what manner they accounted for the fact.

That there should be a gradual revelation of so great a mystery as that of the trinity, the Fathers thought to be an argument of great wisdom on the divine dispensations, as they were by this means better adapted to the different states of the world.

Chryfoftom represents Moses as saying, " that the world was made by God, and not

by Christ, as accommodating himself to “ the stupidity of his hearers. Paul him“ felf,” he says, “ was contented to teach .66 " the same doctrine at Athens. But he af

" terwards

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