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scenery, is enraptured by the poeti- Our aùthor also shews the influence cal descriptions which present a of taste upon fashion, and observes, transcript of all that had so often “ Taste rejects whatever is incongrue charmed the imagination.
ous; it requires fitness and harmony,
and therefore taste will always reject • When Nature charms, for life itself is the atfectation of singularity. It will ( new.'
always for this reason adopt the The elevated sentiments and sub. mode of the present fashion; but it lime ideas of the poet give, on the will adopt it under such linitations, other hand, a number of view associa- as are agreeable to its general printions, which are henceforth called up ciples. Wherever cultivated taste by the scenes of nature, and become prevails, one general sentiment, wheto the mind of sensibility a new and ther of simplicity or magnificence, will inexhaustible source of delight. pervade the scene. In the furniture
“ By the ideas associated with of the house, in the æconomy of the them, a thousand sounds that are in table, the saine predominant idea themselves indifferent, nay, some will be expressed; and every ornathat are rather in their natures dis- ment will be rejected, that does not agreeable, become pregnant with de- give additional force to the expresJight. I have for this last half hour sion. If inanimate objects can be been leaning on my elbow, listening so disposed as to produce an undi. to the distant tinkling of a sheep- vided emotion, surely the decorations bell, a sound so perlecily in unison of the human form ought to be able to with the surrounding scenery, as to produce the same effect. Their true appear enchantingly beautiful. Upon taste must revolt with inexpressible reflection, I believe it to be just such disgust from whatever does not pera bell as is tied to the pie-inan's fecily harmonize with the character. basket, which I have often in town Where purity, modesty, and virtue, deemed an execrable nuisance. The dwell in the heart, it is not taste that different emotions which it now ex- will decorate the form with the cites can only be resolved into the fleering dress of the wanton. diferent trains of ideas with which "A knowledge of the principles of the sound is associated." 317-319. taste would reach our sex to preserve
This reasoning is applied to music the appearance of modesty at least, and the fine arts, and further illus- even if the reality were wanting. In trated thus :-" Every person of female beauty, I believe no one will taste, who has heard the Messiah of deny, that softness graced with digHandel at Westminster-abbey and nity, modesty, gentleness, and puat the play-house, must be sensible of rity, are ideas that perfectly harmothe advantage with which this sub. nize with the object. Let these aslime composition was heard at the sociations be broken by discordant former place, where every object images, and the emotion of beauty tended to produce associations in uni- will be no longer felt. son with the tone of the performance. • But,' says Miss Pert, 'young men At the play-house, these associations are strangers to the einotions of were forcibly broken, trains of dis
• taste, to please them other associacordant ideas obtruded themselves ' tions must be excited. By dressing on the mind, and thus the effect was in the stile of women of a certain lost.
description, we call up trains of Why is our church-music in ge- • ideas favourable to passion.' ral so poor, so deficient in sublime True, young woman; but know expressions, and so ill calculated to that she who giories in this species of produce the sublimity of devotional conquest, clegiades herself beneath the sentiment? Why, but because the rank of those she imitates, and stands sublimity of devotional sentiment upon the brink of a precipice, with was unknown to the composers. Had nothing but a little pride betwixt the musical compositions of David her and destruction. Few, however, happily been handed down to us, I very few of the numbers who adopt make no doubt we should bave in modes of dress incongruous with senthem examples of the elevated and timents of modesty, are influenced by sublime in inusic, which would have any other motive than the desire of harmonized with the tone of his own being in the very extreme of fashion. inimitable poetry.” p. 327, 328. The cultivation of taste would mos
dify this species of ambition in the the crimes of others, tinds excuse and young; and would lead those who consolation. A sense of his own, have arrived at the sober autumn of weakness diminishes not the force of life, to adopt that mode of decoration pride, or abates the arrogance of pre-, which barmonizes with the season.' sumption. If obliged to confess that p. 336–338.
some appear to act more wisely or Letter XI. ABSTRACTION. Dif. more virtuously than himself, it is to: ferent Modes of Reasoning.- Use of superior cunning, or superior good general Terms. Generalization; it's fortune, that he attributes the disteperubar Advantages illustrated in rence. The knowledge of his own variety of Instances.-Deficiency in the motives produces suspicion with repower of Abstraction: its Consequences, gard to ihe motives of others. The &c.
consciousness of his own erroneous. Letter XII. Character of those who judginent begets scepticism with re, object to the Cultivation of the Reason- gard to their opinions. These feel.. ing Faculty in the Female Sex.-Other ings and associations are not of a naOhjections stated and eramined. ture to inspire benevolence, they are, Mians to be employed in preparing the on the contrary, intimately allied to Mird for the Exercise of Abstraction. all the malignant and dissocial pas
Among other instances St. Paul's sions. Discourse at Athens is employed by * Very different is the improvethe author to define a suitable mode ment that will be made by the man, of reasoning; the nature of the sub. of religious principle, from the con ject is described, and in both letters scientious exercise of the power of the use of abstract reasoning is ap- reflection. A sense of the many in. plied in general, and its peculiar ad- stances in which he has been invantages for domestic purposes clear- fluenced by those passions which it Is evidenced in particular.
has been his endeavour to subdue, Letter XIII. REFLECTIONS. Dif. will beget contrition and humility : ferent Applications of the Term.-Sense conscious that his actions are known in which it is at present used.- Advin- to the world, while his contrition and tages of Reflection.----Foundation of it repentance are unknown to all, save to be laid in early Life.--Inutility of God and his own heart, he will natiReflection, when not exercised under rally suppose it to be the same with ike Influence of religious Principle others, and will, accordingly, be inIllustrations.-Conclusion.
clined to pity rather than to censure. - The principal part of this letter is The difticuliy he finds in keeping bis occupied in shewing how far the ad. good resolutions, and in acting up to vantage to be derived from the exer- the calm decisions of enlightened cise of reflection is increased or di- judgment, will lead bim to reverence minished by religious principle; on and esteem those whose conduct which subject Miss H. argues, “I evinces a greater degree of energy presume it will on all hands be ad- and consistency; while, at the same mitted, that whatever tends to aug- time, it will render him careful of ment the benevolent affections, and attributing bad motives to all who to destroy the influence of the male- are guilty of improper conduct. In volent passions, has likewise a ten- tracing the source of his erroneous dency to increase the happiness of judgınents, he will discover so many the individual and of society. When associations originating in circuma person, whose notions of inoral ob. stances over which he had little or ligation are founded on the selfish no controui, that he will view the principle, tahes a view of the opera. prejudices of others with as much tions of his own mind, and perceives candour as he considers their actions. the unworthiness of the motives by Never will the person who is capable which liis best actions have been of the exercise of philosophical resometimes influenced; when he is flection, presume to take the preromade sensible of the errors of his gative of judgment from the Most judgment, and the fallacy of h rea- High; never will he arrogantly desoning; what is the result? Instead cide upon the acceptance or reproof humbling himself before the Sear- bation of a fellow mortal, on account cher of hearts, and imploring the of the speculative opinions he may divine assistance, he looks round have embraced. Every emotion ex upon the world, and in the follies and cited, every affection produced, by Vol. I.
serious reflection, are (while reflec- liberty or right of locomotion never tion is exercised under the impression was transferred from the indivi. of religious principle) of the benevo- dual; and, therefore, the state canlent class. Humility, diffidence, ear- not, without some special reason, prenest desire of divine assistance, hope vent the emigration of lier members. towards God for future aid from a Every man is at liberty to withdraw sense of former mercies, and love himself from any particular society; and gratitude springing from the same but he is not free to disturb, overturn, source, are each allied to benevo- or destroy the government of that lence. Wnerever devotion produces society, of which he is a member.” affections of an opposite tendency, p. 19. there we may assure ourselves reflec- This chapter concludes with Price's tion has been uncultivated.” p. 421 opinion of the deference due to the -542.
civil magistrate, This work, on a subject highly in- Chap. IV. Of temporal, human, teresting to the feelings of every pa-' or civil authority, contains a definirent, concludes with some very seri- tion of authority, and its necessity; ous reflections; and the autnor has that it proceeds from God-is temsubjoined a few notes and observa- poral and spiritual. The source of tions at the end, tending to elucidate distinctions among men considered ; or confirm particular passages in the and the permanence of the moral preceding Letters.
laws of society, on which the author infers, “ No community, nor civil
power, nor human legislative body, XXXVIII. The CONSTITUTION of tious obligation upon individuals :
can directly impose any conscienthe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Civil and Ecclesiastical. from God's general injunction to
that directly and immediately arises By FRANCIS PLOWDEN, Esq. Price all mankind, io obey the powers that 8s. (Concluded from page 115.)
are, for the preservation of the
moral order established in the dis. Chap. III. Of the State of Society. pensation of his providence. An
HE origin of society is represent. Englishman in China, as to any con
ed to have arisen from man's scientious obligation, is little sensibility of his own insufficiency, bounden by the laws of England, or and his application to his neighbour the commands of the King of Eng. for assistance, which formed men land, as if he were a native of Can. into distinct bodies, each having its ton. And on the other hand, a Chi. own respective views and interests. nese, wbilst in London, is as consci. Subsistence, preservation, and de- entiously obliged to submit to the fence, enforced the necessity of order laws of England, and to obey the and government. This is followed by King of England, as if he had been the formation of the body politic, ac- born within the liegeance of his Macording to Locke; and a description of jesty. But where God vouchsafed the political and civil state : on which immediately to interfere in the apthe author insists, " That the real basis pointment of rulers, and in the forof the political and civil power which ination of laws, the conscientious exists in each state, is the original obligation of submitting to them was agreement, compact, or contract of absolute : I presume, therefore, that the society or community, which a Jew, during the time of the theoforms that state, to depute and dele- cracy, could not, by quitting Judea, gate the rights which were with thein have conscientiously thrown of his individually in the state of nature, to obligation of obeying the divinely those whose duty it should become to appointed ruler of Israel, or of subrule, protect, and preserve the com- mitting to the Jewish laws which munity." The existence and renewal were enacted immediately by God, of such compact is next considered. and personally bound every Jew, in The liberty of individuals shewn to whatever part of the world he might be compatible with the power of the have been.” p. 24. civil magistrate. The relative nature The Author maintains the position, of the rights of each community. On that all civil or political power is from the subject of emigration we meet the people, and argues, that though with the following argument: “The government is enjoined by God, yet
the way in which, and the person by ately from God, but the appointment whom, they are to be governed, is of the people, jure divino and indeleft to the appointment of the peo- feasible hereditary right are controple.
verted. In his political capacity it is This chapter concludes with Syd- asserted, the king never dies; is not ney's principles and St. Chrysostom's subject to infancy, as in case of reopinion on this subject.
gency every act is done in, and signed Chap. V. Of the sovereign power with his name; he can do no wrong ; of a state, and of passive obedience from whence arises the responsibility and non-resistance. --The Author de- of ministers, who are liable to imscribes an absolute monarchy, which peachment. Monstrans de droit and vests the power in one person, and petition of right illustrated. Conhe contends that passive obedience troul of legislature with regard to preand non-resistance are applicable rogatives. Dispensing power. King's only to such a government; observ- representative capacity; he is the ing; " the power of a constitutional fountain of honour, justice, and merking of Great Britain is commensu- cy; generalissimo. In addition to rate with the known line of the law: these observations on subordinate beyond this boundary, his power ex- prerogatives, the mutiny bill, stand- . tends not.” After reasoning on the ing army, pensions, admirable checks subject, be closes the chapter with the on the crown, and the civil list, close following illustration of his position, this chapter. that passive obedience and non-re- Chap. VII. Of the House of sistance is not applicable to our con- Peers. In this chapter we find the stitution; “ If a king of this country, origin, history, privileges, and judias was imputed to James II. were to cial power of the House of Peers : attempt to make or repeal laws of his with a representation of the peculiar own authority, and force them upon excellence of an aristocratical constihis subjects, in such attempts' he tution. ought to be resisted; as much as the Chap. IX. Of the House of Com. House of Commons ought to be re- mons. The members of the House sisted, should they pretend, by a vote of Commons described, their num. or act of their House only, to repeal bers, gradual increase, and privileges. or alter the statutes of the realm. lf, Parliamentary reform, and reasons because one constituent part of this against it: gradual improvement of constitution have a portion of lawful state of representation exemplified power annexed to it, we are not to fron history. Reasons for reform. resist any usurped power that such Inrportance of free elections. Preconstituent part may choose to as- sent abuses. Propriety of compelsume, and which the constitution has ling parliamentary attendance. Quanot given to it, there will be an im- lifications of electors and elected. mediate subversion of the whole con. Proceedings at elections Considered stitution, whenever one of the three as unsuitable to the importance of the parts of it shall be bold enough to subject. In addition to these topics, exercise power which it has not the chapter concludes with shewing Such was the power assumed by the the importance of a free House of House of Commons in the days of Commons. Oliver Cromwell, which operated as Chap. X, of the collective legisa temporary extinguishment of the lative body. The sovereign power. constitution.” p. 37.
of Parliament is explained. The Chap. VI. Of the general consti• force of an act of parliament with tation and government of Great Bri- the rights and securities of Britisha tain. In this chapter the constitu- subjects. tion is detined ; iis advantages, and Chap. XI. Of the revolution of the basis of its security pointed out. 1638, and its principles and effects.
Chap. Vil. Of the king as the su- Our Author enters upon the subject preme executive power. This chap- with condemning a teinporizing spiter explains the natural and political rit, by which men are influenced to capacity of the king, his duties, the direct their actions to the prevailing foundation of his title, the sovereignty spirit of the day : be gives the hisa of power, and where resident. As tory of the revolution, details the Mr. Plowden considers, that kings do circumstances accompanying it, and not derive their authority immedi. shews the effects produced by it.
The conduct of King James is stated tianity, he declares the universality and considered at large, with other of the church of Christ, and mainpolitical occurrences.
tains its independency upon any, and aptitude to all civil governments. Ou
these topics we extract the following Part II. OF THE ECCLESIASTICAL
remarks. CONSTITUTION OF THIS REALM, 6. To a candid observer of events
Chap. I Of the choice, and the it appears to be not the least strik. civil sanction and establishment of ing leature of God's providence over religion. On liberty of conscience it his church, that for the first three is argued, that “ One of the natural hundred years it subsisted without rights, which each individual retains the actual protection of any civil 'independently of the society of which power, or without any civil sanction he is a member, is the uninterrupted or establishment of any sort of alliintercourse of the soul with its Cre. ance or incorporation with the state. ator. We need not recur to school. As, therefore, during this space of .men to understand or admit this uni- time, it received no civil establishversal maxim of religion, that our ment whatsoever, it seems fair to dependance upon the Creator de conclude, that such establishment mands a grateful acknowledgment of was neither necessary for its instituour existence, and an unqualified re- tion or continuance. Few will consolution to follow the light and grace, tend that the Christian religion was which God may communicate to us. less perfect during the thirce first In this man cannot be controlled by centuries after its institution, than it other human beings, collectively or lias been since that period. Nor do individually, who stand in the same I conceive that many of unbiassed predicament of exclusive responsibi- thoughts are convinced of the utility lity to their Creator. The right, or advantage which the Christian retherefore, which each individual pos. ligion has received by being sancsesses of this free and uninterrupted tioned and supported by the civi macommunication and intercourse with gistrate. his Creator, is essentially paramount “ The scriptural accounts of the to all human, civil, or political power first propagation of the Gospel are whatever.
pointed, in marking its independence " Every human being is under an upon any, and its aptitude to all civil indispensible obligation of adopting governments, by collecting together tliat religious cult, or mode of wor- into the first slieaf of the Christian harship, which, after due deliberation in vest, individuals of the most distant, the sincerity of his heart, he thinks discordant, desperate, and hostile his Creator requires of him; it follows states, such as Jews, Greeks, Romans, of course, that a society composed of Parthians, &c. But the example of such individuals must, collectively ta- our divine legislator himself is still a ken, be under the same duty and obli- more striking lesson of the indepengation." p. 187. It is also maintained, dence of his doctrines and laws upon that the truth of religion is not af. any civil power or authority: he astected by the establishment of it, and sumed or exercised none in his own that while submission to the laws en- person ; and on no occasion did he forcing the established religion is en- call in aid of his mission the arm of joined, so far as relates to our paying the civil magistrate. lle did every Laxes for the support of it, and not thing in the reverse: he kept up the resisting it, yet, we are at liberty to appearance and the reality of poverty exercise religious worship, in the way from the cradle to the cross: he bunwe conceive to be most agreeable to bled himself, washing the feet of his the will of God.
disciples: when the multitude would Chap. II. Of the nature and effects make him a temporal king, he abof spiritual power, with reference to sconded, and made his escape : he the state of it before and since the would not execute the office of a establishment of Christianity. Our judge, or administer temporal justice ; Author professes to treat religious he declined 10 arbitrate upon civil opinions historically not polemically, matters between individuals; he paid and descants upon the Jewish theo- taxes to the Roman emperor, and cracy, and the separation of the spi- . permitted himself to be judged and ritual and civil powers under Chris. executed by the executive governo