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again, and continued at par, in spite of all the com- || ernment of the United States was solemnly bound | justly owed. So she will., But if that message is binations and machinations of faction, corruption, | by treaty with Mexico to defend Texas against read, let it be remembered that not a word of the and treason. When that administration ended, in the Indians, to reclaim them to the territory of the extract is recognized until the whole message is 1844, the government of Texas had not only accu United States, and to inhibit their crossing the produced here upon the floor, and the whole instrumulated in the treasury $25,000 of par funds in frontier. Instead of that, what did the United ment construed together. It was then laid down gold and silver, but it had paid all justand unavoid States do? I intend no reflection upon them, but as a principle that the Government of Texas able demands to foreign nations, and to support the li I intend to vindicate Texas, now a part of the would equitably redeem every dollar that she Santa Fé and Mier prisoners in Mexico, and to pro United States, but then a part of Mexico. The owed. cure their release, not less than $70,000. So that United States had solemnly pledged their faith, She had evinced a disposition to do it by subthe Texas debt, with the exception of $2,500,000 | by treaty, to give protection to the boundary of mitting her public lands to entry at two dollars per accrued between the years 1838 and 1841, not a Mexico; but instead of that, they treated with the 11 acre when her notes were selling at three cents on solitary cent accrued in the administration which Caddoes and acquired their territory, forced them the dollar; and she had kept them open for years lasted from the end of 1841 to 1844. It will thus be into the boundary of Texas, and paid them in subject to entry at that rate. She has gone seen the debt of Texas did not grow out of her ne- || arms, in munitions of war, in powder, in imple further, and says it will be just to redeem money cessities, and that the present creditors who come I ments of slaughter and massacre, and those In-1 issued at a depreciation at the full value at which forward here with their demands, and who, actord dians drenched our frontier in blood. Weak as it issued from the Treasury with interest thereon. ing to their saying, helped Texas in her hours of we were--pressed upon by Mexico on the one That is the act of Texas. What the refractory trial and threw their money into the lap, instead hand, and the wily and sagacious Indian on the conduct of her creditors may do with the feelings of doing that, threw it into the lap of speculators. other hand, watching his opportunity to maraud of Texas I cannot say. Within a few years a Not a dollar of it went to Texas which will not upon our frontiers and slaughter our men, butcher total revolution has taken place in her population. only be paid in par funds, but which will also I, our women, massacre our children, and conflagrate The number of emigrants since annexation, I suptrust, be paid with interest, and at a premium. the humble hamlets in which they had dwelt in pose has more than doubled or quadrupled the preThere were bonds issued, let them be paid to the peace, we incurred expenses to keep them off, and vious number of inhabitants. The interest on the letter and to the last farthing; but let those who for this the United States are responsible, as they money retained in the Treasury here will diminhave accumulated these obligations by specula are for a hundred other violated pledges in relation ish the necessity of taxation by her. What her tion, and that too of a most enormous character, to Indians,

people may deem to be politic and expedient herereceive, like Shylock their “ pound of flesh," or But what is the real history of this matter? after in relation to their debts I know not. I do two pounds if you please, but "not one drop of When the scaling of the debt of Texas took place, not encourage repudiation. I hope it never will Christian blood.” Sir, if these men were the as in 1848, there was an almost entire acquiescence take place; but if it should, let those be accountsignees, or the descendants of Shylock, they would on the part of her creditors. Some three or four, or able for the result who invoke and provoke their reflect just credit upon his reputation. (Laughter. perhaps five, were somewhat refractory, and hav destiny. Let the sin lie at their doors. I hope it

But, Mr. President, it is thought that it is im ing more sagacity than the others, they concluded will never lie at the door of Texas; but those who moral in Texas-that it is not a clever thing in that there was some important advantage which have advanced, or who have contracts with her, her not to pay her debts. Now, I should like to they would gain by coming here, and therefore they shall be paid to the last farthing of what they have ascertain by what standard of morality we are to had recourse to ihe Government of the United advanced. arrive at the adjustment of her debts? Is it that States. They might then have had in view the idea A law was passed by the Legislature of Texas, standard of morality that pays a man not only of a reserved $5,000,000 fund out of which they after annexation to the United States, in 1848, by what he has given, but a hundred per cent, in ad would be enabled to get their demands by appealing which it was provided, that any person coming dition to that? Or is it the standard it is proposed to the sympathy of members; by trying to show forward and depositing fifty cents at the treasury to establish here, that when a man has given three that they were bankrupted by their liberality in their of Texas, should take a receipt from the treasurer, cents for a dollar he is to get a hundred cents ? Is anxiety to help Texas in the time of her direst need. and for every fifty cents received at the treasury it that rule by which we are to judge of the mo They thoughi that if they could represent success. he should be entitled to one acre of land. Certifirality of Texas, and the advantage of her credit. || fully to the Congress of the United States that || cates to the amount of more than half a million of ors? That would be a very agreeable one to the they had been munificent and liberal towards Tex dollars were deposited under this law, as I was increditors, but I cannot see that it would be com as, it would entitle them to some extraordinary formed, and land drawn, or land warrants issued, plimentary either to the heart or the head of Texas. interposition of the Government of the United to that amount. These gentlemen have gone quietiy I do not think there is anything smart in it. It States. They came forward after the compromise and located their lands, and now realize several may be smart for the creditors, but certainly most was proposed, but not until that time. They re hundred per cent. How are the benefits of this stupid for Texas. They are for fixing their stand ceived a new impulse by the proposal of the com bill to be extended to them? How are they to be ard of morality for Texas, and she is for fixing promise. Most of them had acquiesced prior to recompensed for the losses which they have susher standard of equity and justice for them; and that time, and we now find that hundreds came in tained, according to the plan of this bill? Are they the United States have no business at all with it who were not then interested in the debts of Texas. to fall back upon the United States? Are they to one way or the other.

Strangers have come in as participants in the in become recipients of the benefits proposed in this If, however, the United States are bound for the terest and are to be the recipients of its benefits. bill, or, are they to be excluded: debts of Texas, they are bound for much more This is the case, and none will deny that there has But I am sure that the honorable gentleman who than this bill proposes to pay. The independence been a most extraordinary change. If it had not introduced this bill cannot object to the principle of of Texas was not recognized by Mexico when it been that the compromise of 1850 passed, the Texas scaling. She is to be the judge of her own was annexed to the United States. The domestic Texas creditors would nearly all have received matters. She knows very well under what cir. debt of Mexico was then about a hundred millions their money, or their proportion of it, by this time, cumstances the debts or liabilities were contracted. of dollars. They claimed that Texas should pay and would have been at rest and quiet, each man She knows their character perfectly; and we find a part of it. Propositions were even suggested ll consoling himself in the advantage of having made that the honorable gentleman who introduced the before annexation, that if Texas would assume

1 bill has not determined to pay according to the face her proportion of the national debt of Mexico, the it was thought proper that there should be an ap of the paper, or of the demands of the creditors; but independence of Texas might be acknowledged. peal to the generosity and magnanimity of Texas, he, too, is for scaling the liabilities. He proposes If the United States are now bound by the act of || and after her to the United States, and that they that a certain amount shall be paid, and that, if annexation for the debts of Texas to the extent might make something, and could lose nothing by that does not cover all the liabilities, the creditors that the means taken by the United States would that course. In that way it is that these claim shall receive it according to the proportion of their have gone, the debt to the Government of Mexico ants have not only multiplied, but they have be demands, and shall give a receipt in full. Now, is a prior one, and the United States are bound to come more urgent in their pursuit for gain, and Mr. President, as for the morality of the thing, Mexico for a much larger sum than they are bound are now resolved that nothing will satisfy them whether one cent or one dollar, one degree or ten to these creditors. Would you be willing to go but the hundred cents on the dollar, according to degrees of discretion at all changes the standard of back and settle that amount? Yet it has a pri the face of the paper.

morality, I am not prepared to say. I think ority over the present demand. Mexico never Well, sir, Texas has incurred liability. She Texas is the best judge of this matter; so that the recognized the debts that Texas incurred by her issued bonds to a certain amount. Let her pay United States would incur an additional reproach revolution, and if you recognize that you are bound those bonds with interest, since she made a tender | upon herself, if she were, by this law, to take it to pay them, you should also pay to Mexico the of them in the market. Let her pay for her ves out of the hands of Texas to adjust her own afproper proportion of Texas to the one hundred sels-of-war or navy; let her pay all the just con fairs. Texas knows what her liabilities are: she millions of the domestic debt of Mexico.

tracts she has made; all the equitable liabilities knows all the circumstances surrounding them, It is true, the Government of the United States arising from the currency which she threw into il under which they grew up, under which they might justly bear a part of the liabilities incurred circulation. That currency became valueless in | dragged along, and by which they were managed. on the part of Texas, because a portion of the the hands of her own citizens, and was then || She knows, too, the influences and the means of debt of Texas was entered into for the purpose of grasped at by greedy speculators. Let her treat their acquisition. But she is not acquainted with defending her frontiers against the Indians. What them, as she has done, with justice and fairness. | the means and influences that surround this CapIndians were these? Were they indigenous to It was twice in prospect to repudiate the debt of itol, and which grow every day. I know it is Texas? No, sir. Who were they? The Shaw Texas. But did she do it? li was talked of, and l perilous, eminently perilous, to oppose an influnees, the Kickapoos, the Choctaws, the Anada a little encouragement might have produced the ence so overwhelming as that of the claimants here. coes, the Kechies, Wacoes, Caddoes, and other result. The conduct of the refractory creditors || I have stood in perilous positions before, but when Indian tribes from the limits of the United Statet, had no doubt stimulated it. But Texas did not I felt badly, nobody knew it. I feel well on this who settled in Mexico, and made war upon Texas. repudiate a cent. Her Executive discountenanced l occasion, and proud that I have a colleague who It was therefore necessary for Texas to defend a it. It may be that an extract will be read here has realized all that experience could teach or suf. frontier of six hundred or eight hundred miles from the message of her Executive, in 1843, show- | fering inflict. against the inroads of these Indians. The Goy- /ing that she would pay the last cent which she Personally, to those who are the Texas creditors,

a hand



32D CONG..... 2n Sess.

Colonization in North America-Mr. Clemens.


I have no objection. Ilook upon them as I look | Mr. President, there are periods in the history | pensed with but for ulterior objects. Let it be upon other speculators. I look upon them as I do l of nations, as of individuals, when one false move conceded that it was intended to intimidate the on men who go into the market every day-men must be followed by years of suffering; when the United States--to give us notice that France and who wish to make, in their estimation, honest | neglect or improper use of the right moment, or England were watching Cuba, and were detergains, and who would not have their consciences the right occasion, infuses a poison into the body. mined to resist any efforts upon our part to acsmitten if they made one hundred per cent, every ll politic no remedy can reach. We are approach quire its possession. But, sir, while conceding day. That would not involve their honor, but it ing such a period, if it is not already upon us. all this, I do not agree with that Senator as to the would, in their estimation, sustain the honor of From the line of conduct now to be adopted, much mode in which it is to be met. I do not think it those on whom they make the one hundred per that is good, or much that is evil, will surely en is the part of wisdom, or sound policy, to permit cent. I want no more sympathizers with Texas. | sue. To render all I have to say perfectly intelli ourselves to be hurried into intemperate action, I do not want them to appeal in behalf of Texas, gible, it will be necessary to enter upon a brief because France and England have made a foolish to rescue her honor. Her honor, her safety, her review of the past.

parade of their future purposes. existence, her liberty, her independence, were once Heretofore the advice of Washington has been To redeem a threat from contempt it is neces. involved, and I did not see, in her direst need, and respected, and we have succeeded in steering clear sary that the party making it should possess the when clouds enveloped her in darkness, the face of the tangled web of European politics. Be power of carrying it into effect. As long as English of one of those men who now claim to be her ben sides, the growth of the American Union has statesmen keep their senses, a thousand Cubas efactors or her 'sympathizers. It was not until been so rapid as to defy the calculations of Euro could not induce them to declare war against the the last enemy had marked her soil it was not pean statesmanship. The merchant, when he United States. Withhold the exports of our cot-, until our star had risen in the east, and until it found a rival taking away his most profitable traf ton for one year, and their starving millions will wag attaining something like its meridian splen fie, the manufacturer, as year by year the demand be in open 'rebellion. We have heard not long dor, that the speculators were attracted by the for his productions diminished, the fisherman, since, in a time of profound peace, of banners hopes of gain. Then, in that proud day, they when he saw Yankee sails invading the haunts of borne by her peasantry with the fearful inscription, were willing to unite their destiny with her; but the great monsters of the deep, all these under “ Blood or bread.” Who doubts that that cry to grope their way in darkness, tó peril their lives stood that a new power had sprung into existence, would be reawakened, and who doubts that blood in conÄict, to confront and grapple with the enemy, and felt that they were engaged in a rivalry in would furnish the first, the second, and the third not one was there. Let them not talk of Texas: which European energy and European intelligence course of the banquet to which she would be invi. hanor, Texas' renown, and Texas' escutcheon were destined to be overshadowed. But kings ted at home? Add to this the certainty of seeing cleared. She cleared them herself, sir. It was and cabinet ministers could not comprehend that one hundred thousand American bayonets glitternot a speculation; it was a real transaction; and a few scattered colonies, but a short time since a ing in the sunlight of Canada, and a thousand she will keep it clear. It is her best guardian under feeble dependeney on the Crown of Britain, had American vessels cutting up her commerce on the ægis of the Constitution. I desire justice and indeed become a powerful nation. The monarch every sea, and you have an amount of danger and liberality to all who aided Texas; and no matter who looked back upon a line of a hundred sires, suffering no nation will willingly brave. A member bow they have acquired their demands, give them could comprehend no stable form of Government of this body, not long ago, declared that England an earnest for everything they have, and upon save that which was endeared to him alike by inter had given bond and security to keep the peace to. that earnest give them interest, and, if you please, est, and by educational prejudice. If, in his impe wards the United States. "Yes, sir, and that se be liberal, but let Texas have the credit of doing rial dreams, the vision of America ever rose before curity is her life's blood, her very existence; not justice to her creditors, and let not the United his eyes, it was only as a people whose own un merely her provinces and dependencies, thoug States intervene to save her soiled honor, as it is bridled passions would drive them into anarchy, I fancy she would consider it a poor exchange to called. She will take care of that article herself, whose turbulence and whose dissensions would secure Cuba to Spain and lose Canada herself; and she will take care of her money, too, I trust, furnish another reason to the world for commit but she has something more at stake, and I regard and make a useful application of it in pa ying all ting all government to sceptered hands.

any threats from that quarter as the veriest gasjust demands, but not the demands of Shylocks. In the mean time, the neglected and despised conade in which any Government ever permitted Sir, I have done.

Republic was moving steadily and rapidly along itself to indulge.
the road to wealth, to power, and to honor; but France is in scarcely a better condition. She

its strength was unmarked and its vigor unknown COLONIZATION IN NORTH AMERICA.

has recently erected an imperial throne above the abroad. The war with Mexico followed. A little | crater of a volcano, and he who occupies that seat DEBATE IN THE SENATE,

handful of citizen soldiers overran a nation of | must watch by day and by night, or an eruption

seven millions of inhabitants, and dictated the | will soon come to bury him and his fortunes beSATURDAY, February 7, 1853.

terms of peace from her national capital. Here || neath a burning flood. Even if the great EmThe Senate having under consideration the res was a lesson which even kingly dullness could not peror himself now held the reins, a war with olutions respecting colonization on the North misunderstand, or ministerial servility misinter America would be destruction to France. To land American continent by European Powers, and re pret. Suddenly the whole tone of the public jour an army on our shores would be to devote it to the specting the Island of Cuba:

nals of Europe was changed. Prior to that time sword; and the ocean is not an element on which Mr. CLEMENS said:

they had derided our progress and laughed at the any great portion of French glory has been acMr. PRESIDENT: When the Senator from Vir feebleness of our military force. It was assumed quired. I am not unaware that upon paper the ginia (Mr. Mason) introduced his resolution in to be impossible for a Government like ours to naval power of France seems to be immensely surelation to the tripartite convention proposed by carry on a war of foreign conquest. Foolish ed perior to ours; but those who so calculate, lose England and France, I was confined to a bed of itors, writing at the dictation of still more foolish sight of a great truth: guns and vessels do not consickness; but I gathered from the reported debates masters, argued themselves and their readers into stitute a navy. If every vessel on our naval rethat he had consulted with no one but the Senator the conviction that the first summons of the drum gister were, to-morrow, burned to the water's edge, from Michigan (Mr. Cass) and the Secretary of to an aggressive war would be the signal of ruin France would no more be capable of contending Slate. Now, sir, I do not deny the individual and destruction to the Union. That summons with the United States upon the ocean than the right of those Senators, under ordinary circum came; a powerful nation was vanquished; and so oak of the forest is capable of resisting the thunstances, to exclude whom they please from their little were the energies of our people taxed, that at derbolt of Heaven. It is seamen who make a consultations; but this is not an ordinary occasion, home it would scarcely have been known a war navy; and wherever they are found vessels will nor are they ordinary men. One (Mr. Mason) is was going on save for the reports of battles and not long be wanting. In this, the main element of chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations, victories which floated upon every gale from the success, we are far in advance of every European the other (Mr. Cass) has had bestowed upon him South.

Power. Our fisheries turn out annually a body of the title of Pater Senatus. Whatever they do Thus vanished one delusion, and with it the old hardy mariners, unequaled for skill, for energy, commits the party to which they are attached, and system of political tactics. It was no longer our | and for daring. It must be remembered, too, that I think it but fair that those of us who are expected weakness, but our strength which became the sub our tonnage greatly exceeds that of any other to be bound by their action, should have had some ject of comment. The aggressive spirit and the Power. And as long as these advantages remain notice in advance of what that action was to be. I grasping ambition of America were portrayed in to us, the crumbling dynasties of the Old World think, moreover, that the wishes of the President || the darkest colors, and Europe was called upon may build war-steamers without number; but, elect should have been ascertained; that prominent to interpose some check to the territorial aggrand whenever a contest comes, the best of them will members of his own party should have hesitated izemeni of the great Republic. Wrong in their soon be found sailing under Yankee colors. Vesbefore placing him in a position so embarrassing apathy, they were roused from it only to involve sels-of-war, manned by peasantry, are feeble foes. as that in which he now finds himself. If it should themselves still more deeply in error by their ac Mr. President, I have referred to these things turn out, as I sincerely hope it may, that he does not tion. From newspaper articles they progressed with no view of encouraging a spirit of aggression, accord with many of the opinions which have been to diplomatic notes; and now, as we have been but the reverse. The proposition of England and advanced upon this floor, he is placed, in the very informed by the President, France and England of France has been seized hold of to inflame the outset of his career, in direct opposition to leading have made a formal proposition to the United popular mind, and I had some apprehensions that members of his party. If, on the other hand, he States, that the three Powers should unite in as the indignation and resentment excited by it might should concur with them. it would have been more suring to the Crown of Spain undisturbed posses lead to offensive acts which could have but one respectful to let him take the first steps, and not sion of the Island of Cuba, through all coming termination. It is this which I wish to avoid. I to have snatched, with such impatient hands, the time.

wish to show that we can afford to laugh to scorn wreath, (good or bad,) which his were already ex Now, Mr. President, I am willing to go with the implied threat hanging over us, and that this tended to grasp. On this, and on other accounts, the Senator from Michigan, and to say that this || is better policy than yielding to the dictates of a the resolution of the Senator from Virginia seemed | proposition meant something. I am willing to say || hasty resentment. Cuba will be ours whenever to me impolitic, and those of the Senator from Il that it did not mean what it imported on its face; || it is right and needful for us to take it. WhenMichigan, which are based upon it, equally inde- | that it was known it must be rejected; and the idle | ever the might of this Republic is put forth in a fensible.

Il form of making the offer would have been dis- ll just cause there is no human power which can

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resist it. Under such circumstances, we can well | only without the shadow of a claim, but without || examination to dispel. Tortugas and Key West afford to wait until the pear has ripened. I have even the robber's plea of necessity; to hush the command the Gulf trade, and not only that, but no sympathy with those who are so impatient to | busy hum of commerce; to withdraw the artisan | they command Cuba itself. With those points grasp the territory of our neighbors; nor do my m his workshop, the laborer from his field, the properly fortified, a hostile fleet in the harbors of opinions at all accord with those who tell us, with man of science and the man of letters from their Cuba would be powerless for mischief. This fact such a confident and self-satisfied air, that it is high pursuits; to convert the whole land into one has long been familiar to English statesmen; and time this Government had a foreign policy. I be vast camp, and impress upon the people the wild on that account the cession of Florida to che lieve we have always had a foreign policy, nay and fierce character of the followers of King Clovis. United States was made the subject of excited demore, the very best that it was possible to adopt Sir, I wish to indulge in no exaggerated state bate in the Parliament of Britain. Spain was the policy of attending to our own business, with ments, but let us, in the cant phraseology of the greatly censured for making the cession while out attempting to assume a sort of general guar day, "establish a foreign policy." Let us set she professed to be an ally of England; and the dianship over all mankind.

about convincing the world that we are indeed “a conduct of the Ministry in permitting it to be done I said, Mr. President, in the outset, that we were Power upon earth.” Let us rob Spain of Cuba, || was animadverted upon in terms equally severe. approaching a period of trial and of danger-but England of Canada, and Mexico of her remain Nor are we without authority from our own that danger does not threaten us from abroad. In ing possessions, and this continent will be too Il officers. Commodores Rodgers, Perry, and Tattthat quarter the skies are clear and bright. It is smaù a theater upon which to enact the bloody || nall, have all made reports, showing the immense at home that the symptoms of an approaching drama of American progress! Like the Prophet | importance of these points, and their absolute hurricane are manifest, These symptoms are of the East, who carried the sword in one hand || command of the Gulf trade. Commodore Porter everywhere about us and around us. They may and the Koran in the other, American armies will || repeatedly expressed like opinions, based upon be found in the restless and disturbed state of the be sent forth to proclaim freedom to the serf; but practical experience while he was in command public mind; in the speeches of dinner orators, if be happens to love the land in which he was of the Mexican fleet. General Totten has subdignifying war with the name of “ progress," and born, and exhibits some manly attachment to the li mitted to the War Department an elaborate reclothing wholesale robbery with the mantle of pa institutions with which he is familiar, his own port to the same effect; and Lieutenant Maury, triotism. They might have been seen in the fren jife's blood will saturate the soil, and his wife and | in one of the ablest papers written by him, shows zied enthusiasm which followed the footsteps of children be driven forth as houseless wanderers, conclusively that no vessel under canvas can leave that sturdy beggar, Louis Kossuth; in the wild in proof of our tender consideration for the rights the Gulf without passing in sight of Tortugas and and reckless attempts of American citizens to take of humanity, Sir, this is a species of progress Key West; and estimates the amount necessary possession of the Island of Cuba. Sir, I deplore with which Satan himself might fall in love. to complete the fortifications at these points at iheir fate as much as any man can, and condemn Mr. President, there are in this connection still something less than two millions of dollars. as strongly the cruel and barbarous conduct of other lights in which the question before us may It thus appears that it is the part of economy, the Spanish Governor. I but refer to them as be presented. Look at America as she now is, as well as of honesty, to fortify our own posevidence of a state of things to which all eyes prosperous in all things, splendid, magnificent, sessions, and leave our neighbors in undisturbed ought to be directed. And last, sir, though not llrich in her agriculture, rich in her commerce, rich ll enjoyment of what belongs to them. It is surely least, the signs of this danger may be found in the in arts and sciences, rich in learning, rich in indi better to appropriate $2,000,000 to complete Forte ill-regulated, but fierce and strenuous efforts of vidual freedom, richer still in the proud preroga Taylor and Jefferson, than to 'expend $100,000,000 “ Young America” to bring about a war with tive of bending the knee to none but the God who in the purchase of Cuba, or uncounted millions in anybody or upon any pretext.

made us, and of worshipping even in His temples its subjugation and conquest. Nor would the All these things indicate that a spirit of change according to the forms which conscience, not the heavy outlay rendered necessary by either mode is abroad in the land. I may be told that word | law, has prescribed. Gaze upon that picture until of annexation cover our whole loss. We derive is written on every earthly thing. Perhaps it may your soul has drank in all its beauty, all its glory, now from duties upon Cuban imports, an annual be so; but justice, honor, mercy, are the children l, and then let me paint for you that which is offered revenue of $5,000,000 or $6,000,000. If Cuba be of God, and know no change. In the sublime as a substitute Look upon a land where war annexed, that revenue ceases entirely. Higher morality of the Christian's creed we may find a has become a passion, and blood a welcome visi duties must be laid on other articles, and we shall guide for our footsteps which cannot lead to error: || tant; where every avenue to genius 18 closed have a renewal of the discontents, bickerings, and Do unto others as ye would they should do unto | that which leads through a field of strife; where dissensions which attended the passage of our earyou." It is not in the book of revelations that we 'the widow and the orphan mingle unavailing tears lier tariff laws. I am not in the habit of using arguare taught to covet the goods of our neighbors. It for the husband and the father; where literature ments addressed to the North or to the South. No is not there we are encouraged to indulge a law has become a mockery and religion a reproach; argument can be a good one which does not adless spirit of war and conquest. We do not learn upon a people, strong indeed, but terrible in their dress itself to the whole country; and the statesman from thence the duty of progressing backward strength, with the tiger's outward beauty and the whose patriotism is limited by a State line is an from a peaceful age to a period of barbarism, when tiger's inward fierceness; upon a people correctly unsafe legislator for a great people. But secthe strong hand was the only law, and the steel || described by the poet when he said

tional appeals have been made, and I propose to blade the only arbiter of disputed questions.

“Religion, blushing, veils her sacred fires,

meet them. In no one aspect in which I can look Sir, I have heard much of this thing called And unawares morality expires;

at this question does it present any appearance progress. In the eyes of some gentlemen, it covers Nor public flame, nor private, dares to shine,

but that of injury to the South. If Cuba came in all defects, and makes atonement for every error.

Nor human spark is leit, yor glimpse divine.

as a slave State, it would give us no additional

Lo! thy dread empire, Chaos, is restored, I am not its enemy, but I wish to know exactly

Light dies before thy uncreating word;

political advantage, no additional political power. what it means, and in what direction I am to pro Thy hand, great Apareh, lets the curtain fall,

The once-cherished dream of souihern statesmen gress. If it means that glorious spirit which

And universal darkness buries all."

of maintaining a balance of power in the Senate of sweeps abroad upon the wings of peace, shedding Let no one tell me that these are imaginary dan the United States has been completely exploded. life, and light, and happiness, on the land and on | gers. At the commencement of the French Revo The North has already obtained a preponderance, the sea; which sends the missionary among the lution, if any one predicted the excesses to which and that preponderance will be increased from heathen, and gathers the infidel and the unbeliever it gave birth, he would have been regarded as a year to year. What we have lost can never be beneath the Gospel's ample shield, which doubles madman. What security have we against the regained. For the maintenance of our rights, and the productions of earth, and lays bare the treas occurrence of similar scenes? We are human, as the preservation of our privileges, we must look ures of ocean; which plants the church of God in they were. Our law of being is the same; and if to other sources-to the good sense of the Amerthe wilderness of the West, and substitutes the we once depart from the plain path of prudence ican people, to their deep love for the institutions Sabbath bell for the howl of the panther; which and of rectitude, no human wisdom can foresee under which we live, to their innate sense of right carries literature and science to the log-cabin of the result.

and justice, and to the certainty that any serious the pioneer, and connects every part of this wide The present acquisition of Cuba, in my opinion, encroachment must be followed by convulsions Republic by links so strong, so close, that the in any way, is of questionable propriety; but if it which would shake the continent. traveler feels every spot he treads is home, and is to come to us as the result of war and violence, Cuba, as a slave State, would not restore the every hand he grasps a brother's hand ,- if this | instead of a blessing it will prove a deadly ill. balance of power, and is therefore, politically, be the progress which is meant, most gladly do I | When Caractacus was carried to Rome, to grace

| or no importance. In a pecuniary point of view, enlist under its banner.

the triumph of his conqueror, he gazed with won it would be oppressive and burdensome in the But, sir, I am not permitted so to understand it. der and awe upon the splendor and magnificence extreme. It would bring a powerful rival in direct I understand progress, as interpreted by modern with which he was surrounded. Then, turning to competition with the most profitable productions politicians, to be quite a different thing. The first the Emperor, he expressed his simple wonder that of the southern States. Remove the duties now lesson they inculcate is a sort of general defiance one so rich, so powerful, so blessed with the pos levied upon those articles which come from Cuba, to all mankind; an imitation of the worst practice session of everything that earth could bestow, and their culture in the southern States will soon of olden chivalry-the practice of hanging a glove should have envied him his humble cottage home sicken and die. The present tariff upon sugar is · in some public place as a challenge to every pass in the forests of Britain. With what force, with highly protective, and its removal would prove a er-by to engage in mortal combat-a practice, in what propriety, might not Old Spain address to grievous burden; but there is even greater danger no degree based upon wrongs to be redressed, or us a similar appeal! Possessed of a territory ex to be apprehended from its increased production. injuries to be avenged, but upon a pure, unmiti tending almost from the Northern ocean to the Spain has been slumbering for a hundred years. gated love of blood and strife. They have bor region of the tropics, embracing every variety of Not long since, I met an intelligent Louisiana rowed also from the crusaders another vicious and soil, climate, and production, why should we envy planter in Havana, who assured me that he had indefensible habit—that of impoverishing them Spain the last litile island of her once mighty do traversed nearly the whole island; that he found selves at home to raise the means of transportation minions? We do not need it for agriculture; we in its fields but one modern plough, and in its mille to other lands to erect altars and inculcate princi- | do not need it for purposes of national defense. scarcely a single modern improvement. His opinples by the edge of the sword. They propose to | The assertion that Cuba commands the Gulf || ion was, that if Cuba belonged to the United States grasp ihe territory of an old and faithful ally, not U trade is a fallacy, which it requires a very slight ll its productions would be quadrupled. If that opin

320 Cong.....2n Sess.

Colonization in North America-Mr. Cass.



ion be correct, as I doubt not it is, no one can fail alive their terrors, no police exercising over them which taught me a lesson not yet forgotten. An to see the disastrous effect of annexation upon a constant vigilance, and checking every plot in adherent of the Parliament had been cruelly treated southern agriculture.

its first inception. In the South, we understand by one of the opposite party. His houses had As long as Cuba remains in the possession of the difficulties and the dangers which arise from been burned down, and his fields made desolate. Spain it will be of inestimable advantage to the this class of population, and most of the southern Some time afterwards he met an acquaintance to United States in the event of a war with any for States have passed laws to exclude them from their whom he told the story of his wrongs. It was eigo Power. The whole commerce of the Gulf limits; but they are already located in Cuba, and done simply and plainly, without a single threat States could be poured into its harbors; merchants the difficulty is to get rid of them.

or execration. When he had finished, his friend would be found there ready to purchase, buy There are other arguments which I might ad asked him with surprise, “ And did you not vow ing in a neutral port, and reshipping in a neutral vance, but it is not needed. In the elaborate dis. revenge?” “No," was the reply; • those who vessel, they would be safe from the danger of cap cussion which these resolutions have caused, I do take the trouble to make vows are very certain ture, and thus one of the greatest hardships of war not recollect to have seen a single tenable reason that a time will come when they will need a vow would be almost entirely alleviated. Our previous advanced in favor of the acquisition of Cuba. Its • to steady their purposes. I never doubted what history is pregnant with proof to this effect. Du possession is assumed to be of immense advantage; || I would do, and I'made no vows." Sir, there ring the embargo of Mr. Jefferson, we shipped to but in what that advantage consists we are wholly was more danger in one such man than a whole Florida, then a Spanish colony, about eight thou uninformed. We are not told how we are to be regiment of noisy bąbblers. Silence is almost sand bales of cotton. As soon as the embargo was benefited by throwing away a revenue of five or invariably the concomitant of determined resoluremoved those shipments ceased entirely. In six millions of dollars annually. We are not told tion; and the world will be quite as likely to believe 1814, during the war with England, we shipped how we are to be benefited by destroying the us in earnest, and will respect us as much for reto Florida about thirteen thousand bales of cotton. culture of sugar in the southern States. We are fusing to pass, year after year, a series of threatIn 1816, when the war had ended, not a solitary not told how we are to be benefited by changing lening resolutions. bale. These figures show how great was the ad- the character of a neutral harbor into which our Mr. President, I find that I am taxing my vantage of having a neutral Power upon our bor commerce might be safely poured in time of war. strength too much, and I must soon close. The ders, and how much suffering was avoided which We are not told what advantage we are to derive pilgrim who, in obedience to a vision oftentimes must otherwise have been endured. The vast in from incorporating among us a mass of wretched repeated, seized his staff and set out in search of crease of the Gulf trade renders such an outlet of human beings, whites, free blacks, and slaves, a land in which he had been promised all the joys far more importance now than at any former ; unfit to govern themselves, and unwilling tơ be of Paradise, after traversing many lands, steadily period, and it is difficult to estimate all the advan- governed by us.

pursuing his dangerous way through forests, deslages which may flow from it.

Not one of these things seems to have been erts, and jungles, reached at last the only mountain Let me turn now to a more general view of the considered of sufficient, importance to attract at which shut out from his gaze the promised land. subject. Cuba has a population of one million

In the eloquent speech of the honorable. Slowly he commenced the ascent; then paused, two hundred thousand inhabitants. Of these Senator from Louisiana, [Mr. Soule,) I was par overcome by contending emotions. If from that about six hundred thousand are whites; a little ticularly struck with the absence of all this. I mountain top, he should indeed look upon a valley, more than two hundred thousand free blacks, and noticed, also, another significant omission. He such as had appeared to him in his dreams, beauthe remainder slaves, most of them of recent im. did not venture to tell us when or in what way tiful and glorious, where the flower had lost its portation. If the island of Cuba were turned over he thought Cuba ought to be acquired. He told thorn, where the sweetest melodies were continuto us to-morrow without cost, with this hetero us that he was not in favor of its purchase, but ally poured into the ear, and the very air was red geneous population, how is it to be governed there he stopped. I am sure he does not desire oleni with perfume, how cheaply would it be pur. Not one of them has ever exercised the right of that it should come to us as the result of an un chased even by all the toils and dangers he had suffrage. Not one of them ever for a moment felt provoked and aggressive war. There is but one encountered. “But then came the fear that dream the iron-hand of military despotism relaxed. They other mode in which it can come, and that is by had deceived him; that he might find a barren waste could not be trusted to govern themselves. The successful revolt of the Cubans themselves. Well, of thorns and brambles, desert, cheerless, and inhabits and the prejudices of centuries are not to be sir, if that be his method, we are pretty nearly hospitable. Anxious to know the truth, yet dreadshaken off in an hour. They would still cherish a agreed. I am willing to compromise on ihat; for ing to have it revealed, he stood upon the mountain deep-seated attachment for the splendor of royalty, it is tolerably certain that he and I will both be side unable to advance or to recede. Even such

as deep a contempt for the plain republican cold in the grave long before that revolution is be emotions, Mr. resident, might now well swell government which would supplant it. To such a gun, much less accomplished.

the American bosom. We have reached the hill. people a constitution and State government after The Senator from Florida (Mr. MALLORY) went side from whose top the future of America may American models would be a curse, leading inevi. ( a bow-shot beyond the Senator from Louisiana, be viewed. But who can ascend it without a feeltably to anarchy, constant disturbances, and daily and argued that there was some sort of " over ing of doubt and terror? Is it to be the America scenes of violence and bloodshed.

ruling necessity" which was about to compel us which all of us loved to paint in our boyish daysAnother imposing difficulty is to be found in to snatch this gem from the crown of Spain. I free, happy, and prosperous, inculcating by its their established religion. With us that could not recognize, sir, an overruling Providence, whose precepts, and enforcing by its example a deep love continue. The magnificent ceremonies which they law demands that nations should be upright, just, of law and order, offering a refuge and asylum to have been accustomed to see, surrounded and and honest, and deny the existence of'any neressity the fugitive from oppression, cultivating with asprotected by the full strength of the law, would at which comes in conflict with that law. Hereto siduous care the arts of peace, and illustrating all once lose that protection; and the cowled priest, fore, “ progress " and "manifest destiny" have the mild beauties of Christianity? Or is it to be whose tithes are now paid to him as a legal right, been considered sufficient to cover all designs upon that America which “ progress,

"manifest des. would find himself dependent upon the charity of the property of our neighbors; but these catch tiny," and "overruling necessity,” are now seekhis flock, whom therefore he would have every words are nearly two years old, and are therefore ing to make it, where freedom will be lost amid the motive to render discontented and turbulent. Who approaching the precincts of“ fogyism."

It was clash of arms, and the wail of every good spirit will can estimate the effect of this upon an ignorant, necessary that “Young America" should have a rise above the crushed and broken hope of man's bigoted, and superstitious race, speaking a differ new one; and the Senator from Florida has sup capacity to govern himself? Sir, it is in our action ent language, accustomed to different laws, de-i plied it—"overruling necessity." I admire his that the answer must be found. Our country is spising our institutions, looking upon us with judgment. He could not have selected a more at stake, and he who loves it as he ought, should jealousy and fear? This blow at a religion which comprehensive phrase. Certain it is that there is pause and ponder long and well before tampering, has been transmitted to them from century to cen no wrong it will not excuse no outrage it will not

in any way, with so high and holy a trust. tury would dissipate the last hope of a cordial extenuate. union between the races, and render it nearly cer Mr. President, I need not say that I do not in Mr. CASS. Mr. President, with the permistain that in order to govern Cuba peaceably we tend to vote for these resolutions. The one which sion of my honorable friend from Georgia, (Mr. first must make it a solitude, and then people it announces our purpose not to take possession of Dawson,) who seems disposed to keep the debtor with emigrants from these States.

Cuba by fraud or violence is certainly, that far, in and creditor side of the speaking accounts of memBut, sir, if every other objection to the annexation accordance with my own feelings; but I do not see bers, I desire to say one word, in the Senatorial of Cuba were removed, there would still exist an the necessity of making the declaration. It seems acceptation of the term, but it shall be so brief as almost insuperable difficulty in the number of free to me to be both undignified and unmanly to be I trust not to call for reproof even from him. blacks who'swarm about the island. Ignorant making constant protestations of our honesty. I received yesterday a letter from Paris, written and vicious, they would be found ready instru Let us show the world by our acts that we are as late as the 13th of last month, and by one of ments in any work of mischief. Mingling freely honest, and leave all such declarations to those

the most intelligent and patriotic American citiwith the slaves, they would be constantly exciting whose doubtful character requires some such bol zens now in Europe, well fitted to judge of passthe latter to insurrection and revolt, and thus ren stering. Nor do I think the reaffirmation of the ing events, and also of their objects and tendency. der the lives of the planters every moment insecure. Monroe doctrine would add to its importance. His letter is a very interesting one, fraught with It may be asked why these evils are not now felt? Our policy has long ago been announced to the able speculations upon the present condition of in some degree they are; but they are felt less sen world, and this restless desire to reiterate it upon Europe, and especially upon the bearing which the sibly, because, over these as over the rest of her all occasions, looks to me somewhat as if we

strange phases of European politics may have ruhjects, Spain maintains a sleepless military rule. I doubted our own resolution, and required a few They can turn in no direction without meeting a legislative resolves to keep up our courage.

* Nore.-It appears from an explanation made by Mr.

MALLORY, that I misunderstood his remarks. I never saw company of infantry or a troop of horse; and the il "The Senator from Michigan has expressed con

a corrected report of them. I saw an abstract in one of certainty with which a heavy punishment follows siderable surprise at what he terms our shrinking the papers, in which he was made to dwell with considerasuspicion even, operates as an effectual check from meeting the questions raised by his resolu ble unction upon the certainty that an overruling necessity up.in their vicious propensities. With us it would tions. Sir, there may be other causes than fear would compel us to take possession of Cuba. be wholly different. There would be no soldiers which render us reluctant to vote for them. When

doubt its correctness, and commented on it accordingly.

la justice to him, I now make the proper correction. to overawe them, no military executions to keep ll a boy I read a story of the civil wars of England,


I did not

320 CONG..... 20 Sess.

Colonization in North America-Mr. Cass.


upon the prosperity and progress of our country. ent-if pushed with difficulty and danger at home-to seek | led the honorable Senator to introduce his resoluI feel at liberty to read one or two passages, not them in the new hemisphere. If he does, he will have the

tion, and thus bring the whole matter before the aid of Europe, provided he takes steps which promise to only because they confirm anticipations I have result in curbing the spirit or crippling the resources, and

Senate. I believe I am correct in this statement. more than once expressed in the Senate, but be setting bounds to the extension of the United States.

Mr. MASON. The Senator will indulge me for cause, coming as they do from the concentrated

“In this state of things, the annunciation of sentiments, a moment. The resolution which I offered, and

like yours, and those of Mr. Mason--speaking, doubtless, point of European policy, they may serve to ime the feelings of the majority of the American people-is a

which I understand to be objected to by the Senpress the public mind with a sense of the deep insolemn and timely warning.”

ator from Alabama, was simply a resolution callterest which the American people have in the resolutions before us, and of the duty which may

ing upon the President to communicate, if not inI perfectly agree, sir, with the writer of this let

compatible with the public interests, the corredevolve upon them, not only to announce them by ter, in his estimate of the sentiments of the Euro

spondence which his annual message had informed authoritative declarations, but eventually to sup

pean Governments, the European aristocracy, in
fact, which, directly or indirecily, now controls the

us had taken place between the Ministers of France port them by arms. The writer says:

and England in relation to the invitation, on their i political systems of that quarter of the world, to"The speeches of yourself and Mr. Mason, of Virginia, wards the people and the institutions of the United

part, to this Government to enter into a tripartite on the 23d of December, have attracted so much attention

convention in respect to the Island of Cuba. Beon this side of the water, that I deem it proper to notice the States. It is so, and must in fact necessarily be

fore I offered the resolution, I consulted the honorfact in a brief communication. They are freely copied into so, until one or the other of those antagonistic elesome of the London papers, and afterwards appeared nearly

able Senator from Michigan, because of his very ments, the good of the few or the good of the complete in Galignani.” many, gain the ascendency, and exerts it, by force

great experience in the foreign relations of this This is the great English paper, published in

country, to inquire whether he thought it would or example, to the destruction of the other. For Paris, the only one on the continent, myself, my confidence in the future is unshaken,

be proper to premise the offering of the resolution “Of course they have drawn down the lightning of the

with some remarks upon the question. He said | because my confidence in the people of the United British • Thunderer.""

that, in his opinion, it would be proper, and he States is unshaken, for upon them much will deHe means the London Times; but they have

would do the same thing. That to which he refers | pend in the great decisive contest, between freealso provoked the ire of other papers, not Thun

was information derived from another quarter, and dom and oppression, which sooner or later is sure derers indeed, though nearer home.

was at a subsequent day. I did call upon the DeI to come. And in the remarks to which I have

partment of State, and got some information con" The Americans here, however, approve them generally, I just referred, and which I made in the Senate a as not ouly truc to American feeling, but politically wise, in

nected with that subject, but it was subsequent to few days since, I alluded to the feelings entertained view of our position before the world."

the former matter. towards us by the European Powers, as one of I must confess, Mr. President, that this state the signs of the times worthy of our serious at. ||

Mr. CASS. My recollection was that it referred ment of the sentiments of the American citizens in l! tention, and I am happy to find myself supported |

to the tripartite treaty. Europe, so well situated to judge what course of by the opinions of this highly intelligent Ameri

Mr. MASON. Not at all. policy the honor and interest of our country de- ll.can, now surveying Europe from a European

Mr. CASS. Then I was mistaken on that mand, and with no feeling to animate them but ll position.

point. The honorable Senator, however, did call

I then said: that proud patriotism which becomes stronger as ||

with that letter at the Department, and had an in

“We cannot disguise from ourselves, that our progress we recede from our beloved fatherland; I must and prospects, wbile they are a reproach to many of the

terview with the Secretary of State on the subject; confess, I say, that this testimonial of true Amer Governments of the Old World, have excited their enmity

and that is the only communication, as the honorican feeling has gone far to compensate for the

by the contrasts they exhibit, and by the dangerous exam able Senator knows, which took place between us

ple they offer to the oppressed masses, inviting them to do snoers and reproaches which the views of some of

on the subject. I repeat, there was no plan whatas we have done, and to become free as we are free. He us, respecting the position and duties of our coun

ever in regard to the matter. A good deal was who does not know that there is not a Government in Eu try, have called forth. But to continue the quota rope which is a friend to our institutions, has much to said about the discussion on that day, as though tions:

learn of the impression that our past, our present, and our the Senate and the country had been taken un

probuble future are producing among them." * « You have doubtless noticed the peculiar and formi.

awares. Why who knows from day to day what

"But what we have to apprehend is, plans for arresting dable attitude of Europe, the nations now standing in solid

our extent and prosperity, the seizure of positions by which

ll is to take place in the Senate, and whence discuscolumns, shoulder to shoulder, for conservation. The new we might be annoyed and circumscribed, and the creation of

sion will arise? There was no plan about it; noBritish Ministry wheels the three kingdoms into line. The

an influence of schemes of policy offering powerful obstacles body thought of one. The subject of the Senabalance of power is complete. Externally, all seems settled,

to our future advancement.and the future to be secure-at least such is the face the

tor's resolution came up, and he spoke upon it, great confederates would make Europe wear. There are, There is a spirit of firmness and patiotism in and I made some remarks; and then any gentlehowever, some sources of disquietude. The new Emperor

man was at liberty to make remarks. It was a has evoked the spirit of the old one, and reigns by virtue of this invocation. He has placed his throne on bayonets, and

through this eventful crisis in the history of the subject that required no week's preparation; the yet promises peace. This incompatibility is noticed by all ll world, yielding neither to the counsels of timidity most extemporaneous preparation was all that was reflecting men.”

nor of presumption, but keeping on the straight necessary. Five days after this letter was written, in some path of duty and of honor, and pronouncing A word now with respect to another matter, and remarks I'submitted to the Senate in relation to their will in terms and tones neither to be misun | I shall have no more to say. The honorable Senthe resolutions introduced by me, I alluded to this derstood nor disobeyed, even by the most reluc ator from Alabama thinks this matter should have portentous junction of former and of later impe 1 tant of their public servants, in whatever station | been delayed. Why it was the Senator from New rial projects of aggrandizement, and observed: these may be placed. And above all, not to be li Hampshire, (Mr. HALE,) I believe, or some hon" Besides, no man can look at the aspect of Europe,

deluded by the cry of “ All's WELL," repeatedl, orable Senator on that side, who censured me for without feeling assured that froin day to day collisions may here and there, when the world is armed or arm not bringing the matter forward before. My anarise between nations, and internal convulsions may shake ing, and with designs hostile to the principles of swer was, I brought it forward as soon as I heard the very frame of society. And wars may thus break out,

free institutions and to the great Republic which it. And now the honorable Senator from Alabama extending their effects through the globe. The Spanish monarchy, it may be, is incapable of rejuvenation. I do not || has made itself their home.

censures me because I thought proper to bring it know how that may be, and I leave it to a wiser or a rasher A few remarks more are rendered necessary by forward so soon. I acknowledge no such doctrine. man than I am to speak confidently. But certainly that

what has been said by the honorable Senator from I am an American Senator, and I am an American kingdom is marked with the signs of some approaching catastrophe. If the new French Empire follows the tradi

Alabama. With respect to his eloquent remarks Democrat, and whenever I think my country retions as it inherits the name and institutions of the old, I have not a word to say. I do not intend to enter quires a resolution to be introduced, I will introtohich rose and fell with its founder-a name greater, in again into this general subject. My motive in duce it, even without the sanction of the President, my opinion, than any other in modern, if not ancient Euro

rising at this time was principally to read the ex which the honorable Senator from New York pean history-it rcill soon make itself fell in the Hesperian peninsula, and become the arbiter of its fate. To rely, as

tracts from this timely letter. But the honorable (Mr. SEWARD) seems to think ought to be resome profess to do, upon the security which the present Senator from Alabama has alluded to the original quired. There are some resolutions, according to state of things in Europe gives to the Spanish dominion in introduction of the resolution of the honorable him, which ought to be tabooed to avoid constituCuba, is to neglect the most obvious dictates of policy, and

Senator from Virginia, (Mr. Mason.) A good tional difficulties or presidential indignation. How to abandon an object of vast importance to the mere chance of events."

deal has been said on that subject, and it is neces far his category extends, I do not know, I acBut to return to the letter. The author, aster

sary to explain the matter, and the explanation is knowledge no such principle; I believed the rights some judicious reflections upon the political insta

a very short one. Neither that honorable Senator of the country were trenched upon, and I wanted bility of the Old World, remarks:

nor myself had any idea of putting our heads to the country to know it. I did not care, for that "All the Powers of Europe are armed to the teeth ; Great

gether to make a great explosion of a volcano; purpose, who was President; and sure I am that Britain is preparing for war." * * * * “ Nobody in and the attempt to induce that idea is but a tempest ! the incoming President would have no objection, Europe, of sound reflection, believes that Louis Napoleon in a teapot, and is making a great fire out of nothing at any time, and at all times, to have questions could, if he would, maintain peace for any length ot' time.

|| at all. The plain English of it is this: I got the like these fully investigated in the face of the He is casting about anxiously for occupation for the army and the navy, and as he fears to disturb the Powers of Europe,

letter to which I have alluded in previous remarks, li American people. That was my motive, and I he is looking over the maps of Asia, Africa, and the two stating the facts connected with this attempt in | believe it was ihe motive of other gentlemen. Americas. The French press deny, doubtless by authority, Sonora, which I thought rendered it necessary to Mr. DOUGLAS.Mr. President, I desire to that the Government has any connection with the adven

ascertain what were the views of the Government, say a few words upon this question; but I do not turer Boulbon ; nevertheless, I believe if he could make a stand in Sonora, which really promised success, he would

and I thought it was more proper, from the posi wish to go on now, for the reason that I would prebe countenanced, if not supported, by the arms of the Emn tion which the honorable gentleman from Virginia fer having an answer to the resolution that I inpire."

occupied as chairman of the Committee on Foreign troduced this morning, before I submit the few re" As a practical summary of all this, I consider that Amer.

Relations, that he should take the letter to the De marks which I propose to make, and which will ican statesmen may justly take these views: Europe is now united in the bonds of a stern conservatism, which in

partment and ascertain the facts; and now you be very brief. I ask the Senate to postpone this its nature must regard with fear, if not aversion, the power have got the whole secret. The honorable Sena question for a week. and progress of the United States. The great confederation

tor went to the Department with the letter, and, I Mr. MALLORY. I would ask the honorable of the Old, now faces the great confideration of the New World; and that too, if not with hostile intentions, at least

believe, in conversation with Mr. Everett, some Senator to withdraw his motion for a moment, in with hostile wishes. France needs fields of military and

facts came out with respect to the correspondence order to permit me to make a few remarks that will naval exercises, and Louis Napoleon may find it conveni- ll of the Government on the Cuban difficulty which ll not occupy five minutes.


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